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memri
November 11, 2019 No.
8359

Turkish Government, Twitter Users Describe Invasion Of Northeast Syria In Religious Terms: 'The Lord Commands Us To Be Violent Against The Unbelievers'; 'In Times Of Jihad' A Muslim Army Makes 'Its Enemies' Blood Flow Thunderously Like Waterfalls'

Introduction

On October 9, 2019, the Turkish military began bombarding northeast Syria ahead of its invasion of the region. Its campaign has continued since then as Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan pursues his stated goal of a "safe zone" 32 kilometers deep inside Syrian territory along the Turkey-Syria border. Since the invasion began, the Turkish government, including the Ministry of Religious Affairs and President Erdoğan himself, have described the invasion in religious terms, as have members of the Turkish press. Members of the Turkish public have voiced their support for the invasion in religious terms on Twitter.

Invasion Framed In Religious Terms By Turkish President, Ministry Of Religious Affairs, And Press: 'The Lord Commands Us To Be Violent Against The Unbelievers'

In the evening on October 9, hours after the invasion began, Turkey's Ministry Of Religious Affairs announced that Chapter 48 of the Quran, titled Al-Fath ("The Conquest"), would be recited and prayers would be offered for the success of the invasion at morning prayer the following day at 90,000 mosques across Turkey.[1] A video uploaded to the Internet on October 9 shows Turkish soldiers riding a bus reportedly heading to the Turkey-Syria border listening to a recitation of the same chapter of the Quran.[2]

The Ministry of Religious Affairs issued on October 11 its weekly Friday sermon, which cited Quran 9:20: "Those who have faith and migrate and who make jihad in the path of Allah with their property and their lives are greater in rank in the sight of Allah. And it is those who are the attainers." The sermon, delivered at 90,000 mosques across Turkey, also cited a hadith compiled by both Sahih Al-Bukhari and Sahih Muslim: "Oh people! Do not wish to meet your enemy [in battle]. Ask Allah [that you] stay far from curses and calamities, but when you do meet your enemy, be patient, and know that paradise is under the shade of swords." The sermon warned the congregations that "those who wish to erase us from the stage of history have never given up their labors. But those who are eyeing our homeland, which is watered with the sacred blood of our martyrs, who want to divide up our nation, are condemned to lose today just as they did yesterday."[3]

On October 25, in a speech after the Friday sermon at the Çamlica Mosque[4] in Istanbul, President Erdoğan said: "The Lord commands us to be violent against the unbelievers. Who is that 'we'? Muhammad's ummah. But he commands us to be merciful among ourselves. We will be merciful among ourselves, and we will be violent against the unbelievers, as happened in Syria."[5] In an October 11 column on Akittv.com.tr, Turkish columnist Abdurrahman Dilipak wrote of the invasion: "We are not demons throwing the people's bodies into hell as wood, we are the soldiers of salvation trying to save them from the fire of hell. In our tradition, the prestige and magnitude of our victory will be measured not by how much blood is spilled, but by how little. The soldiers of jihad going on the path to martyrdom show fastidiousness in their duties to Allah."[6]

Erdoğan Praises Jihadis Who Two Days Earlier Were Filmed Mutilating Corpses Of Kurdish Fighters: "They Are People Who Frighten Death... Who Pursue Death"

Fourteen thousand fighters from the Syrian National Army, also known as the Turkish-backed Free Syrian Army, have been fighting alongside the Turkish Armed Forces in its invasion of northeast Syria.[7] On October 22, a video of members of the Syrian National Army's Faylaq Al-Majd mutilating the corpses of Kurdish soldiers near Kobani, Syria was uploaded to the Internet. The man filming the video said: "The corpses of the PKK and YPG pigs are under the feet of the mujahideen of Faylaq Al-Majd." Pointing at one of the slain women, he said: "This is one of the whores you sent to us." The men in the group chanted: "Allah akbar!"[8] The following day, at a U.S. House of Representatives hearing, U.S. President Donald Trump's special representative for Syria James Jeffrey said of the Syrian National Army that "many people fled because they're very concerned about these Turkish-supported Syrian opposition forces, as we are. We've seen several incidents which we consider war crimes."[9]

In an 80-minute interview broadcast on October 24 on Turkey's state-run TRT news network, President Erdoğan answered questions regarding the invasion. In that interview, he said of the Syrian National Army: "In this battle, there is the Turkish Armed Forces, but along with it, which we must not forget, is the Syrian National Army. The Syrian National Army, along with our armed forces, entered this battle in a self-sacrificing way, and up to today they have had 97 martyrs. And, as you know, we have 20 civilian and seven military martyrs. Their number of injured is much higher than ours. And they are people who frighten death. They are people who pursue death."[10]

Turkish Twitter Users Support Invasion In Religious Terms, Referring To Jihad, Martyrdom, Unbelievers, And "Caliph RTErdoğan"

Many Twitter users referred to the invasion in religious terms. All the tweets in this report included the hashtag #OperationPeaceFountain, indicating that they were in reference to the invasion, and they are here categorized loosely into those that mention jihad, martyrdom, unbelievers, President Erdoğan as caliph, and the Turkish army as mujahideen, "the Army of Muhammad," and "the army of Islam," though many of the tweets used more than one of these terms. While many tweets were entirely original, others quoted various sources, including: Quran verses, hadiths, religious scholars, companions of Muhammad, historical figures such as 11th century Seljuk sultan Alp Arslan,[11] 12th century sultan Saladin, 13th century founder of the Mongol Empire Genghis Khan, and 15th century Ottoman sultan Mehmed the Conqueror, and Turkish poets such as Yahya Kemal,[12] Arif Nihat Asya,[13] and Ekrem Şama.[14]

While most of the images in the tweets are of Turkish soldiers, sometimes praying and sometimes in combat, other images include: a Turkish flag modified to include Quran verses about conquest; and a map of Turkey expanded to include within Turkey's borders much of what is now northern Syria and Iraq, as well as Greece, Bulgaria, Armenia, Georgia, and Cyprus. Another image used in the tweets showed Turkmen fighters from the Syrian National Army using a Turkish nationalist hand gesture. Some tweets had Ottoman[15] themes, including an image of the Ottoman coat of arms, a flag used by the Committee of Union and Progress,[16] references to an Ottoman marching song, and a message to President Erdoğan from one user that "if Allah grants it we will make you sultan, we will establish the Ottoman [state] and make you the caliph."


Several tweets included a map of Turkey expanded to include land that is now Syria, Iraq, Greece, Bulgaria, Armenia, Georgia, and Cyprus.

Following are Turkish-language tweets about Turkey's invasion of northeast Syria.

Tweets About Jihad In Reference To The Invasion: 'Such A Jihad That The Hearts Tremble'

On October 7, user @adevia_aleo wrote: "Praise be to Allah, lord of the worlds. #jihad #islamicstate #OperationPeaceFountain."[17]

On October 10, user @RmznAlpsln tweeted several lines from a poem by Turkish poet Arif Nihat Asya: "We are quiet sounds, do not leave without a call to prayer the minarets, my Allah / Give us strength, do not leave without wrestlers the arena of jihad, my Allah / Do not leave without a hero your masses who await a hero, my Allah / Do not leave without a Muslim the homeland that is kneaded with Muslimness, my Allah. #OperationPeaceFountain." At least 14 other Twitter users posted lines from this same poem by Arif Nihat Asya in reference to Turkey's invasion of northeast Syria.[18]

On October 7, user @_yakupkaya wrote: "Such an awakening that the mountains moan / such a destruction that the skies thunder / such a jihad that the hearts tremble / blessed rain fell on your soil / be patient, oh land of the downtrodden / be patient, the time is near... #OperationPeaceFountain." At least four other users posted these lines in reference to the invasion.[19]

On October 7, user @mollakevseri wrote: "An army educated by Islam will change its route to avoid harming an anthill in times of peace. In times of jihad it will show its intention to win by making its enemies' blood flow thunderously like waterfalls. #OperationPeaceFountain."[20]

On October 7, user @OsmanAydogan35 wrote: "If you want peace, be ready for battle, your Grandpa Ceddin never left the jihad arena. #OperationPeaceFountain."[21] "Your Grandpa Ceddin" is the name of an Ottoman military march well-known in Turkey.[22]

On October 7, user @Ahmedturan02 wrote: "Our prophet said: 'My livelihood was under the shade of my spear (during jihad). Vileness and contemptibility were appointed to those who oppose my order (of jihad).' This nation is the standard-bearer of Islam, it will rise again with the spirit of jihad. #OperationPeaceFountain."[23] The user shared a graphic showing Turkish special forces and a quote attributed to Abu Bakr, a companion of Muhammad: "The face of the nation that does not make jihad will not smile."

On October 7, user @muradiilahi wrote: "Our renown will increase with jihad. #OperationPeaceFountain."[24]

On October 6, user @zintaniii wrote: "When jihad knocks on your door, you will not turn and look back. It's time for holy war. #OperationPeaceFountain."[25]

On October 6, user @zengn_cihan wrote a quote attributed to 11th century Seljuk sultan Alp Arslan: "'Oh Lord! I make myself your deputy, I rub my face on the ground in the presence of your wrath, I make jihad for your sake. Oh Allah! My intention is pure, help me.' (Sultan Alp Arslan) #OperationPeaceFountain."[26]

On October 6, user @Zeynep_hc_z cited a hadith compiled by Sahih Al-Bukhari: "'One who equips someone who will make jihad in the path of Allah is like one who has made jihad himself. One who goes to see and check on the family of one who has gone for holy war earns wages like one who himself has gone for holy war.' #OperationPeaceFountain."[27]

On October 6, user @MuradKpolat wrote: "#OperationPeaceFountain. The Turkish nation is the bravest and most powerful and most abundant people of the east and the most heroic army of Islam. It is the one whose duty is to make jihad at Allah's command."[28]

On October 7, user @Zamane_Beyi_ wrote: "The Lord created such a mosaic that if you do not make jihad you cannot even smell the scent that rain gives. Life is not a rose garden. The prophet did not say in his farewell sermon 'I am leaving you a rose-colored world'... #OperationPeaceFountain."[29]

On October 6, user @TOverlokcu wrote: "Oh lord, protect and grant victory to our homeland, our flag, our call to prayer, our nation, our country, and above all to the last army of Islam, which is making and will make jihad. #OperationPeaceFountain."[30] The tweet includes an image of a flag used by the Committee of Union and Progress.[31]

On October 6, user @Adanali_Reis_01 wrote: "'Say: Oh unbelievers, you will be defeated! #OperationPeaceFountain." This is a section of Quran 3:12 ("Oh unbelievers! You will be defeated and gathered up and driven into hell!")  The post includes a graphic with an image of 11th century Seljuk sultan Alp Arslan and a quote attributed to him: "Oh Lord! I make myself your deputy, I rub my face on the ground in the presence of your wrath, I make jihad for your sake."[32]

On October 10, user @Tunahn3453 wrote: "#OperationPeaceFountain. I made my intention to [make] jihad for the approval of Allah, I begin in the name of Allah."[33]

On October 9, user @behatk wrote: "We have thrown enough roses at those who throw stones. It's time for jihad... For Islam, for the homeland, for peace, for the downtrodden. #AnOperationNotAWar... #OperationPeaceFountain."[34]

On October 10, user @bayramkaratekee wrote: "Lord, help this ummah, our Muslim army that makes jihad in your path. The voyage is ours, the victory is yours, Allah. Make our army and the entire ummah [and] our Muslim brothers who make jihad victorious inshallah amen #OperationPeaceFountain."[35]

On October 11, user @ahmedturan02 tweeted Quran 9:73 and a hadith: "'Oh prophet! fight against the disbelievers and the hypocrites and be harsh upon them' Al-Tawbah/73 * 'The head of its matter is Islam and its highest peak is the jihad * gird yourself with your sword and be ready for battle, if you want peace, turn and look at your history, your Grandpa Ceddin has not left the arena of jihad #OperationPeaceFountain."[36]

On October 10, user @mertpolat609 tweeted Quran 5:54: "They will make jihad in the path of Allah and they will not fear the condemnation of anyone who sticks out their tongue! This is such a benevolence of Allah that He will give it to whom... He wishes, because Allah is Al-Wasi (the one whose benevolence is great) and Al-Alim (who the one who knows with truth) Al-Maidah 54 #OperationPeaceFountain." The tweet includes an image of the Ottoman coat of arms. At least one other user tweeted this Quran verse in reference to the invasion.[37]

On October 10, user @NedrinOzak tweeted Quran 5:35: "Oh believers, do not come against Allah, seek the means of nearness to him, and make jihad on his path so that you may reach salvation – Al-Maidah 35 #OperationPeaceFountain."[38]

On October 9, user @ahmetDemirsoy wrote: "It's time for jihad. Make [them] victorious, Allah. Give to our commanders and our soldiers the strength and power of Mehmed the Conqueror[39] and his army, of Saladin[40] and his army... #OperationPeaceFountain."[41] The post included an image of a Turkish flag with text from Quran 48:1 ("verily, We have given you [Oh Muhammad] a manifest victory") and 61:13 ("victory from Allah and an imminent conquest; and give good tidings to the believers"), as well as the shahada,[42] along its borders.

On October 9, user @osmanagaoglu53 tweeted Quran 9:14: "Fight with them such that Allah will torment and humiliate them at your hands and help you against them, ease the hearts of the believers, and remove the anger in their hearts. #OperationPeaceFountain."[43] The post included the same image of a Turkish flag altered to include Quran verses referring to conquest.

On October 9, user @HadimetulGaribe wrote: "Life, faith, and jihad... may the Lord make [them] victorious #OperationPeaceFountain."[44] The post included the same image of a Turkish flag altered to include Quran verses referring to conquest.

On October 12, user @tc_turk042 tweeted a hadith compiled by Sahih Al-Buhari: "The messenger of Allah would pray in this way: 'Oh Allah, who has sent down the book (Quran), who makes the clouds move in the sky, and who puts the ranks of the enemy in disarray, make this enemy miserable and make us victors against them!' Amin (Buhari, jihad, 112) #OperationPeaceFountain."[45]

On October 10, user @ibrahimmemis28 wrote: "Before morning prayer, we recited Surat Al-Fath and prayed so that our Turkish Armed Forces, who make supplication on their voyage and make jihad at the border, will be helped and victorious in the east of the Euphrates. #OperationPeaceFountain."[46]

On October 9, user @35e43878bd3b4a7 wrote: "With the power of faith, by reading the Quran, with millions of prayers at its back, the world's most comprehensive army is making jihad on the unbeliever. Protect them, oh lord. #OperationPeaceFountain." The tweet includes a graphic with a quote attributed to 13th century founder of the Mongol Empire Genghis Khan: "When the Turks go to war, they will take prisoner the devil in hell."[47]

On October 9, user @Rcp_Glc wrote: "Make jihad against the unbelievers with your property, your lives, and your tongues! #OperationPeaceFountain."[48]

On October 6, user @Sahsene_nalcin cited Quran 2:218: "Indeed, those who have believed and those who have emigrated and made jihad in the cause of Allah – those expect the mercy of Allah. And Allah is Forgiving and Merciful. #OperationPeaceFountain." At least one other account cited this Quran verse in reference to the invasion.[49]

On October 10, user @karacht25 wrote: "Jihad suits this nation very well. #OperationPeaceFountain."[50]

On October 9, user @SafiyeUrlc cited a hadith of Muhammad: "'The gates of paradise are under the shade of swords'... Lord make our soldiers' swords sharp. #OperationPeaceFountain." At least 11 other twitter users cited this hadith in reference to the invasion.[51]

Tweets About Martyrdom In Reference To The Invasion: 'Can We Not Have A Sip Of The Elixir Of Martyrdom?'

On October 6, user @hsnhsyn6prmk wrote: "This nation walks with the love of the homeland. Battle! Jihad! Martyrdom! In Allah's name. #OperationPeaceFountain." The post includes three emojis of a hand with a raised index finger.[52]

On October 7, user @saskinkelimeler wrote: "If you die, you will be saved from all the troubles of this world. If you are martyred, you will be saved both from the troubles in this world and those of the hereafter. #OperationPeaceFountain."[53]

On October 9, user @ARS3461 wrote: "Why do we stand on the sidelines, man, the path to holy war has been opened and our army is in battle. Can we not have a sip of the elixir of martyrdom? Is there no deed for us that will make our faces white in the afterlife? I am jealous of you, brave ones #OperationPeaceFountain #Turkey #Caliph."[54]

Tweets About Unbelievers In Reference To The Invasion: 'Oh Unbelievers... Die Of Fright, Then Die Again, Then Die Again, Because What You Will Witness Will Be Worse Than Death'

On October 8, user @s_byrkc cited Quran 9:73: "'Oh Prophet, fight against the unbelievers and the hypocrites and be harsh upon them. And the place that they will reach is Hell, and how terrible a destination it is.' #OperationPeaceFountain."[55]

On October 5, user @Hacem2 wrote: "Oh Lord! Help us against the gang of unbelievers, grant us victory! Amen... #OperationPeaceFountain."[56]

On October 8, user @CiftciFatmanurr quoted Quran 2:250: "Lord, give us patience, make our feet stand firm, and help us against the society of unbelievers. #OperationPeaceFountain." At least ten other users cited this Quran verse in reference to the invasion.[57]

On October 6, user @kaanbey751 wrote: "#OperationPeaceFountain. The sound of the troops' footsteps was enough... the unbelievers are looking for a place to hide... that America that you trusted cannot even save you."[58]

On October 7, user @ak_sarac wrote: "America is against us in PKK clothes. Oh lord, accept our prayer, and grant our army victory against the society of unbelievers. Amen. #OperationPeaceFountain."[59]

On October 6, user @MBovatekin tweeted several Quran verses: "Indeed, We have given you a clear conquest [48:1] – and Allah will aid you with a renowned victory [48:3] – And if those unbelievers who disbelieve had fought you, they would have turned their backs and fled. Then they would not find a protector or a helper [48:22]. Surat Al-Fath #OperationPeaceFountain." At least two other users tweeted verses from this chapter of the Quran, called "The Conquest," in reference to the invasion.[60]

On October 6, user @1453_suleym wrote: "Allah make our renowned army victorious against the gang of unbelievers. #OperationPeaceFountain."[61]

On October 6, user @Emirbey16 tweeted Quran 9:32: "Though the unbelievers dislike it, Allah will perfect his light. #OperationPeaceFountain." At least one other user posted this Quran verse in reference to the invasion. [62]

On October 9, user @turgutkarasar wrote: "#OperationPeaceFountain. Lord make our army victorious against the unbelievers and their servants. The voyage is from us, the victory is from Allah>." At least one other user posted the same text.[63]

On October 10, user @refikbelgium wrote: "Allah, help this nation, which for centuries has been the standard bearer of Islam, against the party of unbelievers. #OperationPeaceFountain #Conquest."[64]

On October 9, user @yorgunozer wrote: "#OperationPeaceFountain. Allah, protect our nation and our troops. Make the unbelievers miserable, amin."[65]

On October 12, user @SultanKabatas tweeted a quote from Quran 2:250: "Lord, plant our feet firmly against the band of unbelievers. #OperationPeaceFountain." The tweet included a graphic showing a group of soldiers and text from this Quran verse.[66]

On October 10, user @BerrnBerrn4 wrote: "#OperationPeaceFountain. Allah's wrath is very harsh, be afraid, oh unbelievers... Die of fright, then die again, then die again, because what you will witness will be worse than death."[67]

On October 9, user @Numanoglulncisu tweeted Quran 109:1-2: "Say: 'Oh unbelievers! I will not worship what you worship.' #OperationPeaceFountain." The tweet included a graphic with the same Quran verse.[68]

On October 9, user @atillay53 tweeted Quran 8:30: "Remember when the unbelievers were setting traps to restrain you or kill you or evict you [from Mecca]. But they set traps, and Allah sets traps. And Allah is the best of those who set traps #OperationPeaceFountain."[69]

On October 9, user @mserden tweeted a prayer and a section of Quran 2:286: "May [Allah] protect and make victorious all of our sons who are participating in Operation Peace Fountain. 'You are our Protector, so help us against the society of unbelievers.' #OperationPeaceFountain."[70]

On October 9, user @ronay_alanbay tweeted a section of Quran 4:101: "The unbelievers are your clear enemies. #OperationPeaceFountain." The tweet included a graphic with this verse and an image of a man wearing camouflage and holding an American flag.[71]

On October 9, user @hsnd68 wrote: "#OperationPeaceFountain. If you love your religion, your lord, and your homeland then support [them] against this society of unbelievers!"[72]

On October 9, user @chotanax28 wrote: "May Allah be the friend and helper of the troops and damn the unbeliever terrorists. #OperationPeaceFountain."[73]

On October 6, user @asi_vezir: "They want to extinguish the light of Allah with their mouths, but Allah refuses except to perfect His light, although the unbelievers dislike it. #OperationPeaceFountain."

On October 7, user @Emireesra2 quoted Quran 4:76: "The believers fight in the cause of Allah, and the unbelievers fight in the cause of the tagut [tyrant, idol]. So fight against the allies of Satan. Indeed, the plot of Satan has ever been weak. #OperationPeaceFountain."[74]

Tweets About President Erdoğan In Reference To The Invasion: 'If Allah Grants It We Will Make You Sultan, We Will Establish The Ottoman [State] And Make You The Caliph'

On October 9, user @ridvansahin2023 wrote: "#OperationPeaceFountain. Stand tall, leader, I will support you until the last drop of my blood, always stand tall like this against the cruel, if Allah grants it we will make you sultan, we will establish the Ottoman [state] and make you the caliph."[75] The tweet included a photo of President Erdoğan, and used the word reis ("leader"), which is often used as a nickname for President Erdoğan.

On October 9, user @sehitCE wrote: "May Allah be your friend and helper. Muslims, pray. We have a state that does not remain silent [in the face of] cruelty. Wake up, do what is necessary. Caliph @RTErdoğan. #OperationPeaceFountain."[76]

On October 10, user @mstf_aslnturk wrote: "Tough words from Caliph #RecepTayyipErdoğan! #OperationPeaceFountain."[77] The tweet included a graphic with a picture of President Erdoğan and text that reads: "Oh Saudi Arabia, look in the mirror, first! Who brought Yemen to this condition? Answer that first. And Egypt – you cannot talk at all! You are the murderer of democracy in your country. You are the reason that [Mohammed] Mursi died writhing in court. Maybe you carried out an operation [for this]. You are this kind of murderer!"

On October 8, user @postuhakan wrote: "We are with commander-in-chief Recep Tayyip Erdoğan against all the unbeliever societies #OperationPeaceFountain."[78] The post included a graphic with an image of President Erdoğan and a quote of his: "In whatever language you will understand."

Tweets On The Syrian National Army And The Turkish Army: 'Put On A Pot Of Tea, Grandpa, The Mujahideen Have Set Out On Their Path'

On October 9, user @rozgunce wrote: "#OperationPeaceFountain. The Turkmen mujahideen of the Syrian National Army are making the Grey Wolf sign as they head to the front. Let's be careful when we call them terrorists." At least one other user shared this photograph.[79] The Grey Wolf sign is a hand gesture used by Turkish nationalists.

On October 7, user @samiacillkan wrote: "May Allah protect our soldiers and make our army victorious. Put on a pot of tea, grandpa, the mujahideen have set out on their path... #OperationPeaceFountain."[80]

On October 9, user @_Enesmalik wrote: "Do not destroy these mujahid servants, who set out on paths for [the sake of] your jihad command with Surat Al-Fath #OperationPeaceFountain."[81]

On October 6, user @Zamanamutenahi cited a hadith compiled by Ahmad ibn Hanbal: "Make jihad in the path of Allah. Because jihad in the path of Allah is such a gateway to paradise that because of it, Allah will protect (the mujahid) from gloom and sorrow. Ahmad ibn Hanbal 5/214. #OperationPeaceFountain."[82]

On October 9, user @ezgifb8 wrote: "May a stone not touch your feet! May rain not make you cold! May the sun not burn your skin! Go like water, come back like water, mujahideen. #OperationPeaceFountain."[83]

On October 7, user @TahaSaricaoglu posted a verse from a poem by Turkish poet Ekrem Şama: "The prophet is always a protector in his tomb / the mujahideen get speed from the flag / we will remind those who forget; / the blood on the soil is red, the star and crescent is white / that blessed flag is this flag! #OperationPeaceFountain." The post included a video of a soldier reciting the poem. At least eight other users shared this verse in reference to the invasion.[84]

On October 9, user @keremonder1 wrote: "Mujahideen, strike the Promised Land dreams of Israel, the terror state! #OperationPeaceFountain."[85]

On October 6, user @guher76 wrote: "Oh America, oh unbelievers! You will be defeated and gathered up and driven into hell! You have forgotten something: The Turkish army is the army of Muhammad, and Turkey is the last stronghold of Islam>. Your plans cannot dismantle the Turk! May Allah be a friend and helper of our army. #OperationPeaceFountain." This post quotes Quran 3:12 ("Oh unbelievers! You will be defeated and gathered up and driven into hell!") in reference to the invasion, as did four other users.[86]

On October 6, user @bozkurt_6560 wrote: "#OperationPeaceFountain #ArmyOfIslam. The army of Islam, of which good news was given in the Quran, is coming, oh unbelievers. The soldiers of our prophet are coming, oh world."[87]

On October 9, user @cihaddogan tweeted "#OperationPeaceFountain" and a graphic with text that reads: "This storm breaking out is the Turkish army, oh Lord. The army that dies for your sake is this one, oh Lord. May your renowned name may your strengthened name be raised up with the calls to prayer, make [us] the victor, because this is the last army of Islam!" These are lines from a 1922 poem by Turkish poet Yahya Kemal. At least one other user tweeted lines from this poem in reference to the invasion.[88]

On October 7, user @HseyinZ26293460 wrote: "Muhammad's army has set out. Search for a hole to hide in, harlots. #OperationPeaceFountain."[89]

 

[1] Diyanet.gov.tr/tr-TR/Kurumsal/Detay/26011/baris-pinari-harekati-icin-90-bin-camide-dua, October 9, 2019.

[2] Youtube.com/watch?v=fK7S3PhraY4, October 9, 2019.

[3] Akyazi.net/gun-birlik-ve-dayanisma-gunudur-38799h.htm, October 11, 2019.

[4] Erdoğan's government built the Çamlica Mosque at a reported cost of $100 million. It is now the largest mosque in Turkey, with a capacity of 63,000 worshippers, and was formally opened in May 2019. Hurriyet.com.tr/yazarlar/vahap-munyar/camlicadaki-cami-100-milyon-dolara-bitiyor-40867948, June 15, 2018.

[5] Yeniakit.com.tr/haber/erdogan-camlica-camiinde-cuma-namazini-kildi-mikrofonu-alip-cemaate-seslendi-947365.html, October 25, 2019.

[6] Akittv.com.tr/yazarlar/abdurrahman-dilipak/3820-operasyon-basladi, October 11, 2019.

[7] Bbc.com/turkce/haberler-dunya-49999444, October 10, 2019.

[9] Reuters.com/article/us-syria-security-turkey-usa/evidence-found-of-war-crimes-during-turkish-offensive-in-syria-says-us-official-idUSKBN1X224H, October 23, 2019.

[10] Youtube.com/watch?v=gEAgqGbDeNc, October 24, 2019.

[11] Alp Arslan is best known for his victory over the Byzantines in the 1071 Battle of Manzikert, which allowed for the Turkish settlement of Anatolia, the heartland of the Republic of Turkey.

[12] Yahya Kemal Beyatlı (1884-1958) was a Turkish writer, poet, politician, and diplomat.

[13] Arif Nihat Asya (1904-1975) was a Turkish poet, teacher, and politician.

[14] Ekrem Şama's (1950 – present) website describes him as a "researcher, historian, poet, and writer." Ekremsama.com, accessed November 8, 2019.

[15] The Ottoman Empire, beginning as a principality in what is today northwest Turkey, expanded to rule much of the Middle East for 624 years – from 1299 to 1923.

[16] The Committee of Union and Progress was an Ottoman political party that was founded in 1889 and dissolved in 1918.

[17] Twitter.com/adevia_aleo/status/1181314585263050752

[18] Twitter.com/RmznAlpsln/status/1182291904500776963, October 10, 2019; Twitter.com/ylmazbaylan63/status/1181319177019301889, October 7, 2019; Twitter.com/SalimARSLAN6/status/1181226438147678208, October 7, 2019; Twitter.com/AdilARiKBiNGOL/status/1180845107869896710, October 6, 2019; Twitter.com/sarifatih53/status/1180943574617280512, October 6, 2019; Twitter.com/RmznAlpsln/status/1182291904500776963, October 10, 2019; Twitter.com/tuncay_akkoyun/status/1182008223152377861, October 9, 2019; Twitter.com/osmancero/status/1181981353316880384, October 9, 2019; Twitter.com/ArifErol_/status/1182037790810415104, October 9, 2019; Twitter.com/YucebagOnur/status/1181449301513379841, October 8, 2019; Twitter.com/Ruzgar2501/status/1181080071622320128, October 7, 2019; Twitter.com/bakidegilfani/status/1180789392820129792, October 6, 2019; Twitter.com/kubraskola/status/1181552594411573250, October 8, 2019; Twitter.com/behcetkaynar/status/1181927246149365760, October 9, 2019; Twitter.com/Efsanesibenim/status/1180677114808410112, October 5, 2019, Twitter.com/54kentkonseyi/status/1188053080962670593, October 26, 2019.

[19] Twitter.com/_yakupkaya/status/1181287064005799936, October 7, 2019; Twitter.com/bisimit/status/1181176130402959361, October 7, 2019; Twitter.com/aslnurtr/status/1181313951616946177, October 7, 2019; Twitter.com/mahmut_erdm/status/1181245872388136960, October 7, 2019; Twitter.com/SertelKemal/status/1181184311472656384; October 7, 2019.

[20] Twitter.com/mollakevseri/status/1181216813331488768, October 7, 2019.

[21] Twitter.com/OsmanAydogan35/status/1181301661689618438, October 7, 2019.

[22] Youtube.com/watch?v=uEMCyDkWUlQ, March 25, 2012.

[23] Twitter.com/ahmedturan02/status/1181209865680642048, October 7, 2019.

[24] Twitter.com/muradiilahi/status/1181107307347881986, October 7, 2019.

[25] Twitter.com/zintaniii/status/1180938208206610432, October 6, 2019.

[26] Twitter.com/zengn_cihan/status/1180856323895889920, October 6, 2019.

[27] Twitter.com/Zeynep__hc_z/status/1180928054346047488, October 6, 2019.

[28] Twitter.com/MuradKpolat/status/1180952519142514688, October 6, 2019.

[29] Twitter.com/Zamane_Beyi_/status/1181082005691351040, October 7, 2019.

[30] Twitter.com/TOverlokcu/status/1180888404575346694, October 6, 2019.

[31] The Committee of Union and Progress was an Ottoman political party that was founded in 1889 and dissolved in 1918.

[32] Twitter.com/Adanali_Reis_01/status/1180803541142835200, October 6, 2019.

[33] Twitter.com/Tunahn3453/status/1182182710938411008, October 10, 2019.

[34] Twitter.com/behatk/status/1182053694185050119, October 9, 2019.

[35] Twitter.com/bayramkaratekee/status/1182228746247557120, October 10, 2019.

[36] Twitter.com/ahmedturan02/status/1182747930047987713, October 11, 2019.

[37] Twitter.com/latifcanerdem/status/1181949369429512192, October 9, 2019; Twitter.com/mertpolat609/status/1182217133528375296, October 10, 2019.

[38] Twitter.com/NedrinOzak/status/1182145005848322048, October 10, 2019.

[39] Mehmed the Conqueror, also known as Mehmed II, was a 15th century sultan who ruled the Ottoman Empire for 32 years and is known for, among other things, his successful conquest of Istanbul.

[40] Al-Nasir Salah al-Din Yusuf ibn Ayyub, better known as Saladin, was a 12th century sultan of Kurdish descent and founder of the Ayyubid dynasty. He led a military campaign against the Crusader states in the Levant.

[41] Twitter.com/ahmetdemirsoy/status/1182079402705915904, October 9, 2019.

[42] The shahada is the name for the words spoken to become a Muslim ("There is no god but Allah and Muhammad is His prophet").

[43] Twitter.com/osmanagaoglu53/status/1181946097297739779, October 9, 2019.

[44] Twitter.com/HadimetulGaribe/status/1181943920432963589, October 9, 2019.

[45] Twitter.com/tc_turk042/status/1182987511808823297, October 12, 2019.

[46] Twitter.com/ibrahimmemis28/status/1182182755792228352, October 10, 2019.

[47] Twitter.com/35e43878bd3b4a7/status/1182056094190985216, October 9, 2019.

[48] Twitter.com/Rcp_Glc/status/1182024306655731713, October 9, 2019.

[49] Twitter.com/sahsene_nalcin/status/1180924078586318848, October 6, 2019; Twitter.com/berin_kaan/status/1180877357453852673, October 6, 2019.

[50] Twitter.com/karacht25/status/1182336166336569346, October 10, 2019.

[51] Twitter.com/SafiyeUrlc/status/1182017136165830657, October 9, 2019; Twitter.com/SevimAkgn27/status/1182691294604353537, October 11, 2019; Twitter.com/HarunMuftu/status/1182683661784748034, October 11, 2019; Twitter.com/ogunduz53/status/1182593072447852545, October 11, 2019; Twitter.com/busrademmr/status/1181999480767426560, October 9, 2019; Twitter.com/mehmetagir23/status/1181971856766705664, October 9, 2019; Twitter.com/Recepturan2516/status/1181952150576025600, October 9, 2019; Twitter.com/EHZADE54353327/status/1181940289319178242, October 9, 2019; Twitter.com/__esham__/status/1181071748424486913, October 7, 2019; Twitter.com/SefaAygunes/status/1181551916276486144, October 8, 2019; Twitter.com/AKHESAP2788RTE/status/1181536689845657605, October 8, 2019; Twitter.com/ingimasi34/status/1181494321482063876, October 8, 2019.

[52] Twitter.com/hsnhsyn6prmk/status/1180968297447280640, October 6, 2019.

[53] Twitter.com/saskinkelimeler/status/1181316150199816192, October 7, 2019.

[54] Twitter.com/ARS3461/status/1182022520750391298, October 9, 2019.

[55] Twitter.com/s_byrkc/status/1181471344875261952, October 8, 2019.

[56] Twitter.com/Hacem2/status/1180686603242659841, October 5, 2019.

[57] Twitter.com/CiftciFatmanurr/status/1181336212449169408, October 8, 2019; Twitter.com/kazim_isci/status/1181305974092713984, October 7, 2019; Twitter.com/bekirakturk54/status/1181311071405170689, October 7, 2019; Twitter.com/usmopnr14/status/1181247798571872256, October 7, 2019; Twitter.com/46C_Kaya46/status/1181278890334932992, October 7, 2019; Twitter.com/guler1122nil/status/1181331508109418504, October 7, 2019; Twitter.com/MusaBaglan1/status/1181105924309733376, October 7, 2019; Twitter.com/totheottoman/status/1180852684938764289, October 6, 2019; Twitter.com/Ahim4090/status/1182221675749875713, October 10, 2019; Twitter.com/BMURAT16/status/1181972647258853376, October 9, 2019; Twitter.com/SomuncuBaba68_/status/1181504380962557952, October 8, 2019.

[58] Twitter.com/kaanbey751/status/1180923154837000194, October 6, 2019.

[59] Twitter.com/ak_sarac/status/1181206150450221056, October 7, 2019.

[60] Twitter.com/MBovatekin/status/1180781694724530177, October 6, 2019; Twitter.com/HAz____er/status/1181131882739748864, October 7, 2019; Twitter.com/mikaildonmez/status/1180834860518256642, October 6, 2019.

[61] Twitter.com/1453_suleym/status/1180882951330025473, October 6, 2019.

[62] Twitter.com/Emirbey16/status/1180767895007252480, October 6, 2019; Twitter.com/asi_vezir/status/1180829452277878786, October 6, 2019.

[63] Twitter.com/EminDalak/status/1181588620903407617, October 9, 2019; Twitter.com/turgutkarasar/status/1181948124862074886, October 9, 2019.

[64] Twitter.com/refikbelgium/status/1182250205841940481, October 10, 2019.

[65] Twitter.com/yorgunozer/status/1182026820000112646, October 9, 2019.

[66] Twitter.com/SultanKabatas/status/1183099485045571584, October 12, 2019.

[67] Twitter.com/BERRNBERRN4/status/1182149609503821827, October 10, 2019.

[68] Twitter.com/NumanogluIncisu/status/1182025985144827906, October 9, 2019.

[69] Twitter.com/atillay53/status/1181996109704638464, October 9, 2019.

[70] Twitter.com/mserden/status/1181992722439327744, October 9, 2019.

[71] Twitter.com/ronay_alanbay/status/1181948261399224321, October 9, 2019.

[72] Twitter.com/hsnd68/status/1181945285876076544, October 9, 2019.

[73] Twitter.com/chotanax28/status/1181979290818273281, October 9, 2019.

[74] Twitter.com/Emireesra2/status/1181135130003464193, October 7, 2019.

[75] Twitter.com/ridvansahin2023/status/1182030207777230848, October 10, 2019.

[76] Twitter.com/sehitCE/status/1181922358765989889, October 9, 2019.

[77] Twitter.com/mstf_aslnturk/status/1182251974475046912, October 10, 2019.

[78] Twitter.com/postuhakan/status/1181467280523350016, October 8, 2019.

[79] Twitter.com/rozgunce/status/1181962818729517056, Twitter.com/sabithaberold/status/1181955433491243010

[80] Twitter.com/samiacillkan/status/1181185025515106305, October 7, 2019.

[81] Twitter.com/__Enesmalik/status/1182011417899216897, October 9, 2019.

[82] Twitter.com/Zamanamutenahi/status/1180930033420050437, October 6, 2019.

[83] Twitter.com/ezgifb8/status/1181948091819270147, October 9, 2019.

[84] Twitter.com/TahaSaricaoglu/status/1181128497659617281, October 7, 2019; Twitter.com/BenByOkcu/status/1181253611071967233, October 7, 2019; Twitter.com/baydar1453/status/1181299410342469634, October 7, 2019; Twitter.com/enigmaticx_/status/1181314101257150464, October 7, 2019; Twitter.com/dergun57/status/1181945491422089218, October 9, 2019; Twitter.com/cengizsahin18/status/1182039243935420420, October 9, 2019; Twitter.com/Adnanen18784109/status/1182365321275023362, October 10, 2019; Twitter.com/MuratSdye/status/1183445828788195328, October 13, 2019; Twitter.com/ricat0/status/1181952303210872843, October 9, 2019.

[85] Twitter.com/keremonder1/status/1182021640567377921, October 9, 2019.

[86] Twitter.com/guher76/status/1180813254635016194, October 6, 2019; Twitter.com/mustafa61tk/status/1181556410301210626, October 8, 2019; Twitter.com/MahmutsamiGzbyk/status/1181303701325176832, October 7, 2019; Twitter.com/mustafa61tk/status/1181556410301210626, October 8, 2019; Twitter.com/ozluercn/status/1182018617422106624, October 9, 2019.

[87] Twitter.com/bozkurt_6560/status/1180906240932827136, October 6, 2019.

[88] Twitter.com/cihaddogan/status/1182015198225473536, October 9, 2019; Twitter.com/MuhammedCihadd/status/1181603087347265541, October 8, 2019.

[89] Twitter.com/HseyinZ26293460/status/1181172391847829505, October 7, 2019.