print
memri
October 24, 2018 No.
7728

Saudi Arabia's Arab Allies Come To Its Defense In The Khashoggi Murder Affair

In contrast to the scathing criticism directed at Saudi Arabia by Western media and by Saudi Arabia's Arab rivals, headed by Qatar, following the murder of Saudi dissident journalist Jamal Khashoggi, the kingdom's Arab allies, as well as Arab bodies and organizations, have come to its defense. Their support was expressed in official statements which appeared almost simultaneously, and also in articles in the state press, published both before and after Saudi Arabia's admission that Khashoggi had died in its consulate in Istanbul.

Chief among the allies that supported Saudi Arabia were Bahrain, the UAE, Egypt, Jordan, and pro-Saudi elements in Lebanon, headed by Prime Minister Sa'd Al-Hariri.[1] Kuwait delayed issuing a statement of solidarity, perhaps due to its role as mediator in the Gulf crisis with Qatar, Saudi Arabia's rival. In statements issued before the Saudi admission, these countries called to wait for the outcome of the investigation and denounced the media attack on Saudi Arabia, stressing its regional role and its importance for regional and global peace and stability. After the Saudi admission – which came on October 19, 2018, and claimed that Khashoggi had "died in an altercation" in the Saudi consulate, and that the Saudi authorities had arrested 18 individuals in connection with the incident and had dismissed senior general intelligence officers as well as a royal advisor[2]  – the same countries issued statements commending Saudi Arabia for its transparency, its investigation efforts, and the steps it had already taken.[3] 

Many articles published in pro-Saudi state papers before the Saudi admission, stated, explicitly or implicitly, that Qatar, Iran, Turkey and the Muslim Brotherhood were responsible for the attack on Saudi Arabia. An Egyptian and a Palestinian daily also placed some of the blame on the U.S., which they said wanted to economically blackmail Saudi Arabia and to divide the Arab world. Some articles suggested taking active steps to demonstrate the Arab support for Saudi Arabia. A Bahraini journalist went so far as to state that the Arabs were willing to die for this kingdom.

Among the elements that supported Saudi Arabia were the Arab League, which issued a statement on behalf of "a senior source in [its] general secretariat" denouncing the threats and pressures directed at the kingdom; the Arab Parliament, which expressed solidarity with Saudi Arabia; and Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) Secretary General 'Abd Al-Latif Al-Zayani, who condemned the campaign against the country. These elements reiterated their support for the kingdom after its admission of Khashoggi's death.[4]

The following are translated excerpts from the statements of support for Saudi Arabia issued by Arab countries and elements, and from the articles in pro-Saudi Arab state papers.

The UAE: We Oppose The Incitement Against Saudi Arabia; Its Stability Is In The Best Interests Of  The Arabs, The Muslims And The World

The UAE emphasized that it was standing by Saudi Arabia against anyone trying to harm its status, and expressed its objections to the incitement against it. In an October 14 announcement, UAE Minister of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation Sheikh Abdallah bin Zayed Aal Nahyan underlined the country's full solidarity with its "sister Saudi Arabia against anyone trying to harm its regional status and its absolute opposition to any attempt to cause harm to the central role it plays as the basis of security and peace in the region and to the reputation of the Kingdom in the Arab, Muslim, and international [arena]." He added that the UAE's stand alongside Saudi Arabia for better and for worse stems from "the honest and fraternal relations and the profound love" between the two countries and that "the incitement and the coordination among the elements [behind] this campaign will absolutely not succeed in harming Saudi Arabia's central status in the region and its central role in the axis of rationalism and moderation..."[5] Following the Saudi acknowledgement of Khashoggi's death, the UAE emphasized that the steps taken by the kingdom after the investigation attest to "the high values and principles of preservation of the law and justice" on which the kingdom is based.[6]

Editorials in the UAE press reiterated the support for Saudi Arabia. In an October 17 article, Hamad Al-Ka'bi, editor-in-chief of the Al-Ittihad daily, likened the media campaign against Saudi Arabia to a Trojan horse: a device used by the kingdom's enemies, such as Iran and Qatar, to attack it. He wrote: "[Saudi Arabia] knows very well that the Khashoggi affair has created an enormous wooden structure like a Trojan horse, inside which many of the kingdom's enemies are hiding... We are still waiting for things to become clear, but what [really] interests us in this complicated affair is that it does not [end up] elevating the status of countries in the region that have left the fold of the true Islam. I refer to countries that smuggle weapons and foreign currency, and are involved in scandals of espionage and conspiracy that undermine the security of Saudi Arabia, the UAE and [the rest of] the Arab Gulf. We are interested in the suspicious exploitation of the Khashoggi affair by countries with a terrible human rights record. Iran has put its propaganda machine to work in the Khashoggi affair. This is a country which, according to the [American] Freedom House organization, has the worst record in the world with respect to freedom of the press, and which is ranked 175th out of 179 countries in terms of freedom of speech. Its history of executing journalists and oppositionists is documented and known. And there is no need to mention the shameful role played by Qatar in the Khashoggi affair, for this role was minor compared to what we are used to seeing from [Qatar's] lying media, which has been involved in graver crimes against the Arabs, has betrayed its neighbors, and has concealed itself with the enemies inside the new Trojan horse.

"[The important thing for us is to ensure]... that Saudi Arabia continues to play a leading role in the Arab and Islamic world with the same momentum and strength. Nobody can weaken this role by inflating [the Khashoggi affair, cultivating] false hopes and internationalizing internal affairs – because Saudi Arabia is the key to resolving the crises in the region... Saudi Arabia will continue to be a major spiritual and political pillar of the Arab and Islamic world, whereas the countries that have left the fold of the true Islam will make do with hiding in the darkness, and their status will not be elevated."[7]

The October 15 editorial in the daily Al-Khaleej stated: "Saudi Arabia will weather this crisis, and it is in the best interests of all of us in the Gulf countries and the Arab world that Riyadh overcome this affair, in which it has become embroiled... due to plots hatched by night against the kingdom and against its enlightened and reformist inclinations, as was evident from [the way in which] the hostile and strife-mongering media fought over [the right to] make accusations and hand down verdicts, without any balance or moral restraint... Ultimately, everyone should examine the facts and, with wisdom and insight, take in the bigger picture, which is that Saudi Arabia's stability is an Arab, Muslim and international interest."[8]

Bahrain: Saudi Arabia And Bahrain Are A Single Country

Bahrain declared its unqualified support for Saudi Arabia, as expressed in statements by its officials and in many articles in its press. In an October 14 announcement, the Bahraini Foreign Ministry noted its solidarity with its "sister" Saudi Arabia "against anyone trying to harm it, its policy, its status, and its sovereignty." The announcement went on to state that Bahrain considers Saudi Arabia "a central element in the security and stability of the Arab and Muslim world," and praised its activity "for peace and stability nationally and internationally."[9] The same day, in a conversation with Saudi King Salman, Bahraini King Hamed bin 'Issa Aal Khalifa said that "the two countries are a single, inseparable country" and that his country would continue to stand alongside and support Saudi Arabia with all its might "in light of the hostile attack on it... because it  believes that [Saudi Arabia] is a firm guarantee for security and stability and for steadfastness against the dangers facing the region and the entire world."[10] Following the Saudi admission that Khashoggi was dead, Bahrain stressed that it stood with Saudi Arabia and again underlined its regional and global status, noting that the Saudi king's decision  reflected "justice and integrity and exposure of the facts, proving that our sister Saudi Arabia is and remains a country of justice, values, and principles."[11]

An Al-Ayyam editorial stated: "Manama is Riyadh and Riyadh is Manama. [The two countries are] a single state, [marching] on the path of virtue, love, peace, and brotherhood of blood, heart and spirit, with a shared goal and a shared destiny... [We in] Al-Ayyam stress our solidarity with our brothers in Saudi Arabia, which is the Gulf's and the Arab and Islamic [world's] strategic depth and a pillar of virtue, security and stability for the [entire] world."[12]

Al-Watan columnist Nizam Kameshki called on October 17 to sever ties with anyone who fabricates lies against Saudi Arabia and stressed that the Arabs were willing to die for its sake: "We must take a courageous stance against the countries that conspire against us and take this opportunity to hurl false accusations at Saudi Arabia. We must sever our diplomatic ties with them and close our embassies in their territory. We should withdraw our investments from these countries, [for they will surely] withdraw their investments from ours. We must adhere to the saying, 'support your brother, whether he is the oppressor or the oppressed'...

"We must show the world that today's Arabs are not like the Arabs of yesteryear... We are strong men. We can withstand hunger and thirst, we can eat rocks and drink seawater if we must, for our might and honor are more precious to us than any other asset... We have oil, water, natural gas, electricity, agriculture and natural resources. Our geographic proximity to some of [the other Arabs] allows us to endure together indefinitely. We describe our solidarity with Saudi Arabia as the dawn of might and honor. We are willing to die defending Saudi Arabia against the oppressors. Death is a privilege. We do not wish to die in humiliation. Saudi Arabia is worthy of being redeemed with our blood and our spirit."[13]


Front page of Al-Ayyam, in green to express solidarity with Saudi Arabia (Al-Ayyam, Bahrain, October 15, 2018)

Egypt: We Stand With Saudi Arabia; Turkey And Qatar Spread Lies About It Because Of Its Struggle Against The Muslim Brotherhood

Egypt expressed official support for Saudi Arabia and objected to the attempts to accuse it of murdering Khashoggi before a serious investigation was carried out. On October 14, the Egyptian Foreign Ministry clarified: "Egypt is following with concern the ramifications of the affair of the disappearance of the Saudi journalist Jamal Khashoggi, and stresses the importance of arriving at the truth in the framework of a  transparent investigation."   It also warned against "levelling accusations without an examination [of the facts?] and attempting to leverage this affair for political advantage against Saudi Arabia based on groundless accusations. [Egypt] stresses its support for Saudi Arabia's efforts and its positions in dealing with this event."[14] Following the Saudi acknowledgement of Khashoggi's death, the foreign ministry again announced its support for Saudi Arabia, noting that the measures taken by the kingdom proved "its determination and its commitment to investigating the truth of the incident" and that these steps "are in accordance with King Salman's usual tendency to respect the principles of the law and the implementation of justice."[15]

Articles in Egyptian papers affiliated with the regime expressed solidarity with Saudi Arabia and directed criticism at Turkey and Qatar which they claimed were slandering it because of its war on the Muslim Brotherhood. One article also stated the U.S. was blackmailing Saudi Arabia, economically and politically.

Makram Muhhamad Ahmad, chairman of Egypt's Supreme Council of Media Regulation and a columnist for the state daily Al-Ahram, wrote on October 16: "The important question is, what is [the reason for this] puzzling attack on Saudi Arabia?... Obviously, many elements have a burning desire to blackmail Saudi Arabia, but there are also indications of hypocrisy on the part of Turkey, which is trying to have its cake and eat it too,  and of the involvement of the Muslim Brotherhood, which has jumped at the chance to distort the image of Saudi Arabia, that now regards the Muslim Brotherhood as the most dangerous terrorist organization.

"What is certain is that the Turks – who continue to be two-faced in their relations with Saudi Arabia [by] stressing their desire to cooperate with it – played a major role in spreading accusations of murder against it without any corroborating evidence. It is they who emphasized that they have in their possession recordings and footage of the murder in the consulate in Istanbul, and it is they who shared these suspicions and notions with the Americans and spread them in the entire world... Do Erdogan and the Muslim Brotherhood plan to foment rebellion among Saudi society, parts of which oppose the policy of the new crown prince [Muhammad bin Salman]?! What I fear more than anything is that this is [indeed] the shared goal of Erdogan and the Muslim Brotherhood, because Turkey has acted as an inciter in this affair, more than as a responsible state!"[16]

In his October 15 column, Dandarawi Al-Harawi, acting editor of Al-Yawm Al-Sabi'. wrote, " Qatar and Turkey are furious with Saudi Arabia due to the economic collapse they are experiencing, and also due to the enterprise of enlightened reform undertaken by the Saudi crown prince, Muhammad bin Salman, which delivers a deadly blow to the ideological infrastructure of the extremist organizations and especially of the terrorist Muslim Brotherhood... That is why they are waging a rabid campaign on the local, regional, and global levels to blame Saudi Arabia for Khashoggi's disappearance. That is why they [are bringing] enormous international pressure to bear, and [acting to] slow down and even paralyze the revolution of economic and cultural reform in the kingdom...

"All the imaginary scenarios [in which Saudi Arabia killed Khashoggi] are meant to make trouble for it by means of the U.S., which is currently trying to gain loot in every possible way, chiefly through political and economic blackmail and by treating the Gulf countries as nothing more than safes [full of money] and as Alibaba caves [full of treasure to plunder].

"No Arab who is a true man and who has pride and nobility flowing in his veins should stand by and tolerate this cheap blackmail of Saudi Arabia. Even if all [the rest of] the Arabs stand by, there will still be the brave and noble Egypt... which will never abandon its Saudi brothers and leave them exposed to the most criminal blackmail and slander  in history!"[17]


Cartoon in Egyptian daily: UAE, Egypt, Saudi Arabia and Bahrain say: "Never shall you see us apart" (Al-Yawm Al-Sabi', Egypt, October 15, 2018)

Kuwait: We Condemn The Anti-Saudi Campaign; Bin Salman Will Continue On The Path Of Construction Despite His Rivals

Kuwait released its announcement of support for Saudi Arabia a day later than the other countries and elements mentioned in this report. Its first announcement, prior to the Saudi admission that Khashoggi was dead, expressed solidarity with Saudi Arabia and sadness at the attempts to harm it. On October 15, Deputy Prime Minister and Government Affairs Minister Anas Al-Saleh called for waiting for the results of an investigation conducted by the authorities and pointed at the close Saudi-Kuwaiti relations. He expressed sorrow over "this campaign aimed at harming the kingdom and its high status on the Arab, Islamic, and international levels" and stressed that the Kuwaiti government "expresses solidarity with Saudi Arabia and stands alongside it against anything that can harm its sovereignty and its well-known status."[18] After the Saudi announcement of Khashoggi's death, a source in the Kuwaiti Foreign Ministry issued an announcement welcoming the Saudi king's decisions in this matter, which, it said, "reflects the kingdom's aspirations and commitment to arriving at the truth and [its intent] ... to settle accounts with those who are behind this regrettable incident and to bring them to justice."[19]

Ahmad 'Abd Al-'Aziz Al-Jarallah, editor of the Kuwaiti Al-Siyassa daily, wrote on October 17 that the anti-Saudi campaign in the Khashoggi affair is part of a plan, led by Iran, Turkey, the Muslim Brotherhood and others, to torpedo the reforms being promoted by the Saudi crown prince. He stated: "Why this brutal attack on Saudi Arabia, especially at this time? This question recurs every time there is a campaign against Saudi Arabia, ever since it started its far-reaching reform process three years ago...

"True, the steps undertaken to heal the Saudi economy have made the [Saudi] crown prince many bitter enemies, who began questioning his abilities and claiming that he is young and lacks experience in public service, among other slurs... These people ignored the fact that many world leaders were young when they stabilized their countries and brought them to the level of developed states... [The critics] did not shy away from conspiring with anyone, from Iran to Turkey and [other] countries that wish Saudi Arabia ill, as well as political elements with agendas of their own, especially the Muslim Brotherhood. [The latter movement] has for decades aspired to take over Saudi Arabia, which is the spiritual center of the Muslim world and therefore [controlling it] means controlling the entire ummah.

"I am reminded of a remark by Saudi Prince Naif bin 'Abd Al-'Aziz in a 2002 interview with Al-Siyassa: 'The Muslim Brotherhood is the source of disaster.' I recalled this remark when media outlets with goals and agendas of their own created a reckless political and media storm over the disappearance of the Saudi journalist Jamal Al-Khashoggi in Turkey, [spewing] false scenarios and reports that he was murdered and that his body was carved up. This sounds more like imaginary detective stories... The entire affair boils down to one simple fact: there has been a disappearance, and there is need for definite proof, not just a campaign of lies, doubts and incitement against Saudi Arabia...

"In all previous attempts, Crown Prince Muhammad bin Salman proved that, despite all the meaningless noise, he continues on his path of construction while his enemies fall one by one like yellow leaves in autumn..."[20]  

Jordan: Our Relations With Saudi Arabia Are Strategic; Lies Were Spread About Saudi Arabia To Blacken Its Image

The Jordanian government underlined its strategic relations with Saudi Arabia and condemned all attempts to harm them. On October 14, government spokesman Jumana Ghanimat released an announcement of support for Saudi Arabia stating that "Jordan stands alongside her sister Saudi Arabia in light of the rumors and the campaign aimed at harming it without reliance on facts, supports the Saudi position, and calls for prioritizing rationality and wisdom in seeking out the truth." It added: "There are close strategic relations between [our two] countries" and "Jordan rejects any attempt to harm Saudi Arabia [or] its role and its status in the Arab and Islamic world and in the world [at large]."[21] Like the other Saudi allies, the Jordanian government stated that it was standing with Saudi Arabia after the latter's announcement of Khashoggi's death, and emphasized that Saudi Arabia had taken "necessary" steps "in an attempt to expose the truth vis-à-vis the circumstances of this affair, to obtain full justice, and to settle accounts with those involved." The government also expressed its condolences to the Khashoggi family.[22]

The Jordanian press published few articles on this affair. In two columns in the daily Al-Rai, both published before the Saudi admission of Khashoggi's death, former information minister Saleh Al-Qallab rebuffed the claims of those who were accusing Saudi Arabia of killing him. In his October 8 column he wrote:  "The question that must be answered is whether a state of Saudi Arabia's caliber, with all its political abilities and accumulated security experience, needs to wait for one of its dissident citizens to enter a state institution [like] the Saudi consulate in Istanbul in order to capture him, hide him away or abduct him? It knows that such an act cannot be concealed... especially when technological developments have shrunk the world to the size of an orange. If it had to settle scores with this Saudi national, it could have done so on one of the busy boulevards of Istanbul, a city of over 10 million people."[23] 

In his October 18 column, that appeared in the London-based Saudi daily Al-Sharq Al-Awsat, and which took a harsher tone than his previous column in Al-Rai, Al-Qallab claimed that Saudi Arabia's rivals had set up a war room for fabricating lies about the kingdom even before Khashoggi had left the U.S. for Turkey. He wrote: "Even if it is proven beyond any doubt that Saudi Arabia had nothing to do with the disappearance of its national, the journalist Jamal Khashoggi... those who stood and still stand behind this lie, which has now become obvious and clear... will surely continue to [spread] their lies in order to harm this great Arab country, which is known to be the only country, along with some of the Gulf states, that confronted and continues to confront the Iranian expansion in the region... It has been decisively proven that those who have a real interest to harm the image of this Arab country plotted this [affair] in advance, when Khashoggi was in the States, and perhaps even earlier. They established a joint war room whose expertise is fabricating and inventing lies about this Arab country."[24]

Pro-Saudi Camp In Lebanon Warns Against Compromising Regional Stability

Pro-Saudi Lebanese officials expressed fear that the affair would have ramifications for the region's stability. On October 14, Lebanese Prime Minister Sa'd Al-Hariri said: "This campaign to harm Saudi Arabia is destabilizing, and is a call that must be opposed, [since it might] drag the region into further negative developments."[25] On October 22, he tweeted that the steps taken by Saudi Arabia served "the path of justice and exposure of the full truth."[26] The Al-Mustaqbal faction, which is led by Al-Hariri, announced: "Any threat to Saudi Arabia constitutes a direct danger to the region's stability and security, and a form of a clash with Arab and Islamic society."[27] Former Prime Minister Najib Mikati expressed regret at the attempts to harm Saudi Arabia and its leadership, stating: "Saudi Arabia has always adopted [an approach of] moderation and peace. We hope that within a few days the fog on this affair will lift and that all the facts will become clear."[28]


Al-Hariri's tweet praising Saudi Arabia's measures that serve "the path of justice and exposure of the full truth." (@Saadhariri, October 22, 2018)

Lebanese Forces party chairman Samir Geagea stated: "Khashoggi's disappearance is neither simple nor acceptable, and everyone knows our very clear position regarding freedom of expression and the press, and regarding freedom of political activity. But accusations must absolutely not be levelled in all directions while the investigation is ongoing and its results have not yet been released... As important as this affair is, it must not be exploited in order to besiege and isolate Saudi Arabia where others have failed to do so. "[29]

In contrast to the fairly restrained statements by officials from Lebanon's pro-Saudi camp, 'Ali Noun, a columnist for the Al-Mustaqbal daily, expressed sweeping support for Saudi Arabia. He wrote in an October 16 article:  "Saudi Arabia is not Qaddafi's Libya, Saddam Hussein's Iraq, Assad's Syria or Iran under the rule of the jurisprudent. The current chatter, and the scare tactics used against it, will not transform Saudi Arabia into anything like these regimes that destroyed their countries and other countries. [Those regimes] adopted terror as a vital weapon in their battles, treating it as the response to armed violence  that enabled them to rule for decades and ultimately made them the sponsors of paralyzed, damaged, rejected, besieged and failing countries. Saudi Arabia has not been accused of a single case of terror in the world. Its record is pristine in this regard... The facts show that Saudi Arabia has always been the victim of terror and was the first to confront it, both [as a force] on the ground and as an idea and school of thought. It largely succeeded in this war because it is realistic rather than arrogant or in denial. More importantly, its leadership knew and knows that its war on extremism and radicalization resonates with the Saudi, Arab and Islamic public."[30]

Palestinian Authority: We Have Confidence In Saudi Arabia; The U.S. Is Using This Affair To Increase Chaos In The Arab World

Palestinian Authority president Mahmoud Abbas expressed his "full confidence in the sister Saudi kingdom, which is led by King Salman bin Abd Al-'Aziz and Crown Prince Mohammad bin Salman." Praising the "historic Saudi support for the Palestinian cause," he stressed that "Palestine will always stand by Saudi Arabia."[31] After the Saudi announcement of Khashoggi's death, the PA daily Al-Hayat Al-Jadida published an announcement stating that "the State of Palestine" praised the decisions taken by the Saudi king "which underline [the kingdom's] foundation of justice, integrity, facts, and the law."[32]

Bassem Barhoum, a columnist for the PA daily Al-Hayat Al-Jadida, wrote that the Khashoggi affair had become a tool for attacking and blackmailing Saudi Arabia when the investigation was not yet complete, as well as another means for the U.S. and the West to deepen the division in the Arab world. He wrote: "Killing a man for his positions and views is unacceptable and inconceivable, especially if he is a journalist. This is a principle that must be [acknowledged] as we address the disappearance of the Saudi journalist Jamal Khashoggi... We must approach the affair in accordance with its actual proportions, and take care not to become... [part of] a plan to tear apart a sister Arab country, as other Arab countries have been torn apart [in the past]... For Saudi Arabia is a major and important Arab country that has long been subject to attacks, not just over the Khashoggi affair...

"The affair, and the way it has been manipulated, have highlighted the danger [inherent in] the existence of the Arab axes that are fighting one another, and the Arab axis that is in conflict with a regional axis. The lesson we have drawn from the Arab Spring and its repercussions is that the only one who benefits from these conflicts is Israel.... We now see the competing [media] outlets exacerbating the crisis of the Arab nation and deepening the rifts within it, while doing their work and recruiting research centers and pressure groups. The one masterminding the entire affair is the U.S., who conceived the notion of creative chaos..."[33]

 

[1] Additional countries that expressed solidarity with Saudi Arabia included Oman, Mauritania, Sudan, Djibouti and Yemen, among others (Al-Sharq Al-Awsat, London, October 15 and 18, 2018; Alarabiya.net, October 21, 2018; Raialyoum.com, October 21, 2018). Tunisia issued its first official statement on the incident only several days after the Saudi admission of Khashoggi's death. The statement said that Saudi Arabia's handling of the affair had been "fairly positive" (alarabiya.net. October 22, 2018).

[2] Al-Hayat (Dubai), October 21, 2018.

[3] Saudi Arabia announced it had formed a committee headed by Crown Prince Muhammad bin Salman to restructure the intelligence services, and had dismissed General Intelligence deputy head Ahmed 'Asiri, royal advisor Sa'ud Al-Qahtani, and three other senior officers in the General Intelligence (Al-Iqtisadiyya, Al-Watan, Saudi Arabia, October 21, 2018).

[4] Al-Sharq Al-Awsat (London), October 15, 20, and 21, 2018; Alarabiya.net, October 20, 2018. 

[5] Al-Ittihad (UAE), October 15, 2018.

[6] Al-Ittihad (UAE), October 21, 2018.

[7] Al-Ittihad (UAE), October 17, 2018.

[8] Al-Khalij (UAE), October 15, 2018.

[9] Mofa.gov.bh, October 14, 2018.

[10] Al-Ayyam (Bahrain), October 15, 2018.

[11] Akhbar Al-Khaleej (Bahrain), October 21, 2018.

[12] Al-Ayyam (Bahrain), October 15, 2018.

[13] Al-Watan (Bahrain), October 17, 2018.

[14] Mfa.gov.eg, October 14, 2018.

[15] Al-Ahram (Egypt), October 21, 2018.

[16] Al-Ahram (Egypt), October 16, 2018.

[17] Al-Yawm Al-Sabi' (Egypt), October 15, 2018.

[18] Al-Jazirah (Kuwait), October 16, 2018.

[19] Al-Anbaa (Kuwait), October 22, 2018.

[20] Al-Siyassa (Kuwait), October 17, 2018.

[21] Al-Dustour (Jordan), October 15, 2018.

[22] Petra.gov.jo, October 20, 2018.

[23] Al-Rai (Jordan), October 8, 2018.

[24] Al-Sharq Al-Awsat (London), October 18, 2018.

[25] Al-Nahar (Lebanon), October 14, 2018.

[26] @Saadhariri, October 22, 2018.

[27] Al-Nahar (Lebanon), October 16, 2018.

[28] Al-Nahar (Lebanon), October 15, 2018.

[29] Al-Hayat (Dubai), October 16, 2018.

[30] Al-Mustaqbal (Lebanon), October 16, 2018.

[31] Al-Hayat Al-Jadida (Palestinian Authority), October 15, 2018.

[32] Al-Hayat Al-Jadida (Palestinian Authority), October 21, 2018.

[33] Al-Hayat Al-Jadida (PA), October 17, 2018.