Along with its military conflict with Israel on the ground, Hamas is investing massive efforts in its information war against Israel online. The organization operates a wide array of websites and social media accounts, for public relations and for its propaganda and psychological warfare.
Hamas' online apparatus conveys its messages to diverse audiences in many languages; it has numerous official websites and official social media accounts, and there are also unofficial or semi-official websites and social media accounts that are affiliated with it. The official websites supply regularly updated content, including official statements by Hamas leaders and articles by its members and supporters who express the organization's positions and policies, along with a steady stream of updates about the situation in the Gaza Strip. They also deal extensively with Hamas' conflict with Israel and with its rivalry with regional opponents such as Egypt and the Palestinian Authority.
Hamas websites address different types of audiences: Sites in Arabic deliver information and instructions to the local Gaza population, to supporters in the West Bank and Israel, and to supporters in the wider Arab and Muslim world. Some sites even have multiple pages in Western languages such as English, French, and Russian, to bring Hamas' message to sympathizers in the Western world; sites in Turkish, Farsi, Indonesian and Urdu are aimed at the public in Muslim countries.
It should be noted that each of Hamas' various online outlets are tailored to a specific audience. While its Arabic-language websites and social media outlets focus on glorifying the jihad against Israel, and praising its fighters' martyrdom and even the martyrdom of its civilians, the websites in Western languages emphasize Israel's aggression and the deaths of innocent civilians.
In the spectrum of Hamas's online mouthpieces, the websites of its military wing, the 'Izz Al-Din Al-Qassam Brigades, stand out. The Brigades use these to publish official statements; reports on its activities; statistics on the numbers of rockets it fired, including graphics; and so on. It also posts videos of attacks that it carried out against the Israeli military and photos glorifying its actions. The Brigades also maintain a website in Hebrew for psychological warfare against the Israeli public.
Also notable are the Twitter accounts used by Hamas leaders, by which they convey their messages to tens of thousands of followers.
The following is a list of Hamas websites and social media outlets:
Websites Of Hamas' Military Wing – The 'Izz Al-Din Al-Qassam Brigades
Twitter: Al-Qassam Brigades spokesman Abu 'Ubaida: @Spokespers
Official Hamas Website
Head of Hamas political bureau, Khaled Mash’al @Khalid_Meshaal
Prime Minister of Hamas government, Isma’il Haniyeh @IsmailHaniyyeh
Deputy head of Hamas political bureau, Musa Abu Marzuq @mosa_abumarzook
Hamas politburo member, ‘Izzat Al-Rishq @izzat_risheq
Hamas spokesman, Sami Abu Zuhri – Facebook.com/SamiAbuZuhri
Hamas Information Website – Palestinian Information Center
YouTube Channel: Youtube.com/user/palinfocenter
Facebook in English: Facebook.com/PalinfoEN
Facebook in French: Facebook.com/palinfofr
Urdu Twitter: @PalinfoUr
Twitter in Russian: @PalRus_Ad
Hamas Interior Ministry
App for Android: Play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=ps.moi.gov.media
Hamas Forum – Palestine Dialogue Network
Hamas TV – Al-Aqsa
Hamas Radio – Voice of Al-Aqsa
Voice of Al-Aqsa – breaking news @Alaqsavoice_Brk
Hamas Daily Newspaper – Felesteen
Facebook in English: Facebook.com/feelsteen
Twitter in English: @felesteenonline
YouTube channel: Youtube.com/user/felesteenps
Hamas Magazine – Al-Resalah
Hamas Monthly Magazine – Huna Falastin
Hamas Magazine for Children - Al-Fateh
Official News Agency of Palestinian Authority in Gaza (Run by Hamas) – Al-Ray
Hamas-Identified News Agency – Safa
YouTube channel: Youtube.com/user/safappa
Pro-Hamas News Site – Falastin Al-‘An
Arabic website: Paltimes.net
YouTube channel: Youtube.com/user/paltimesnet
Pro-Hamas News Site – Ajnad News
Pro-Hamas News Site – Seraj Media
Hamas in the West Bank – Amamah
Hamas Student Wing – Kotla
Google Plus: Plus.google.com/106864621623586293351/posts
Hamas Division of Refugee Affairs
YouTube channel: Youtube.com/user/weshouldreturn
Hamas Site for Women – Women For Palestine
YouTube channel: Youtube.com/user/womenfpal
Facebook in French: Facebook.com/FemmesPourLaPalestine
Facebook in Turkish: Facebook.com/pages/Filistin-Yolunda-Kad%C4%B1nlar/1393300880940513
Facebook in English: Facebook.com/WomenForPalestine
Ahrar Wledna – Hamas Prisoners' Leadership
English website: Ahrarwledna.com/en/
*R. Green is a Research Fellow at MEMRI; Y. Yehoshua is Vice President for Research and Director of MEMRI Israel.
 An example of these instructions can be found in the Hamas interior ministry’s instructions to social media activists, which included the following: "Avoid publishing pictures of rockets fired into Israel from [Gaza] city centers." For more on these instructions to social media activists, see MEMRI Special Dispatch No. 5799, Hamas Interior Ministry To Social Media Activists: Always Call The Dead 'Innocent Civilians'; Don't Post Photos Of Rockets Being Fired From Civilian Population Centers, July 17, 2014.