Shortly after midnight on March 26, 2015, Saudi King Salman bin 'Abd Al-'Aziz announced the launch of Operation Decisive Storm in Yemen, intended to restore the Yemeni regime headed by President 'Abd Rabbuh Mansur Hadi and to drive back the Houthi rebels. The military operation was a response to the request of President Hadi, who on March 24 sent an urgent letter to Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) leaders asking them "to provide urgent assistance by every necessary means, including military intervention, in order to defend Yemen and its people against the Houthi aggression."
That very day, Saudi Foreign Minister Sa'ud Al-Faisal announced that Saudi Arabia was "prepared to meet any request by the Yemeni president on Yemen's behalf, whatever it may be and in any domain." He added that "Yemen's security and the security of the GCC states are one, and cannot be separated." A statement issued at the onset of the operation by Saudi Arabia, the Union of Arab Emirates, Qatar, Bahrain, and Kuwait - namely all the GCC states except Oman, which has adopted a different policy regarding the situation in Yemen - likewise declared that these states had decided to "meet President 'Abd Rabbuh Mansur Hadi's request to defend Yemen and its people against the aggression of the Shi'ite militias ÔÇª that are supported by regional forces who aim to take over Yemen and turn it into their regional base of influence." The statement explained that this aggression threatens not only Yemen but the entire region, as well as "international peace and security," and in particular Saudi Arabia, since the Houthis were concentrating forces, heavy weapons, and missiles on its borders. Arab League Secretary-General Nabil Al-'Arabi also expressed full support for the operation.
Al-Jazeera poster presenting the states participating in the operation and supporting it: ten Arab countries and the United States (image: Aljazeera.net, March 26, 2015)
According to reports in the Saudi press, 10 countries are participating in the operation, including not only Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Bahrain, Kuwait, and the UAE but also Egypt, Jordan, Morocco, Sudan, and Pakistan. The operation began with Saudi airstrikes on Houthi headquarters and military bases in Sana'a, eliminating their entire air defense array, including four warplanes and surface-to-air missile batteries. According to the Qatari Al-Jazeera TV, 185 planes are involved in the campaign, 100 of which are Saudi. Reports indicate that the operation is so far confined to airstrikes, but that ground forces are already deploying on the Yemeni border; Egypt, Jordan, Pakistan, and Sudan have expressed willingness to participate in a ground campaign. The U.S. has expressed support for the operation, and announced it was assisting with intelligence and logistical support.
Saudi Arabia's ambassador to the U.S., 'Adel Al-Jubeir, said in a Washington, DC press conference that the decision to launch the operation was taken in consultation with the U.S., and added: "We tried several times to serve as mediators, and to intervene by means of the Gulf initiative and through national dialogue, so as to effect a peaceful transition to the new Yemen. But the Houthis rejected these attempts and thwarted the political process... It is our duty to meet the request [of the Yemeni president] and defend the Yemeni people..."
The Arab states participating in the operation, headed by Saudi Arabia, have several goals, the first and foremost being to repel the Houthi rebels that have taken over Yemen and help President Hadi to regain control over the country. The Arab world in general, and the Gulf states in particular, have been following the recent events in Yemen with concern. While Iran's allies in the Arab world supported the Houthi coup, Iran's opponents - primarily in the Gulf states - viewed the Houthis as agents of Iran in its attempt to take over another Arab country, having already "occupied" Iraq, Syria, and Lebanon. Articles in the Saudi press today, and earlier, expressed pessimism regarding a political solution in Yemen and contended that a military operation was the only way to prevent another regional disaster like the one in Syria.
Many editorials in the Saudi and Gulf press accused Iran of supporting the Houthi rebels as part of a scheme to take over Yemen, sow destruction in the region, and harm the Gulf states. In recent weeks, criticism was also directed at the U.S., which was accused of forming an alliance with Iran and helping it cover for the Houthis who were taking over Yemen. Russia was criticized as well, for thwarting a UN Security Council resolution proposed by the GCC states to condemn the Houthis and hold them responsible for the failure of a political solution in Yemen.
The following are excerpts from articles in the Gulf press on the Yemen crisis, published before and after the launch of the military campaign.
Support In Saudi Press For A Military Operation Against The Houthis
Saudi Articles: Military Intervention In Yemen Is The Only Way To Prevent It From Becoming Another Syria
Faced with the ongoing Houthi advance toward southern Yemen, the stronghold of President Hadi, and despairing of attempts at dialogue with the Houthis, voices in the Saudi press began advocating the suspension of the dialogue and the adoption of the military option. In fact, several weeks ago, on February 12, 2015, the official Saudi daily Al-Watan already stated in an editorial that dialogue with the Houthis was useless and that "their willingness to resume the dialogue was nothing more than a tactic, for they refuse to yield on the disputed issues ÔÇª and they customarily violate agreements and commitments."
With the launch of Saudi Arabia's "Operation Decisive Storm" in Yemen, the Saudi press argued that the military option was the sole remaining option for Saudi Arabia and the Arab states to save Yemen from the claws of the Houthis and Iranian control. Al-Watan's editorial on March 26, 2015, the day the operation began, stated: "Military intervention in Yemen is the only option, after the Houthis rejected all the proposed solutions to save Yemen from the disaster to which they are leading it, and sabotaged the Gulf initiative whose implementation had begun and did not cooperate with the efforts of the GCC countries and UN Special Advisor to Yemen Jamal Benomar to restore stability to the countryÔÇª
"Therefore the Arab League has a weighty responsibility. The Syrian scenario must not repeat itself in Yemen. If at the time the Arab League was incapable of doing anything to save the Syrian people, due to specific circumstances beyond its control, it must refrain from [repeating] the mistakes that led to this and bring all its pressure to bear in Yemen, together with friendly countries, before a new regional disaster occurs."
Tariq Al-Homayed, the former editor of the London-based Saudi daily Al-Sharq Al-Awsat and currently a senior columnist for the paper, also wrote a column the day the operation began in which he supported military intervention in Yemen to prevent the recurrence of the Syrian scenario. Al-Homayed, who had published a column two days previously (March 24) expressing opposition to military intervention, fearing that a war of attrition would ensue, now argued that intervention was inevitable due to the Houthi advance towards Aden. Nevertheless, he re-emphasized that such intervention had to be surgical and precise, to avoid being sucked into a war of attrition.
He wrote: "With the armed escalation by the Houthis together with the group of [former president 'Ali 'Abdallah] Saleh and with Iranian support, aimed at the fall of AdenÔÇª it is now important to preserve legitimacy, namely President 'Abd Rabbuh Mansur Hadi and the institution of the presidency. This will not happen via dialogue, which the Houthis reject while simultaneously working to void it of content. This has happened with every agreement in our region that Iran was connected to, from Lebanon to Gaza, [including] the Palestinian reconciliation, and also in prerevolutionary Syria and even in IraqÔÇª
"The problem in Yemen and in the entire area of Iranian influence in our region is that the militias, those who stage coups and carry out [reckless] adventures operate according to the laws of the jungle and the ways of militias, while the moderate states operate according to international law... But the time has come to deter them all, with force and determination. There is no choice but to change the equation, and the first step [that must be taken] is working to neutralize the Houthi air force in order to support the legitimate [leadership] with arms and perhaps even more than this - provided that the moderate states avoid being dragged into a war of attrition. The action must be surgical, precise, and painful, and it must [be performed] as quickly as possible, so that the sorry experience of [the efforts to] support the Free Syrian Army will not repeat itself. Also, the disputes among the regional allies, like those that existed regarding the Syrian opposition, must not recur."
Iran bringing Yemen to a boil (Okaz, Saudi Arabia, March 23, 2015)
Saudi Columnist: The Arab States Must Dispatch Forces To Yemen To Salvage Their Arab Identity
Even before the military operation in Yemen began, the Arab press published articles urging the Arab states to intervene militarily in order to save the Yemeni people and the pan-Arab identity, secure the Bab Al-Mandeb Strait, repel Iran, and deter it. Dr. Mutlaq Al-Mutairi, a columnist for the Saudi government daily Al-Riyadh, wrote in an article he published a day before the Yemen operation was launched: "The political solution is no longer a feasible option. Houthi leader ['Abd Al-Malik] Al-Houthi is waging the campaign in Yemen out of a belief that it is a life or death matter [for them]. The popular and international arena demand that [Yemen's] President Hadi find a solution that will spare the Yemeni people a civil war. What are his available options?
"The first solution is to stay away from paralyzing international solutions that have played an indirect role in delivering the country to the rebel forces.
"The second is [for Hadi] to submit a memorandum to the Arab League, as sanctioned by its founding charter, requesting assistance and demanding to hold an emergency Arab summit to discuss the situation in his country and present possible solutions, including Arab military intervention to defend the legitimate political [institutions] and the [Yemeni] peopleÔÇª Yemen is an Arab country that for over 70 years has participated in the Arab League's financial, political, and cultural activity, and today its time has arrived to redeem the value of its participation. The Arabs should honor this need and meet it swiftly. This may be the last chance for the Arab countries to protect their pan-Arab identity from foreign intervention. Arab military intervention in Yemen is a legitimate [option] sanctioned by Arab League charters and by the desire of the Arab peoples who yearn for an Arab victory over the invading forcesÔÇª The blood, soil, and dignity of the Yemeni people are today in the hands of the Arab leaders.
Iran Steering the Houthis, 'Ali 'Abdallah Saleh to Attack Yemen (Al-Watan, Saudi Arabia, March 21, 2015)
Saudi Columnist: Militarily Intervention Is Necessary To Secure The Bab Al-Mandeb Strait, Which Is A Vital And Strategic Interest
Turad Al-'Amri, a columnist for the Saudi daily Al-Jazirah, called in February 18, 2015, over a month prior to the military operation in Yemen, to dispatch the Peninsula Shield Force to Yemen along with Jordanian and Egyptian forces: "...The warring parties in Yemen have sabotaged all the good efforts that the world invested to solve the situation in Yemen, and first and foremost the Gulf initiative... A speedy and decisive solution lies in a swift initiative by the GCC to deploy the Peninsula Shield Force, with the aid of Jordan and Egypt, to secure and manage the Bab Al-Mandeb Strait and keep it from ... falling into the hands of groups that will bargain with the world and blackmail it by controlling [the strait]... The Bab Al-Mandeb Strait is a strategic interest of all the Gulf oil countries that market their products through it, and of Jordan and Egypt, [since it is the access to] the Gulf of 'Aqaba and the Suez Canal. It is also a vital interest for the European Union and Turkey, in terms of their export and import to and from the east, and also for all the industrial and commercial states in East AsiaÔÇª
Deploying a quick-moving division, or 10,000 soldiers, of the Peninsula Shield Force ... with air support and with the participation of Jordan and Egypt will attain four objectives: first, securing international trade and freeing it from blackmail and haggling; second, providing an opportunity for political solutions, dialogue, and mediation ÔÇª to ripen towards a solution that will satisfy all the parties in Yemen; third, stopping the parties that are sabotaging stability and a peaceful solution in Yemen and outside it, and removing the vital Bab Al-Mandeb Strait from the bargaining equation; and fourth, conveying a strong and firm message that the Arab Gulf states will not hesitate to defend their strategic and vital interests in any possible manner."
The UN ignoring the situation in Yemen (Al-Watan, Qatar, March 26, 2015)
The Situation In Yemen - The Occupation Of Yet Another Arab Country By Iran
Saudi Editorials: Iran Plotting To Sow Destruction In Region, Harm Arab Countries
Many articles in the Arab press accused Iran of trying to destroy Arab countries via its agents, including the Houthis. An editorial in the Saudi daily Al-Yawm titled "The Houthis - The Iranian War Machine" harshly criticized the Houthis' blind obedience to Iran and argued that they were a tool to realize its imperialist plan in the Arab region. The article also attacked the apathy of Arab countries in the face of Iranian expansionism, and called on them to cooperate to thwart its plan: "Arab countries live under the shadow of the Iranian danger and the threats from Tehran, which has stretched its arms [towards them] while they ... are busy with futile political disputes... It is now clear that the Arab countries' neglect and apathy towards many areas have led to [Iran] 'hijacking' many Arab countries, which are becoming incubators for terrorist networks or tools of Iran, which has not hidden its desire to take vengeance on the Arab nation in the past and present... Iran is working to occupy Yemen in order to settle its score with Saudi Arabia and other countries, and in order to strangle the Egyptian economy, with its agents [the Houthis] arbitrarily controlling [the Strait of] Bab Al-Mandeb.
"Therefore, it is the duty of all Arab countries to work together, aggressively and swiftly, in order to thwart the Iranian plot that has taken root and hijacked Iraq with its Iraqi agents, hijacked Syria with its Syrian agents, hijacked Lebanon with its Lebanese agents, and is now hijacking Yemen with its Houthi agents. The Houthis ... are nothing but an Arabic-speaking Safavid-Iranian military faction that operates according to Tehran's dictates and reports to it on its actions. Houthi decisions on whether to launch a war or make peace are taken in Tehran, not in Sa'dah [the Houthi stronghold]; [they are] just like Hizbullah in Lebanon, the Assad regime in Syria, and the Safavid-Iranian militias in Iraq... If Tehran orders the Houthis to attack Gulf states, they will not hesitate for an instant. They are a group that religiously worships the dictates of the Rule of the Jurisprudent, and Tehran can find no better than the Houthis in terms of blind obedience and trust."
Iran devouring Yemen (Al-Ittihad, UAE, March 9, 2015)
Other Saudi editorials wrote in a similar vein. The official Saudi daily Al-Medina spoke of a "devious plan hatched in Tehran to enable the Houthis to seize power in Yemen gradually, starting in Sa'dah, [which was captured] some 11 years ago, and ending in the establishment of the pro-Iranian Shi'ite state of Yemen. This, in order to be a dagger pointed at the Gulf Cooperation Council [GCC] states, a nest of terrorism that threatens the security and stability of the region, and a tool to implement the Iranian plan to establish the so-called 'Shi'ite Crescent'..."
An editorial of the Saudi daily Al-Sharq stated that Iran "wants to turn the Arab region in the Middle East into a group of failed states so that it - along with Israel - can serve as a strong country that occupies the role of the sheriff who chases the bad guys... The Houthis, and Tehran behind them, have led Yemen today to the brink of civil war and of becoming a failed state..."
Iran beheads Yemen using the Houthis as a dagger (Al-Watan, Saudi Arabia, February 9, 2015)
Kuwaiti Editorials: Houthis Serving Iran's Imperialist Interests
An editorial of the Kuwaiti daily Al-Siyassa stated that the Houthis "unleash their injustice and oppression upon their [own] people in accordance with dictates they receive from foreign [elements], from Tehran, which cares for nothing but its own imperialist interests and its push to realize its goals with the blood of Yemenis, as well as Lebanese, Iraqis, and Syrians... The leaders of the so-called 'Ansar Allah' [the Houthis] delude themselves into thinking that they can turn Sana'a into [the equivalent of Hizbullah's stronghold in] the southern suburb of Beirut. They forget that throughout history, this capital has rebelled against anyone that tried to subdue it, and that the Yemeni people ... are conducting a bitter battle against the domestic invaders, so that there is no presence of the IRGC, Hizbullah, or Qassem Soleimani [the commander of the IRGC's Qods Force] there [in Sana'a]..."
In another harsh editorial, Al-Siyassa claimed that the Houthis have carried out a coup against the Yemeni regime in order to subjugate it to Iran, which is working to spark civil wars in Arab countries, thus implementing regional "creative chaos": "[Houthi leader] 'Abd Al-Malik Al-Houthi... that evil terrorist who carried out a coup against the state, tried to present Yemen as prey to Iran. He besieged the president of the republic, the prime minister, and many ministers after his gangs invaded Sana'a and several other provinces, and [then] he announced his own private constitution... He does not understand that his employers in Tehran are looking for someone to breach the wall of their international isolation, so they do not drown in the sea of popular rage [in Iran] due to the suffocating economic crisis [there]... If at one stage there was an American gang that spoke of creative chaos in the region, then [today it is] the Iranian regime, with its agents ... that strives to generate creative chaos in this important global region by dividing the people in it by means of civil war, similarly to what is happening in Somalia, Iraq, Syria, and Libya..."
Saudi Columnist: Houthis Paving The Way For Takeover Of Bab Al-Mandeb Strait, Red Sea
In an article in the Saudi daily Al-Jazirah, columnist Jasser 'Abd Al-'Aziz Al-Jasser wrote: "True, there are governments in Iraq, Syria, and Lebanon. But who [really] calls the shots on politics, security, and even economics in these countries?
"Control of Yemen will open the door to supporters of the Rule of the Jurisprudent in Iran, their Houthi agents, and those they have bought with money and with promises of restoring them to power. This will pave their way to taking over the Arab Gulf region and the Arabian Peninsula, and controlling Bab Al-Mandeb and thereby the shipping routes in the Red Sea. This is especially true since the supporters of the Rule of the Jurisprudent on the opposite bank of the Red Sea and at the mouth of this sea have allies willing to cooperate in return for bribes and money from Iran. Iran does not hide its efforts to bring the Red Sea and the shores of the Mediterranean and the Arabian Gulf under the control of supporters of the Rule of the Jurisprudent in the region."
Four Arab countries in the tentacles of the Iranian octopus (Al-Watan, Saudi Arabia, March 24, 2015)
Bahraini Columnist: We Can No Longer Keep Silent Over Iranian Occupation Of Arab Countries
Columnist Yousuf Al-Binkhalil wrote in the Bahrain daily Al-Watan: "Tehran occupied three countries: first Lebanon, where it scuttled the concept of the state, [then] Iraq, where it adopted a policy of sectarian cleansing and carried out a plan to make the country Persian, and [finally] Syria, where it supported the regime's efforts to kill our brothers, the Syrian people, and cause them to emigrate. From there it went on to occupy yet another city, Sana'a, which [is now] the fourth capital [occupied by Iran], while sowing destruction and devastation there. Before this we [also] witnessed Tehran's racist attitude towards the Arabs of Al-Ahwaz. We can no longer remain silent or bury our heads in the sand. [This] Iranian experience that has repeated itself in more than one Arab country is clear, and is totally unacceptableÔÇª
"Iran has sparked widespread chaos and terror in the region. We must halt the entire policy of normalization with the Arabs' neighbor, [Iran], which has never respected [its] neighbors' rights and human rights. We Arabs sorely need [to adopt] a firm policy towards Iran, its expansionist policy, and its dissemination of theocratic radicalism and terror in the Arab world. We are well aware that the U.S. heading towards full normalization with Iran even though it has occupied four Arab states. We nevertheless believe and demand that Iran should quit these countries for good and stop intervening in Arab affairs."
Criticism Of U.S., Russia For Supporting Houthis And Iran
Editorial In Qatari Daily: America-Iran Alliance Enabling Iran To Occupy Arab Countries
The editorial for the London-based Qatari daily Al-Quds Al-Arabi accused the U.S. of making a bizarre alliance with Iran, and enabling it to take over the region in an unprecedented manner. The editorial stated: "The cover that Iran and the U.S. are providing to the Houthis and their allies places their local political opponents in a difficult situation, and helps to weaken and divide them... The bizarre Washington-Tehran-Houthi axis that is taking shape reflects the patent distress of the Gulf states and of the Arab [world] in general. This continued erosion in the Arabs' [ability to] play a role in Yemen reveals a comprehensive [Arab] crisis. The continued retreat before the Iranian onslaught - which has already managed to take over four Arab capitals... [namely] Sana'a, Baghdad, Damascus, and Beirut - reveals the Arabs' shame.
"Had the matter been confined to Yemen, it would have been meaningless. But the long shadow of this U.S.-Iran alliance, [formed] under the slogan of war on the Islamic State and on the Al-Qaeda organizations, [including Al-Qaeda's affiliate in Yemen], Ansar Al-Shari'a, along with the unconditional support lent by some Arab countries to this American agenda, creates historical circumstances [that allow] an unprecedented Iranian takeover of the region. As part of this takeover, the crumbling Sykes-Picot agreement will be replaced by protocols that will divide influence between Tehran, Israel and the U.S., while the Arab regimes, which are busy carrying out the plan of their enemies, will become the weak pieces in the chess game of the world's nations, who will use them as pawns that cannot refuse to be moved [from place to place]..."
U.S. talks with the Houthis while they hold up a sign saying "death to America" (Al-Watan, Saudi Arabia, January 31, 2015)
An editorial of the Saudi daily 'Okaz also criticized U.S. policy and attacked statements by Secretary of State John Kerry, who told Congress that it seems that Iranian leaders were 'surprised' by the events in Yemen and called on the U.S. to act to thwart the Houthi uprising there. The editorial stated: "The response of U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry to Congress creates uncertainty regarding the position of the American administration on the grave developments in Yemen. Kerry said that the Houthis are behind the fall of the Yemeni government, but added - in the same breath - that the Iranian leaders were apparently 'surprised' by the events in Yemen. The entire international community already understands that Iran was involved in causing the chaos and establishing the sectarian war in Yemen...
"The U.S. administration should find out the truth regarding the events in Yemen. This truth was in no way a surprise to Iran, whose meddling has destroyed Iraq and Syria, and greatly contributed to the instability in Lebanon. Now, [Iran] is plotting sectarian schemes against Yemen's achievements and abilities by supporting the Houthi rebel militia. We will absolutely not allow the whitewashing of Iran's role in the spilling of innocent Yemeni blood, since it is the one that is actually supporting the Houthi militias and the coup against Yemen's official and legitimate bodies. Therefore, the coup in Yemen is an Iranian coup in form, essence, ideology, voice, and logistical support, and [Iran] is an inseparable part of the events in Syria, Iraq, and Lebanon [as well].
"If Kerry does not know this, he need only type the name 'Qassem Soleimani' into a search engine ... to realize that Soleimani is the engineer of the destruction of the Arab ummah and the ideologue of the sectarian philosophy of the Ayatollahs of Qom in the region. If Secretary Kerry knew this, it is a problem, and if he did not know this, it is an even bigger problem. The U.S. administration should increase pressure on the Houthi rebel movement so it ends its coup against the legitimate Yemeni [regime]..."
U.S. cultivates Houthis while they chant 'Death to America' (Source: Al-Watan, Saudi Arabia, February 14, 2015)
Saudi Editorial: Russia Is Iran's Partner In Sowing Chaos In Arab Countries
An editorial of the official Saudi daily Al-Sharq also directed criticism at Russia for opposing a UN Security Council resolution proposed by the GCC states to condemn the Houthis and hold them responsible for the failure of a political solution in Yemen. The editorial accused Russia of partnering with Iran to cause chaos in the Middle East: "...Moscow, and Tehran behind it, are playing a dangerous role in causing chaos in the Middle East. Moscow has already used its veto right [to thwart] a Security Council resolution to end the war in Syria, completely siding with the Assad regime. Today it sides with the Houthis, which proves that Russia is Iran's partner in causing chaos in Arab countries with the aim of realizing [Iran's and Russia's] regional goals - to expand and spread their influence, as the two have [already] done in Syria and Iraq."
 Alarabiya.net, March 26, 2015.
 Al-Hayat (London), March 26, 2015. In a March 25, 2015 interview with the official Saudi daily Al-Watan, Yemen's Foreign Minister Riad Yassin repeated his country's request for Saudi military intervention before it was too late. Al-Watan (Saudi Arabia), March 25, 2015.
 Al-Sharq Al-Awsat (London), March 24, 2015.
 Al-Hayat (London), March 26, 2015.
 Al-Wafd (Egypt), March 26, 2015.
 Alarabiya.net, aljazeera.net, March 26, 2015.
 Al-Quds Al-Arabi (London), Aljazeera.net, alarabiya.net, March 26, 2015.
 Al-Hayat (London), mandabpress.com, March 26, 2015.
 Al-Watan (Saudi Arabia), February 12, 2015.
 Al-Watan (Saudi Arabia), March 26, 2015.
 Al-Sharq Al-Awsat (London), March 26, 2015.
 Al-Riyadh (Saudi Arabia), March 25, 2015.
 Al-Jazirah (Saudi Arabia), February 18, 2015.
 Al-Yawm (Saudi Arabia), March 11, 2015.
 Al-Medina (Saudi Arabia), February 9, 2015.
 Al-Sharq (Saudi Arabia), February 12, 2015.
 Al-Siyassa (Kuwait), February 15, 2015.
 Al-Siyassa (Kuwait), February 28, 2015.
 Al-Jazirah (Saudi Arabia), March 24, 2015.
 Al-Watan (Bahrain), March 23, 2015.
 Al-Quds Al-Arabi (London), February 2, 2015. Also see MEMRI Special Dispatch No. 5956, 'Al-Quds Al-Arabi': The New U.S.-Iran Alliance - A Threat To Arab Countries, February 5, 2015.
 'Okaz (Saudi Arabia), February 26, 2015.
 Alarabiya.net, February 12, 2015.
 Al-Sharq (Saudi Arabia), February 14, 2015.