Dr. Shafi Al-Hajri, an Islamic Studies professor at Qatar University, said in a November 25, 2022 show on Al-Rayyan TV (Qatar) that fighting is the third and last-resort stage of spreading Islam. He said that first, people must be called to Islam or forced to pay the jizya poll tax for protection, but that those who refuse these measures must be fought.
Dr. Shafi Al-Hajri: "Fighting is the third stage of spreading da'wa. First, we call people to Allah, and if they accept, then they will have the same duties and rights as we have. If they refuse [to convert to Islam] then they have to pay the jizya poll tax. [They have to pay] the jizya poll tax in order to receive protection from others. The third stage is fighting them, if they refuse [to pay].
"Fighting is against those who reject da'wa - those who refuse [to convert to] Islam, or to pay the jizya poll tax.