October 27, 2022 Inquiry & Analysis Series No. 1659

Word Games: How The Chinese Communist Party (CCP) Uses Schoolbooks Teaching The Chinese Language To Indoctrinate Young Minds

October 27, 2022
China | Inquiry & Analysis Series No. 1659


China's indoctrination in state elementary schools (and beyond) is a worthy subject of study, and was recently explored in a three-part MEMRI analytical series looking at Chinese history books.  On June 7, 2022, Part I of A Packaged Past, an analytical study of the content of Chinese history textbooks, was released; it focused on the People's Republic of China's (PRC's) treatment of ancient Chinese history. This was followed by the release of Part II on June 8, 2022, which focused on how the books described contemporary Chinese history. Part III offered the nuts and bolt of this particular area of research – translated excerpts from, and commentary to, these deeply ideological texts used by the PRC to shape young minds.

The MEMRI Chinese Media Studies Project (CMSP) was launched in late 2020 to provide both high-quality translations and fresh analysis on a wide spectrum of Chinese-language content coming from the PRC. This content includes, but is not limited to, reports on military, political and ideological developments; commentary by regime officials on the West, particularly on the U.S.; and broader Chinese interactions with other important countries and regions.

This MEMRI project, which builds on over two decades of work in other languages, expanded in 2022 into an ongoing examination of the Chinese government's educational system, investigating the PRC's official textbooks for children from elementary to secondary schools.

We are happy to offer the latest in our continuing series of studies, translations and occasional papers with this report on political indoctrination in Chinese government textbooks used for teaching the Chinese language to students. As with previous items in this series, the translators and analysts are native Chinese speakers knowledgeable in their fields who choose to remain anonymous for personal security reasons.


Executive Summary

In China's 12-year education system, from elementary school through high school, Chinese Language is a required subject.

In terms of ideological content alone, the CCP's language textbooks can be briefly summarized with the following 10 broad themes: 1) Implanting love for the party and the country in students from an early age; 2) Training students from childhood to be grateful to the leaders of the CCP; 3) Praising the CCP's violent revolution; 4) Setting up models for ideal behavior according to the needs of the CCP; 5) Cultivating the spirit of sacrifice for the party-state among students from an early age; 6) Praising those who have contributed to the development of the Chinese Communist Party; 7) Cultivating national pride and a sense of racial superiority; 8) Fomenting hatred towards certain people and entities to prove the legitimacy of the CCP's revolution; 9) Cultivating the ideology of the unity of family and country; and 10) Combining political theory with Chinese language instruction.

These 10 themes are integrated in the curriculum in a flexible and diverse way, from the beginning of first grade through the end of 12th grade – and, of course, will continue to be taught in university. The curriculum is structured to progress from simple to increasingly complicated content, in accordance with the students' age. The fundamental purpose of the texts is to train generations of students to unconditionally love the CCP and to resolutely safeguard its so-called socialist system. For this reason, whether it is telling history or describing reality, books intended to teach language skills adopt a confrontational and hostile attitude towards Western civilization and values.

Under such a mandatory system of state indoctrination, generations of Chinese have been influenced to the point that they have internalized years of regime doctrine. Even after many Chinese have studied abroad and immigrated to democratic countries such as the U.S., lived there for many years, and are able to freely acquire information, a considerable number of them still cannot change the way of thinking and values with which they were brainwashed throughout a long period. In dealing with dissenters who disagree with the CCP's values, in dealing with the idea of opposing the unification of China, in dealing with the independence demands of Tibetans and Uyghurs, in dealing with the operation of the democratic system, and in dealing with how to obtain advanced Western technology, certain modes of thinking and political and ideological themes have been repeatedly drummed into young minds by the CCP, without any sort of pluralistic or contradictory counterargument. In sharp contrast with the educational systems of the West – so often filled with self-doubt and debunking of the past and national history and obsessed with telling the stories of the oppressed and marginalized – China's schoolbooks glorify both the state and the party which exercises monopolistic power over that state and its citizens to this day.


Theme One: Implanting Love For The Party And The Country In Students From An Early Age

When the CCP describes its own educational philosophy, it often says that "children are the future of the country" and "education should start from infancy."

The opening piece of the first-grade language textbook I'm Going to School shows a group of happy children in various ethnic clothing with the distinctive background of Beijing's Tiananmen Square and a hoisted national flag.[1]

For generations, Tiananmen was the gate of the imperial palaces. It is also a symbol of the CCP regime. The CCP announced to the world that it began its rule of China at Tiananmen Square, and hung a huge portrait of Mao Zedong on Tiananmen Gate. Lesson Two of the second first-grade text is titled "I Want To See It," and it includes a phrase that is very familiar to the Chinese people: "Beijing, far away, has majestic Tiananmen Square, and the flag-raising ceremony on the square is very spectacular."[2]

Lesson 10 in the first-grade language textbook, titled "Raising the National Flag," features an illustration depicting elementary school students in red scarves saluting, with the text: "Before the national flag, we stand at attention; looking at the national flag, we salute."[3]

The simple words and pictures directly present the CCP's control over China: The national flag symbolizes the state; the red scarf symbolizes the Young Pioneers, the CCP's children's organization; and the largest star in the flag symbolizes the CCP. The phrase "children are the country's future" now comes into focus. These words and pictures tell us that Xi Jinping, who controls China today, is in fact the Young Pioneer of the 1950s who has grown up. Most Chinese parents see nothing wrong with their children being taken into the Young Pioneers in the first and second grades and taught in school to be loyal to and love a political party, because they themselves had the same experience when they were children.

In a case illustrating the lack of separation between the CCP and the country, the illustrated title page of the first-grade language book, "Song of Going to School," reads: "To love learning, to love work, and grow up to make a contribution to the motherland."[4] In the first unit of the second-grade book, titled "Scene Song," the text states: "A team flag [i.e. the flag of the Young Pioneers), a bugle, a group of 'red scarves,' and a burst of laughter."[5] All these provide party-oriented patriotic education in the style of nursery rhymes. In recent years, this technique has been called "into the brain and into the heart," in the words of the CCP training cadres.

The lyrics of the song "The Chinese Young Pioneers," taught in these same schools to very small children, are particularly evocative: "We are the successors of communism/ Along the glorious journey of our revolutionary ancestors/ Loving the motherland, loving the people/ Pioneers is our proud name/ Always ready to build up merit/ To wipe out the enemy/ For the ideal bravely advance/ For the ideal bravely advance, advance/ For the ideal bravely advance/ We are the successors of communism."


Theme Two: Training Students From Childhood To Be Grateful To The Leaders Of The CCP

All CCP propaganda and schoolbooks refer to China after 1949 as the "New China," stating that it is a socialist country in which the "people are the masters,'' as the polar opposite of the "Old China." Regardless of whether this is the case, every Chinese person must be grateful for the leaders of the revolution who created such a beautiful country, and must praise them. From a very young age, the students were told of the heroic deeds and noble characters of the revolutionary leaders from their textbooks.

Lessons 15, 16, and 17 comprise a unit in the second-grade book. Lesson 15 contains selections from the Chinese myth "The Great Yu Tamed the Flood." In ancient times, there was a great man called Yu. He continuously worked for 13 years to control a great flood. During this period, in order to accomplish his task sooner, he passed his own house three times without going in to see his family. He finally succeeded, and the people lived in prosperity and contentment.

Lesson 16, titled "Zhu De's Pole," tells the story that in 1928, the Communist army was hidden in the mountains. At that time, Zhu De was the supreme commander of the CCP army. Often during the day, he and his soldiers carried grain from villages up the mountain, on shoulder poles. At night, he studied military tactics. The soldiers felt sorry for his long work hours, so they secretly hid Zhu De's shoulder pole. But Zhu De made another one and engraved his name on it.

The text is aimed at showing the love between the chief officers and soldiers in the CCP army, and to portray the revolutionary leaders of the CCP as caring as the legendary "Emperor Yu." But where did the Red Army collect this food from? Did they pay for the grain or grab it from someone without paying? No questions are allowed about these interesting historical details.

Lesson 17, "Unforgettable Songkran," is about Zhou Enlai, premier of the Central Government of the People's Republic of China. In 1961, he demonstrated approachability, celebrating the traditional Songkran festival together with the ethnic Dai people. In words and pictures, the lesson tries to express the warm and joyful atmosphere of a big Chinese family to highlight the theme of the text: The people's premier loves the people, and the people love the people's premier. But the undisclosed historical fact is that 1961 was also the late stage of the great famine in China caused by the rule of the CCP, and tens of millions of people were starving to death.

A similar theme was highlighted in the "Reading Link" in the second book of Grade 6, "The People Lined up for 10 Miles For the Funeral of Premier Zhou." This seemingly irreplaceable prime minister served for 26 years, dying in office in office in 1976. For anyone who knows a little about modern political systems, this would beg the questions of how Zhou Enlai could be reelected repeatedly for 26 years; of his repeated connection with brutal political movements throughout the history of the CCP; and of the role he played in them. But Chinese middle school students cannot be expected to ask such questions.

Deng Xiaoping controlled the actual ruling power in China for more than 30 years. In official CCP propaganda, Deng was praised as the top designer of China's reform and opening up. The second volume of the Chinese language textbook includes a story titled "Grandpa Deng Xiaoping Planting Trees." One day in 1987, the 83-year-old grandfather Deng Xiaoping planted trees in the Temple of Heaven Park. Despite the "sweat on his forehead, he still refused to take a break." The text concludes: "Today, the cypress trees planted by Grandpa Deng Xiaoping have grown and become a beautiful landscape in the Temple of Heaven." However, the courtyard of the Temple of Heaven, which is hundreds of years old, features trees that are just as old.

According to CCP propaganda, Mao Zedong has always been known as the founder of the CCP and the "New China." The first-grade textbook includes a section called "Remember the Man Who Dug the Well." When Mao Zedong and his army rebelled against the Chinese government in Jiangxi, the section states, they dug a well for a village that had no drinking water. To express their gratitude, the villagers erected a thank-you tablet beside the well stating "When drinking water, don't forget the people who dug the well. We will always remember Chairman Mao."[6]

Lesson 10 of the second volume of the fifth-grade Chinese textbook is an affecting story called "Martyrs Can Be Buried Anywhere." It focuses on Mao Zedong's pain upon receiving a telegram announcing the death of his son Mao Anying in the Korean War in 1950. Mao had to decide whether to bring his son's remains back to China or to accept North Korean leader Kim Il Sung's proposal to bury them in North Korea. The text describes Mao Zedong's emotions: "Which soldier is not born of loving parents? I can't be special because I'm the chairman. Isn't it true that thousands of PVA (People's Volunteer Army) martyrs are buried in North Korea? Anying is my son and the son of the Korean people, so I must respect the wishes of the Korean people. "[7]

The pantheon of revolutionary martyrs cherished by the authorities also includes Li Dazhao, the pioneer who introduced the Soviet communist revolution to China. The 11th lesson of the second book for Grade 6 is his son's article "Memory of Sixteen Years Ago." Relating the son's personal experience of his father's arrest, it highlights Li Dazhao's fearless spirit of loyalty to the revolution and steadfastness even in his awareness of the dangers, and portrays Li Dazhao's calm and composed leadership as revolutionary during a critical moment.

However, the article omits several things. First, it does not state that Li Dazhao was a member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and that it was his job to overthrow the legitimate Chinese government at the time by force.[8] Second, it does not explain that Li Dazhao directly planned and participated in many violent events, most notably the March 18 Massacre of 1926 – an event that took place in front of the Tiananmen Gate that directly resulted in 47 deaths and more than 200 wounded. Among the dead were seven middle school students; the youngest two were only 13.[9] The author also ignored the actual location of Li Dazhao's arrest – he was arrested at the Soviet consulate in Beijing, but the article vaguely states that he was taken at his home.[10]

Judging from these texts rife with false and distorted narratives, the editors' primary aim is to lead the students to admire and praise these so-called revolutionary ancestors, who are primarily the party, its leaders, and its heroes and martyrs. The secondary aim is to lead the students to learn from these noble generations' sacrifice and dedication and, through their own sacrifice and dedication, to become part of the party.


Theme Three: Praising The CCP's Violent Revolution

While praising the leaders of the CCP, the books also praise the violent armed revolution that they led. For example, Lesson 24, "Yan'an, I Pursue You" in the fourth-grade book, states: "Yan'an, your spirit is so brilliant!/Once we lose you,/It's as if there is no soul,/How can we fly to a better future?"[11] Why do textbooks praise Yan'an, a tiny, ordinary town in northwestern China? The teacher's edition states: "During this period, Mao Zedong and other central leaders and the CCP Central Committee commanded the War of Resistance against Japan, the War of Liberation, and led the mass production movement and the rectification movement."[12] Yan'an was an iconic stronghold for the CCP during its quest to split China by force in the 1930s and 1940s. Mao Zedong, who later led the CCP army to successfully occupy all of China, also became the highest party leader of the CCP here. Therefore, according to the CCP, Yan'an's status and significance are unparalleled.

However, the authors of the teacher's edition may not care that the "mass production movement" in Yan'an was actually a movement to extensively cultivate opium.[13] Did the CCP in Yan'an fight alongside the Japanese army? Or did the CCP play a "mainstay role"[14] in the war against Japan, as Xi Jinping publicly claimed in 2020? At least Professor Yoshitomo Endoえんどうほまれof Japan disagrees; a book she wrote and published that was based on the archives of the Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs, The Truth about Mao Zedong's Collusion with the Japanese Army, confirms that the CCP secretly cooperated with the Japanese army during the Sino-Japanese War against the Chongqing government of the Republic of China, which was an American ally.[15] Chinese exile scholars Xie Youtian[16] and Wang Kang[17] also revealed, based on primary sources, that Chinese Communist forces in Yan'an repeatedly attacked the Chinese government forces and directly or indirectly helped the Japanese.

The efforts by Chinese textbooks to praise the CCP's revolution or brainwash students by doing so, are unremitting. The title page of the second unit of the sixth-grade book states: "Relive the revolutionary years and keep the voice of history in your heart."[18] The four texts in this unit are all within this theme, including Lesson 5, "Qilü: Long March"; Lesson 6, "Five Heroes of Langya Mountain"; and Lesson 7, "The Founding Ceremony." "A Praise to the White Poplar," in Lesson 14 of the eighth-grade book, is by the celebrated writer Mao Dun, who served as CCP culture minister for 13 years after 1949. Mao Zedong's other two poems are also included; Lesson 1 in the ninth-grade book is "Qinyuanchun Snow," and Lesson 1 in the 10th-grade book is "Qinyuanchun Changsha."

Praising the CCP's violent revolution is inseparable from glorifying the CCP army. A basic theme of the lessons is praising the CCP soldiers for their sacrifice. For example, the text "Monument" in the second volume of Chinese language for the fifth grade states that during the Red Army's Long March over the snow-capped mountains, an officer in charge of military supplies froze to death because he did not keep warm clothes for himself. The story goes that a CCP deputy battalion commander had lit a book on fire to guide the assault troops through the dark and sacrificed his own life. The "Golden Fish Hook" story in the second volume of the sixth-grade textbook is about a CCP army squad leader who was in charge of cooking who, during a food shortage, always told the wounded soldiers he had already eaten; however, they found that he was eating grass, roots, and discarded fish bones.

The text "Lily" in the first volume of the 10th grade book adopts a similarly affecting approach. It states that during the Chinese Civil War, the CCP army cherished the people, which deeply touched a young woman, inspiring her to cover the remains of fallen soldiers with her own embroidered quilt prepared for her wedding. The story "Party Due" in the 11th grade Chinese language book tells of a woman living in a rural area who despite being captured by the enemy nevertheless managed to deliver pickled vegetables to the Red Army and paid two silver dollars of Party dues for her husband – a large sum at the time.[19]

In addition, there are "The God of the Army" in the second fifth-grade book, "The Bridge'' in lesson 12 of the first sixth-grade book, and "The Prisoner's Song" written by General Ye Ting in the section "Reading Links." Lesson Six in the second seventh-grade Chinese language book includes an essay called "Mountain Laoshanjie," by Lu Dingyi, who headed the CCP Central Committee Propaganda Department after 1949, and lesson 14 in the book includes the story "Pear Blossom along Road," by CCP member Peng Jingfeng.

In the first unit of the eight-grade book, there are "Two News Reports": "Our 300,000 army successfully crossed the Yangtze River'' and "One million of the People's Liberation Army crossed the Yangtze River." In the first volume of the 11th-grade Chinese textbook, there is "Interlude in the War" written by General Nie Rongzhen, and the second volume includes the story "Lotus Lake" written by writer and CCP member Sun Li. All these texts can be summed up in one sentence: The CCP's army possesses all the virtues in the world.

Fang Zhimin, a famous 1930s CCP general, penned "Be Poor," along with another masterpiece, "Lovely China," which has been included in middle school Chinese textbooks for many years.

Fang Zhimin fundraised for the CCP army, brutally killing one of his own uncles and seizing all his property. This was publicly acknowledged by Fang's grandson in 2011.[20] Also, in 1934, a unit belonging to his Tenth Army kidnapped the American protestant missionary couple John and Elisabeth Stam in an attempt to extort a huge ransom; they were killed by the Red Army because the ransom was not paid. At the same time, the Red Army also beheaded two Chinese Christians who tried to intercede on their behalf, calling them "imperialist lackeys."[21]

Xun Huaizhou, the commander of the 19th Division of the Tenth Army of the Red Army who killed the missionaries, was 22 at the time. A few days later, he was shot and killed in a confrontation with the government's army. Fang Zhimin was arrested on January 24, 1935, a month later, and executed in August of that year. "Be Poor" was written by Fang Zhimin in prison and takes a strong moralistic tone. It was effective at brainwashing Chinese children, but there is an extremely bloody and cruel history behind these words.


Theme Four: Setting Up Models For Ideal Behavior According To The Needs Of The CCP

A particularly effective CCP propaganda method is setting up models for ideal behavior. This entails selecting heroic deeds carried out by ordinary communists and inflating and consecrating them in order to inspire and guide others.

For example, the story "Uncle Lei Feng, Where Are You" in the second volume of the second-grade Chinese language book uses simple poetry to praise Lei Feng, a CCP soldier particularly willing to help others. Lei Feng is a household name in China, since the CCP produced a huge amount of propaganda about him; Mao Zedong even published the inscription in the People's Daily "Learn from Comrade Lei Feng."[22]

According to this propaganda, Lei Feng never revealed his name when doing good deeds[23] - yet if this is the case, how are so many details about these deeds included in propaganda? "Lei Feng's Diary," is full of the good things that he did, and includes photos of him helping others. However, anyone who has read it will have many questions. For example, one winter in northeast China, he collected 300 kilograms of cow dung within two days, for use as fertilizer – during the years when nearly 40 million people died of starvation in China's Great Famine. Where did all the cows come from? Also, how did Lei Feng always know where people needed help, and how did he managed to have so many pictures taken of him providing it?

In China, there are many role models on par with Lei Feng, many of whom Mao Zedong personally named and praised, such as Zhang Side. Mao wrote in his article "Serving the People," which appears in Lesson 12 in the second book for the sixth grade, Zhang was a martyr personally chosen by Mao Zedong during his time in Yan'an. Mao Zedong wrote: "Our team is entirely for the liberation of the people and works thoroughly for the interests of the people. Comrade Zhang Side is one of our comrades in this team. Comrade Zhang Side died for the interests of the people; his death was weightier than Mount Tai."[24]

The phrase "Serving the People" and the name of "Zhang Side" have been recited by generations of Chinese students, but the true cause of Zhang Side's death is connected to an episode that the CCP does not want to reveal, and Mao Zedong did not mention it in his article. However, a note in "Selected Works of Mao Zedong" stated: "In the mountains of Ansai County, Shaanxi Province, when burning charcoal, [Zhang Side died] in the collapse of the charcoal kiln."[25]

A scholar writing in a Hong Kong magazine mentioned that "according to local government officials, Nanniwan was the only virgin forest in Yan'an. After Wang Zhen led the 359th Brigade into Nanniwan, he brutally cut down the trees and planted large tracts of opium on the cultivated land, and Zhang Side in 'Serving the People' was buried alive inside the kiln during the burning of the soot. "[26]

Is scholars' research reliable? Let us look at the diary of Peter Parshienovich Vladimirov (Пётр Парфёнович Владимиров/Власов), representative of the Communist International in Yan'an in 1943: "A strange phenomenon has appeared in the Yan'an Special Zone. The same strange phenomenon was observed among the Chinese Communist troops. They were all doing business with the Japanese in the occupied areas as much as possible. Everywhere they were doing illegal opium trading. For example, in Chaling, the headquarters of the 120th Division set aside a house to process the raw materials from which opium was made and shipped to the market far behind the line of battle... The Politburo appointed Ren Bishi as 'Commissioner for Opium Problems.' ...Ren Bishi said that Comrade Mao Zedong did not think it was good to grow, process and sell opium."[27]

Although it cannot be concluded from this that Zhang Side died in the process of opium production, judging from the facts that he was a member of Mao Zedong's guards, that Yan'an was secretly producing and selling opium at the time, and that Mao Zedong did not disclose any specific information about Zhang Side's death in his article, it can be concluded that the information obtained by scholars should be credible.

Some foreigners too are held up as models by Chinese textbooks. The most well known is Canadian Communist Party member Henry Norman Bethune, a doctor who came to China to support the CCP's resistance against Japan. He later died later from an infected wound he received during an operation in 1939. The first volume of the third-grade Chinese language book includes the article "The Operating Table is the Battlefield" to relate Bethune's glorious deeds braving the gunfire of the Japanese army and performing 69 consecutive hours of surgery.

The seventh-grade textbook includes Mao Zedong's famous article "In Memory of Bethune," in which he wrote: "A foreigner has no self-interested motives and regards the liberation of the Chinese people as his own cause. What kind of spirit is this? This is the spirit of internationalism, and this is the spirit of communism. Every member of the Chinese Communist Party must learn this spirit."[28]

High-school Chinese language textbooks continue to enthusiastically promote CCP role models. The first volume of the 11th grade book includes a report titled "The Example of County Party Secretary-Jiao Yulu." Jiao Yulu was part of a county-level CCP cadre, who, according to the report, worked tirelessly to serve the people and gave his life for this cause. The People's Daily, the most authoritative propaganda organ of the CCP, stated in its February 7, 1966 editorial: "Learn from Comrade Mao Zedong's good student-Comrade Jiao Yulu." It also published a story about Jiao Yulu written by three journalists. This is the source of this text.

From 1966 to the present, generations of students have been told that Jiao Yulu-style figures are typical of the CCP cadres. In reality, the CCP government has long been corrupt. The students, brainwashed over many years, still believe that the CCP is incorruptible – or at least that it should be.


Theme Five: Cultivating The Spirit Of Sacrifice For The Party-State Among Students From An Early Age

To cultivate students' conscious dedication to the CCP, the textbook devote a great deal of space to telling the glorious stories of heroes who sacrificed for the CCP cause. "Huang Jiguang," in Lesson 24 of the second volume of the fourth-grade Chinese textbook, recounts how, during the Korean War, PVA Soldier Huang Jiguang was seriously injured, but nevertheless he blocked a U.S. army machine gun with his chest, thus successfully covering the charge by his comrades and winning the battle.

There is also the story of another PVA hero, Qiu Shaoyun, who was struck by a firebomb thrown by the U.S. army when he was positioned in an ambush. In order not to expose his fellow soldiers, he remained motionless until he burned to death. It should be noted that it is increasingly widely understood that people cannot control their bodies' neural responses, and that the 2017 edition of this text omits this story, which had been included for more than 50 years.

In addition to establishing adult role models, the CCP textbooks have also created child role models. The "Wang Erxiao" text, in the first book for the second grades, has been used in Chinese textbooks for 40 years. Thus, everyone in China born after 1970 has studied it. It tells the story of Wang Erxiao, a member of the Children's League, who led the wandering enemy into a Red Army ambush; the enemy was wiped out but Wang Erxiao was also killed.

Similar stories include "Little Hero Rain" in the 18th lesson of the second volume for the fourth grade, and "Little Soldier Zhang Ga," recommended for reading in the sixth grade.

Thus, in "Fairy Tales on the Beach," in the second-grade Chinese language book, Chinese children are depicted as saying things such as "Let's fly a fighter to conduct a bombing raid" and "We're digging tunnels, loading gunpowder from under the ground, and blasting the castle to the ground."[29]

Also worth mentioning is Lesson Six, "The Five Heroes on Langya Mountain," in the first volume of the sixth-grade book. The story is about a small group of soldiers in the Sino-Japanese War that drew the Japanese into a dead end in order to cover the retreat of the CCP army. The soldiers ran out of ammunition and refused to surrender when the Japanese surrounded them, and then jumped off a cliff, with only one surviving by hanging on to a branch. The theme of the text is clear: promoting the spirit of sacrifice among individuals for the sake of the collective, and preferring death to surrender.

Some academic articles by liberal Chinese scholars, such as "Several Untruths in the Primary School Textbook 'The Five Heroes of Langya Mountain'"[30] and "Differences in the Details of the 'Five Heroes of Langya Mountain,'"[31] and others have questioned the inaccuracy in the Chinese language textbooks. These writers were not only vilified online by the descendants of the cliff-jumping soldiers, but also stood trial on charges of "damaging the reputation and honor of others in a derogatory and ugly way."[32] Even more dramatically, in 2018, the Chinese government passed the "Law on the Protection of Heroes and Martyrs of the People's Republic of China," of which Article 25, Paragraph 1, stipulates: "For acts that infringe upon the names, portraits, reputation, and honor of heroes and martyrs, the close relatives of heroes and martyrs may file a lawsuit with the people's court in accordance with the law." Such a law is the same as saying that no one may question or deny the heroes and role models held up by the authorities.

The second lesson of the second volume of the ninth grade Chinese textbook, "Meiling Three Poems," is a series of verses by CCP senior general Chen Yi. They show that he is not afraid to sacrifice his life for the revolutionary cause. The first volume of the 11th grade Chinese launguage book includes a poem by another general, Yang Chengwu, who wrote "Long Live the Victory of the Long March." This poem praises the achievements of the CCP army, despite the fact that during the Long March, the Red Army lost at least 70,000 people.

It is said that the Chinese writer Mo Yan left a message in the visitor's book at the memorial hall of the famous Liaoshen Battle from the Chinese Civil War, stating: "So much gunfire, all for the sake of changing from one dynasty to another. So many corpses strewn across the field, each the child of some rural family." The CCP textbooks include no such humanistic reflections.


Theme Six: Praising Those Who Have Contributed To The Development Of The Chinese Communist Party

The after-class "Reading Link" in the second volume of the fourth-grade Chinese language book features the selection "I'm Finally Back." The protagonist of this story is Dr. Qian Xuesen, a leading figure in the development of the CCP's nuclear weapons. The text first explains that Qian Xuesen holds a PhD from the U.S. in aeronautical engineering and aerodynamics, where he had a good job, and that when he resigned after 1949 and sought to return to China, U.S. immigration authorities told him that he could not leave the country. After searching his luggage, U.S. Customs determined that he was carrying important secrets and was a spy; he was arrested by the FBI which subjected him to various inhumane restrictions and abuses. However, he did falter, and eventually returned to China, in 1955.

The long essay "Deng Jiaxian," by 1993 Nobel laureate in physics Professor Chen-Ning Franklin Yang, a Chinese American who renounced his U.S. citizenship in 2015,  was chosen for Lesson 1 in the seventh-grade textbook. This essay is divided into six parts; the first part is titled "From 'Being At The Mercy Of Others' To 'Standing Up.'" The title makes it clear that the author is reiterating the humiliating history of China's invasion and oppression recounted in the eighth grade history book. He writes in the essay: "A century later, the Chinese people have stood up. This is the result of the efforts of millions of people, a great victory created by many heroic figures who can be sung and cried."

The second part of the essay describes how China produced its first atomic bomb, in 1964, and its first hydrogen bomb, in 1967, as a result of Deng Jiaxian's research. Thus, Deng became "the founder and pioneer of the Chinese nuclear weapons industry."

In the third part, the author disparages his American mentor, theoretical physicist Julius Robert Oppenheimer, for his alleged lack of education, while praising Deng's noble character and even describing how he wisely reconciled the conflicts between the two rival factions during the bloody Cultural Revolution. The author also recounts his visit to China in 1971, when he specifically requested to meet with Deng Jiaxian and then had a cordial conversation with him.[33]

Deng Jiaxian did indeed make outstanding contributions to the CCP's development of nuclear weapons. Yang has reasons to praise Deng, whether out of friendship for his classmate or out of his own nationalist sentiment. But in 1990, when Deng's wife visited the U.S., she told Yang that Deng Jiaxian was persecuted during the Cultural Revolution and was paraded and humiliated in public. Had it not been for Yang's question about Deng Jiaxian to CCP leaders when he visited China in 1971 (i.e. whether China's atomic bomb was Chinese-made without the help of foreigners[34]), Deng Jiaxian's fate might have been the same as that of other scientists, such as Yao Tongbin, Zhao Jiuzhang, and Deng's own sister, who were beaten to death or committed suicide because of the unbearable humiliation.[35] Deng's wife wrote: "When I went to the U.S. in 1990, I talked to Yang about their suffering, and he was taken aback: 'Did such a thing really happen?'"[36]

Three years later, even though Yang knew about these events, he still whitewashed the facts and flattered the CCP in his articles.


Theme Seven: Cultivating National Pride And A Sense Of Racial Superiority

The CCP textbooks explicitly require students to develop a strong sense of national pride. In addition to praising China's vast land, abundant resources, and beautiful mountains and rivers, the CCP also makes a special effort to promote the various achievements of the CCP itself, to prove the superiority of socialism with Chinese characteristics. There are no dissenting voices.

The second book of the first-grade language textbook includes both "How Vast is the Motherland" and "I Want to See the Motherland," which tell students in plain language that China is vast in geographical area. In a section from the first-grade textbook titled "The Resource-Rich Paracel Islands," the prompt introducing the lesson was "I love you, Motherland. I love every inch of your land and I love your magnificent mountains and rivers."[37] The cultivation of such attitudes from childhood may explain why, whenever there is an international dispute in the South China Sea, there is an immediate patriotic frenzy among the Chinese.

The eighth lesson of the fourth-grade second volume, "A Thousand-Year Dream Comes True Today," promotes the achievements under the CCP's rule. The text begins with the ancient myth "Chang'e Flying to the Moon," followed by a description of a failed attempt to fly 500 years ago. The textbook tells students that the Chinese dream of going into space was a "thousand years" in the making but was not realized until after 1949 – under CCP leadership. The text counts every Chinese achievement in the aerospace industry: it launched a satellite in 1970, successfully orbited Earth from space in 2003, and successfully explored the moon in 2019. It goes on to state that China was the fifth country in the world to be able to launch satellites, "the third country to independently master manned spaceflight technology," and "the fourth country in the world to master lunar exploration technology".[38]

"A Thousand-Year Dream Comes True Today" states that after China's first satellite launch in 1970, "for the first time in the lonely and vast emptiness of space, the voice of the Chinese people resounded, and the music of 'The East is Red' crossed the firmament, cheering the Chinese people at home and abroad."[39] "The East is Red" is probably the number one song in praise of Mao Zedong and the CCP; its lyrics state: "The East is red, the sun rises, China has produced a Mao Zedong. He seeks happiness for the people, he is the people's great savior." In this way, the study material not only establishes pride in the mother land, but also actualizes the intent of singing praises and giving thanks to the great leader.

Along with fostering national pride is the promotion of Chinese racial superiority. Examples in the elementary school language textbooks include "The Great Yu Tamed the Flood" in the first book for the second grade; "The Ballad of China" and "Yi Shot down the Nine Suns" in the second book; "The Invention of Paper," "Zhaozhou Bridge," and "Traditional Chinese Festivals" in the second book for the third grade; "Pangu Opened the Heavens and the Earth" and "Jingwei Reclamation" in the first book for the fourth grade; and "Two Literary Texts" – "The Night Reading By The Light Of A Bag Of Fireflies" and "Grinding An Iron Pestle Into A Needle" – in the second book for the fourth grade; "The Cowherd and the Weaving Maiden" in the first book for the fifth grade; and in the second book, "Journey to the Kingdom of Chinese Characters" and "China's Cultural Heritage"; in the first book for the sixth grade, "The Palace Museum" and "Two Essays in the Chinese Language" – "Boya Plays an Instrument" and "About Dai Song's Painting of Bulls" – all of these are related to this theme.

From the selections included in language textbooks, it is clear that the CCP does currently attach importance to traditional culture. However, from the full-scale Sovietization that began in 1949, through the destruction of all ancient buildings and cultural texts and the torching of countless thousands of years of paintings and antique collections during the Cultural Revolution, to 1989, the CCP has always opposed traditional culture. But the events of June 4, 1989 at Tiananmen Square changed this.

Following the "June 4th Massacre," many Chinese began to doubt the CCP's propaganda about how advanced and superior it was. In order to reconsolidate the CCP's rule, the Party took advantage of the Chinese folk research trend in literature in the 1980s and took action aimed at showing that it respected traditional culture; it preached traditional Chinese studies and even repaired many old buildings that had been destroyed in an attempt to win over the people.

By now, mainland Chinese people have been brainwashed for several generations. Currently, the CCP strategy is very effective. Many Chinese believe that Chinese people are the direct descendants of the cave people in Beijing 550,000 years ago. They also are proud that China is one of the four great ancient civilizations in the world. Its "Four Great Inventions" have made enormous contributions to the world, and under the leadership of the CCP, China will surely surpass the U.S. in all aspects.


Theme Eight: Fomenting Hatred Towards Certain People And Entities To Prove The Legitimacy Of The CCP's Revolution

The first volume of the eighth grade history textbook lays a solid foundation for the hatred among nations, but xenophobic narratives are not limited to the textbooks. The CCP needs to use Chinese language textbooks to maximize the effect of indoctrination through literature, drama and poetry.

For example, "Mei Lanfang Grows a Beard" in Lesson 23 of the first volume of the fourth grade books targets Japan, the country most hated by the Chinese. It shows the Chinese people's determination and will to resist Japan as reflected in Peking Opera actor Mei Lanfang's growing of a beard.

This theme is reinforced again in Lesson 14, "The Wooden Flute," in the first volume for the fifth grade. The text describes a young man being tested on his playing of the wooden flute, but he refuses to play the joyous repertoire decided by lottery in the exam room because the date was December 13, Nanjing Massacre Remembrance Day. The examiner did not allow him to refuse; the young man stood by his beliefs and left the examination room with tears in his eyes. That night, he went to the Nanjing Massacre Monument amid the falling snow, and came across a group of children holding candles there. He took out his wooden flute and played a very sad tune. Just then, the chief examiner appeared, and he was very moved by his playing.

The text seems to be full of national justice. Regarding the Nanjing Massacre, while there is no doubt whatsoever about this horrific incident, just about the numbers involved, it was not always as great an issue in Communist China as it has become. For instance, from the diaries and records of Mao Zedong and other CCP leaders on December 13, 1937 to the history textbooks and People's Daily after 1949, there is almost no mention of the Nanjing Massacre. Throughout the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s, students in mainland China did not know about this historical event, and it was only during the 1980s that people started to hear more about it.

In addition to creating hatred for Japan, the CCP also reinforces the narrative in textbooks that China was invaded and oppressed by Western powers. Examples include "Destruction of the Old Summer Palace" in Lesson 13 of the first volume for the fifth grade; the Hong Kong and Macau issues mentioned in the "Reading Links" section; and an article by French writer Victor Hugo in the seventh lesson in the first book for the ninth grade, titled "Letter to Captain Butler on the Anglo-French Allied Forces Expedition to China."

"Destruction of the Old Summer Palace" not only accuses the British and French allies of being invaders and looting property, but also of setting fire to "the jewel of garden art and architecture" in China "in order to destroy incriminating evidence," thus creating "an incalculable loss to the world's cultural history.[40] However, it fails to mention that the emperor and military commanders of the Qing Dynasty conspired to capture, torture and kill 21 of the 39 negotiators sent out from the British and French allies.

The book uses the emotions of Hugo, who was unaware of the real situation on the ground, to further strengthen and corroborate the perception of ugly behavior on the part of the British and French coalition forces, i.e. as barbaric invaders. Such a selective compilation in the books clearly cannot help students understand history, but succeeds in creating context-free hatred, thus making excuses for the CCP to later follow Lenin's "anti-imperialist" movement.

This deep hatred on the part of a nation that has been invaded and oppressed is a type of foreshadowing. The purpose is to show that the CCP has led the Chinese people to resistance, patriotism, and liberation. Take, for instance, lessons one and three in the 11th grade textbook, "The Chinese People Stand Up" and "Farewell, Britannia." The first describes the victory speech delivered by Mao Zedong on behalf of the CCP at the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference on September 21, 1949. The theme of both these stories is summarized in the unit introduction: "For nearly a century, the Communist Party of China has led the people of the whole country toward the goal of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation." The text, it says, "expresses the pride of the Chinese people as masters of their own country" and shows "the irresistible trend of the great cause of reunification of the motherland."[41]

Another way to foment hatred among nations is to deliberately vilify the systems of Western countries. For example, Lesson 13 in the first sixth grade book uses Leo Tolstoy's "The Poor People" to indict the ruthlessness of the capitalist system and the poor people's inability to survive. The 10th grade book uses Anton Chekhov's "The Man Who Lived In A Shell" and Kafka's Metamorphosis" to highlight that capitalist societies suppress human nature, resulting in societies in which people are twisted and perverted and either turn into wretches or simply become monstrous beetles. The implication of the two lessons is that the socialist system of the CCP is the only cure and direction for the world.

Chinese textbooks not only foment national hatred, they also make full use of the social criticisms of Lu Xun, the most well-known leftist writer in China, to thoroughly vilify Chinese society before the establishment of the CCP while cultivating class hatred. Only 14 articles by Lu Xun were selected for the Chinese textbooks for the sixth year of middle and high school. Similar texts that cultivate domestic hatred include "The Last Speech" in Lesson 13 of the lower eighth grade book, and a number of others such as "The Bagman" from the seventh lesson of the 11th grade book.


Theme Nine: Cultivating The Ideology Of Unity Of Family And Nation

The CCP realizes that it is not enough to just establish the idea that the party and state are one, because beyond the party and the state, there are families and individuals – even though the CCP has been working hard to deconstruct these layers of society. The full and perfect unification of party, state, family, and individual is undoubtedly a test of for CCP theorists. Judging from the current state of affairs, they have attained good results, a result of the promotion of traditional Chinese culture after 1989.

In traditional Chinese Confucianism, there is a concept of the unity of the family and the state. For example, in Confucius' Spring and Autumn Annals, written 2,500 years ago, there is a view of "great unity." The writings of Mencius, from 2,300 years ago, state: "People utter a constant refrain: they say that the foundation of the world is the state. The foundation of the world is the state, the foundation of the state is the home, and the foundation of the home is the body." In a nutshell, this means that in order to prevent wars and riots, there is a need for national unity. The harmony of the world lies in a peaceful country; the stability of a country depends on families; and the happiness of the family depends on each family member. In this way, the link between "family" and "state" was established, forming the doctrine of "the family and state as one." This doctrine has been passed down as a tradition.

After the Chinese textbooks began the cultivation of the concept of the unity of party and state in elementary school, "An Unforgettable Lesson" appears in the "Reading Links" of Lesson 23 in the fourth grade. The text describes the author's personal experience of a Taiwanese teacher leading Taiwanese primary school students to recite "I am Chinese, I love China."

The book uses such patriotic discourse to declare that Taiwan's belonging to China after the Sino-Japanese War is "a fact," and also to express the political intention and cultural concept that Taiwan and the mainland are one family and must be unified.

The same theme is more directly reflected in the text "Nostalgia" in lesson three of the first ninth grade book. The author, Yu Guangzhong, went to Taiwan with his family in 1949 and has lived there ever since, but, longing for his years growing up on the mainland, he wrote "Nostalgia," which includes the lines: "When I was a child / Nostalgia was a tiny stamp / I was at this end / Mother was at that end /... / And now/ nostalgia is a shallow strait/ I am here/ the mainland is there."[42] This stated longing for home not only describes the psychology of some Taiwanese people, but is also an important emotional point for the CCP to educate its own public. For this reason, the poet was hailed as a "patriotic poet" by the CCP, and "Nostalgia" was even recited in front of Taiwanese students when Chinese premier Wen Jiabao visited the U.S. in 2003.

The introduction to the second unit of the second volume of the seventh-grade textbook states: "One's devotion to his family and his country with caring and love is a simple emotion shared by human beings. It means admiring the great rivers and mountains of the motherland, deeply loving the land and people of his hometown, and willing to defend his family and his country with his life."[43] In this interpretation, love for family, hometown, country, and government are the same, and love for the government means love for country, and love for the country is love for hometown and family. We can see that whenever the Chinese government is criticized by the West, Chinese people who fully embrace this ideology feel themselves insulted.

With this ideology in mind, and also keeping in mind that the Yellow River, Yangtze River, and Great Wall are often used as symbols of China, we see that lesson five, "Ode to the Yellow River," by a Communist Party writer, suggests that this poem was written in praise of China. It includes evocative lines such as "The Yellow River! / You are great and strong / like a giant / appearing above the plains of Asia, / with your heroic physique / building a barrier for our nation."[44] Lesson seven includes "The Oath of the Land," by another party writer who states with the same affection and directness: "The land is my mother; every inch of my skin has grains of her earth; as soon as my palm approaches the soil, my heart becomes calm. I am kin to the land, and I cannot leave it... Land, wilderness, my homeland, you must be liberated."[45]

Such an ideology is similarly reinforced in the ninth grade texts. For example, Ai Qing, a veteran party writer whose pieces were included in the previous book, writes in "I Love This Land": "Why are there often tears in my eyes? Because I love this land so much."[46] Shu Ting, the author of Lesson 1 in the next book, writes in "Oh Motherland, My Dear Motherland": "With your scarred breasts / you have fed / the confused me, the deep-thinking me, the boiling me; / then from my flesh and blood, / to obtain / your richness, your glory, your freedom; /– the motherland Oh,/ My dear motherland!" Belief in the oneness of the family and the country has become a culture unto itself.[47]

After addressing the family-state relationship, one last link remains – the individual-family relationship. The textbook's approach is to continue to introduce spiritual resources from Chinese tradition. For example, in the "Integrated Learning" section of the second book of the seventh grade, the topic is "Filial Piety And Respect For The Elderly Starts With Me." Students are asked to conduct a one-month activity on this topic, and then write an essay based on it, and then discuss the topic in a class meeting.

But what is "filial piety"? The textbook does not explain it in depth, only mentioning that it is "a traditional virtue of the Chinese nation."[48] In fact, in the traditional Chinese context, "filial piety" means absolute obedience to the will of the elders, such as the father, with no allowance for individualist rebellion, i.e. unfilial disobedience. At the same time, "filial piety" is paired with "loyalty," which means absolute obedience to the king and emperor, which also does not allow rebellion. There is a Chinese idiom that says "If you are not loyal, you are not filial, and you are a traitor and a heretic."

The concepts of loyalty and filial piety have existed for over 2,000 years, and the Chinese have always been accustomed to following and obeying elders, emperors, and government officials.

When the CCP was fighting for power, it was a revolutionary vanguard against the traditional Chinese concepts of loyalty and filial piety. But now that it is in power, the CCP sees the valuable connection between traditional loyalty and filial piety and obedience to authority – thus, in its various propaganda activities, it vigorously promotes traditional culture. These traditions now continue to be instilled in students through textbooks.


Theme 10: Combining Political Theory With Chinese Language Instruction

The Chinese textbooks include not only many selected poems and short essays by Mao Zedong, but also three of Mao's political papers: "Oppose Stereotyped Party Writing" in Lesson 11 of the 10th grade, "Reform Our Study" in the second lesson of the 11th grade, and "Where do Correct Ideas Come from?"

What are these articles about? The first two were written in 1941 and 1942, when Mao Zedong took control of the Communist Party in Yan'an and carried out a purge of Party cadres. The articles call for the revolutionary practice of Mao Zedong Thought, the so-called Sinification of Marxism, to replace the previously promoted Marxism and Leninism, and put the former top leaders Zhang Wentian, Bogu, Wang Ming and others on trial.

But it is not possible to write directly about these true intentions. Since Zhang Wentian helped Mao greatly in the latter's process of becoming party leader, direct criticism of him would damage the image of the leader. So, he states ambiguously: "The party launched the famous Yan'an rectification campaign in 1941. The whole party and all cadres received a profound education in Marxism-Leninism."[49] Such a description is obviously not clear enough, and the most authoritative official history of the Communist Party of China has already written openly that "in view of the 'leftist' dogmatic errors represented by Wang Ming in the history of the Party, which had incurred great losses to the cause of the Chinese revolution, therefore, liquidating and criticizing Wang Ming's errors and summing up the lessons and raising awareness became an important part of the Rectification Campaign."[50]

Another point is that the rectification campaign was so brutal that it was physically annihilating party members by the time 1943 rolled around. Vladimirov, the representative of the Communist International (COMINTERN) stationed in Yan'an that year, wrote in his diary: "The wind of suicide in Yan'an has not subsided. The city looks like a concentration camp. People are not allowed to leave their offices and schools, and it is now the fourth month. The discipline here is almost like that of a prison, binding people to no freedom of movement."[51]

This was an internal political struggle within the CCP. The more important point is that from this point on, the Marxism that the CCP exalted has quietly become Maoist Marxism. At the same time, Mao's own image in Yan'an and in the CCP changed so dramatically that biographer Ross Terrill said, "In Mao, an imperial weather was developing."[52] Vladimirov added that "in the future, there will be no authority for the CCP other than 'Mao Zedong Thought,' no more comprehensive and profound way of thinking. "[53]

In contrast to the practical utilitarianism advocated by Mao Zedong, lesson three in the 11th grade book features "Practice is the Only Criterion for Testing Truth," an essay by Deng Xiaoping often considered to be his manifesto and banner for reform and for opening up. Interestingly, while Deng's practical utilitarianism largely negates Mao's, history textbooks consider both to be positive "ephemeral changes" in the 20th century world,[54] and the phrase "great, glorious, and correct" is seen in various propaganda media. For the CCP, these do not feel contradictory. Chinese Education Ministry officials, in response to a reporter's question, have said: "In selecting such works, our focus is the unity of literature and ideology, and guiding students to use historical materialism and dialectical materialism to analyze and develop critical thinking."[55]

Paired with several of Mao's political essays are Karl Marx's "Speech at the Anniversary of the People's Paper" in Lesson 10 of the lower 10th grade book, and "Speech at Marx's Graveside" by Frederick Engels. In addition, "The Decisive Basis of Social History," in the first lesson in the mid-year book for 11th grade, is also by Engels. Marx and Engels are the most important ideological mentors of the CCP as well as of the world proletarian revolution.

The CCP attaches great importance to the most violent and revolutionary part of Marx and Engels' discourses, completely disregarding the fact that Marx and Engels had revised violent revolution into gradual peaceful struggle in their later years.

In China, it is not only dangerous to openly talk about freedom, human rights, democracy, and the rule of law, but also to openly talk about Marx and Engels in any way diverging from the CCP's official interpretation.



In conclusion, it is clear that the CCP has now developed a perfect set of strategies and tactics after much painstaking work on the use of language textbooks to indoctrinate young minds. The party leadership and its teaching cadres have been carrying out these efforts for over 70 years, and will continue to do so. The instructions of the CCP's Ministry of Education officials regarding textbook development read as follows: "Language textbooks cultivate core socialist values by selecting humanistic themes and exemplary texts, subliminally and silently."[56]

In China, all fields of education are deemed appropriate opportunities for overt and ongoing communist indoctrination, even in language and literature, from the earliest years into adulthood. This, of course, comes as no surprise to anyone who has followed CCP policies throughout the years. But it is still a grim reality worth documenting and exposing to broader reading audiences in the West.


[1] 《语文》1年级上册,北京:人民教育出版社2017年,课前插图。Chinese Language, Grade 1, Beijing: People's Education Publishing House, 2017, pre-course illustrations.

[2] 《语文》1年级下册,北京:人民教育出版社2017年,第19页。Chinese Language, Grade 1, Second Book, Beijing: People's Education Press 2017, p. 19.

[3] 1年级上册,北京:人民教育出版社2017年版,第74-75页。Chinese Language, Grade 1, Beijing: People's Education Publishing House, 2017 edition, pp. 74-75.

[4] 《语文》1年级上册,北京:人民教育出版社2017年版,课前插图。Chinese Language, Grade 1, Beijing: People's Education Press, 2017 edition, pre-course illustrations.

[5] 《语文》1年级上册,北京:人民教育出版社2017年版,第16页。Chinese Language, Grade 1, Beijing: People's Education Press, 2017 edition, p. 16.

[6] 《语文》1年级下册,北京:人民教育出版社2017年版,第17页。Chinese Language, Grade 1, Second Book, Beijing: People's Education Press, 2017 Edition, p. 17.

[7] 《语文》5年级下册,北京:人民教育出版社2017年版,第58页。Chinese Language, Grade 5, Book 2, Beijing: People's Education Publishing House, 2017 edition, p. 58.

[8] 京师警察厅编译汇编:《苏联阴谋文政汇编》,1928年版。Compiled by the Beijing Police Department: Compilation of Soviet Conspiracies, Literature and Politics, 1928 edition.

[9] 《国务院门前伏尸遍地》,《“三·一八”惨案资料汇编》,北京:北京出版社1985年版,第75页。The corpses in front of the State Council", Compilation of Information on the "March 18" Tragedy, Beijing: Beijing Publishing House, 1985, p. 75.

[10] 《搜查苏联使馆已获荷兰公使等谅解》,《晨报》,1927年4月7日。The corpses in front of the State Council", Compilation of Information on the "March 18" Tragedy, Beijing: Beijing Publishing House, 1985, p. 75.

[11] 《语文》4年级上册,北京:人民教育出版社2017年版,第104页。Chinese Language, Grade 4, Beijing: People's Education Publishing House, 2017 edition, p. 104.

[12] 《教师教学用书》语文4年级上册,北京:人民教育出版社2019年版,第190页。Teachers' Teaching Book, Language Book 4, Beijing: People's Education Publishing House, 2019 Edition, p. 190.

[13] 陈永发:《红太阳下的罂粟花:鸦片贸易与延安模式》,《新史学》,第一卷第4期,1990年12月。Chen Yongfa, "Poppies under the Red Sun: The Opium Trade and the Yan'an Model," New History (Taiwan), vol. 1, no. 4, December 1990.

[14] 中国共产党新闻网 Communist Party of China News Network

[15] 远藤誉:《毛泽东勾结日军的真相——来自日谍的回忆与档案》,纽约:美国明镜出版社2016年版。Yoshitomo Endo, The Truth about Mao's Collusion with the Japanese Army - Memories and Archives from Japanese Spies, New York: Spiegel Press USA, 2016 edition.

[16] 谢幼田:《中共壮大之迷――被掩盖的中国抗日战争真相》,纽约:明镜出版社2002年版。Xie Youtian, The Mystery of the Growth of the CCP - The Hidden Truth about China's War of Resistance against Japan, New York: Spiegel Press, 2002.

[17] 王康:《被毛泽东、周恩来掩盖的一件重大历史事件——读远藤誉教授<毛泽东勾结日本真相>有感》,《纵览中国》,2016年9月22日。Wang Kang, "A Major Historical Event Covered Up by Mao Zedong and Zhou Enlai - A Reading of Professor Yu Endo's "The Truth About Mao Zedong's Collusion with Japan"," Overview China, September 22, 2016.

[18] 《语文》6年级上册,北京:人民教育出版社2017年版,第15页。Chinese Language, Grade 6, Beijing: People's Education Publishing House, 2017 edition, p. 15.

[19] 《语文》11年级中册,北京:人民教育出版社2017年版,第75页。Chinese Language, Grade 11, middle volume, Beijing: People's Education Publishing House, 2017 edition, p. 75.

[20] 《方志敏之孙:了解爷爷从课文开始》,《南方都市报》,2011年2月9日。Fang Zhimin's Grandson: Understanding Grandpa Begins with the Text," Southern Metropolis Daily, February 9, 2011.

[21] Yading Li. Elisabeth (Betty) Alden Scott Stam 1906 ~1934.

[22] 《人民日报》,1963年3月5日。People's Daily, March 5, 1963.

[23] 《语文》2年级下册,北京:人民教育出版社2017年版,第17页。Chinese Language, Grade 2, Second Book, Beijing: People's Education Publishing House, 2017 Edition, p. 17.

[24] 《语文》6年级下册,北京:人民教育出版社2017年版,第63页。Chinese Language, Grade 6, 2nd Volume, Beijing: People's Education Press, 2017, p. 63.

[25] 《毛泽东选集》第三卷,北京:人民出版社1991年版,第1005页。Selected Works of Mao Zedong, vol. 3, Beijing: People's Publishing House, 1991 edition, p. 1005.

[26] 林辉:《为延安贩卖鸦片的毒贩死前缘何喊冤?》,《大纪元时报》(香港) Hui: "Why did the drug dealer who sold opium for Yan'an cry out injustice before he died? , The Epoch Times (Hong Kong)

[27] 彼得·弗拉基米洛夫:《延安日记》(内部发行),吕文镜等译,北京:东方出版社2004年版,第103-104、166-167页。Vladimirov/Власов, Yan'an Diary (internal release), translated by Lu Wenjing et al. Beijing: Oriental Press, 2004, pp. 103-104, 166-167.

[28] 《语文》6年级上册,北京:人民教育出版社2017年版,第66页。Chinese Language, Grade 6, Beijing: People's Education Press, 2017 edition, p. 66.

[29] 《语文》2年级上册,北京:人民教育出版社2017年版,第49页。Chinese Language, Grade 2, Beijing: People's Education Press, 2017 edition, p. 49.

[30] 洪振快:《小学课本狼牙山五壮士有多处不实》,201399日,财经网。Hong Zhenquai: "Primary School Textbook "Wolf Tooth Mountain Five Strong Soldiers" Has Many Inaccuracies", September 9, 2013,

[31] 洪振快:《“狼牙山五壮士”的细节分歧》,《炎黄春秋》,2013年第11期。Hong Zhenquai, "The details of the disagreement of the ’Five Heroes of Langya Mountain’", Yanhuang Chunqiu, No. 11, 2013.

[32] Beijing High People's Court website

[33]《语文》7年级下册,北京:人民教育出版社2017年版,第114页。 Chinese Language, Grade 7, Second Book, Beijing: People's Education Press, 2017 Edition, p. 114.

[34], September 23, 2021;, September 8, 2022.

[35] 林辉:《鲜为人知的“两弹一星”专家受迫害经历》,

[36] 《许德珩女儿、两弹元勋邓稼先夫人——许鹿希的人生故事》,[原文发表在人民网,但已被删除]

[37] 《语文》3年级上册,北京:人民教育出版社2017年版,第73页。Chinese Language, Grade 3, Beijing: People's Education Publishing House, 2017 edition, p. 73.

[38] 《语文》4年级下册,北京:人民教育出版社2017年版,第27-28页。Chinese Language, Grade 4, Second Book, Beijing: People's Education Press, 2017 Edition, p. 27-28.

[39] 《语文》4年级下册,北京:人民教育出版社2017年版,第27页。Chinese Language, Grade 4, Second Book, Beijing: People's Education Press, 2017 Edition, p. 27.

[40] 《语文》5年级上册,北京:人民教育出版社2017年版,第52-53页。Chinese Language, Grade 5, Beijing: People's Education Publishing House, 2017 edition, pp. 52-53.

[41] 《语文》11年级上册,北京:人民教育出版社2017年版,第1页。Chinese Language, Grade 11, Beijing: People's Education Publishing House, 2017 edition, p 1.

[42]《 语文》9年级上册,北京:人民教育出版社2017年版,第6页。Chinese Language, Grade 9, Beijing: People's Education Press, 2017 edition, p. 6.

[43] 《语文》7年级下册,北京:人民教育出版社2017年版,第27页。Chinese Language, Grade 7, Second Book, Beijing: People's Education Press, 2017 Edition, p. 27.

[44]《语文》7年级下册,北京:人民教育出版社2017年版,第29页。 Chinese Language, Grade 7, Second Book, Beijing: People's Education Press, 2017 Edition, p. 29.

[45] 《语文》7年级上册,北京:人民教育出版社2017年版,第38-39页。Chinese Language, Grade 7, Beijing: People's Education Publishing House, 2017 edition, pp. 38-39.

[46]《语文》9年级下册,北京:人民教育出版社2017年版,第5页。 Chinese Language, Grade 9, 2nd Volume, Beijing: People's Education Press, 2017, p. 5.

[47] 《语文》9年级下册,北京:人民教育出版社2017年版,第3页。Chinese Language, Grade 9, 2nd Volume, Beijing: People's Education Press, 2017, p. 3.

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[49] 《教师教学用书》(语文选择性必修·中册),北京:人民教育出版社2019年版,第8页。Teachers' Teaching Book (Language Selective Compulsory - Middle Book), Beijing: People's Education Publishing House, 2019 edition, p. 8.

[50] 中共中央党史研究室:《中国共产党历史第一卷(1921-1949)》,北京:中共党史出版社2011年版,第619页。The Party History Research Office of the CPC Central Committee: History of the Communist Party of China, Volume I (1921-1949), Beijing: Party History Press of the CPC, 2011 edition, p. 619.

[51] 彼得·弗拉基米洛夫:《延安日记》(内部发行),吕文镜等译,北京:东方出版社2004年版,第103页。Vladimirov, Yan'an Diary (internal release), translated by Lu Wenjing et al. Beijing: Oriental Press, 2004 edition, p. 146.

[52] 罗斯·特里尔:《毛泽东传》,北京:中国人民大学出版社2010年版,第202页。Ross Trrill, A Biography of Mao Zedong, Beijing: Renmin University of China Press, 2010, p. 202.

[53] 彼得·弗拉基米洛夫:《延安日记》(内部发行),吕文镜等译,北京:东方出版社2004年版,第103页。Vladimirov, Yan'an Diary (internal release), translated by Lu Wenjing et al. Beijing: Oriental Press, 2004 edition, p. 103.

[54] The History of China, 2nd volume, Beijing: People's Education Press, 2016 edition, p. 34.

[55] 中国教育部官网:《教育部教材局负责人就义务教育三科教材统编工作答记者问》,2017年8月28日。Official website of the Chinese Ministry of Education: "The head of the Bureau of Teaching Materials of the Ministry of Education answers reporters' questions on the unified compulsory education teaching materials for three subjects," August 28, 2017.

[56] 中国教育部官网:教育部教材局负责人就义务教育三科教材统编工作答记者问》,2017年8月28日。Official website of the Chinese Ministry of Education: "The head of the Bureau of Teaching Materials of the Ministry of Education answers reporters' questions on the unified compulsory education teaching materials for three subjects," August 28, 2017.

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