Following Donald Trump's election to the U.S. presidency, the issue of designating the Muslim Brotherhood (MB) a terrorist organization resurfaced. During and after his presidential campaign, Trump's Middle East advisor Walid Phares repeatedly stated that the new president would act for the passage of a bill doing so. For example, following Trump's September 2016 meeting with Egyptian President 'Abd Al-Fatah Al-Sisi on the margins of the UN General Assembly, Phares told the Egyptian daily Al-Watan that Trump had promised Al-Sisi that he would promote a bill that is already before Congress that designates the MB a terrorist organization. After the election, Phares reiterated these remarks to the press.
It should be mentioned that in November 2015, Senator Ted Cruz (R-TX) and Rep. Mario Diaz-Balart (R-FL) announced that they had introduced a bill designating the MB a terrorist organization. In January 2017, Cruz tweeted that he and Diaz-Balart had reintroduced the bill on this matter: "Proud to introduce Muslim Brotherhood Terrorist Designation Act w @MarioDB [Mario Diaz-Balart]. It's time to call the enemy by its name."
Ted Cruz's tweet
In light of this bill, and in light of statements by Trump administration officials about its intent to promote it, the MB began preparations to confront the bill and prevent its passage. Launching a widespread informational media campaign, including the hiring of U.S. lobbying and legal firms, outreach to the press in the U.S., and dissemination of informational content aimed at improving its image in the West, particularly in the U.S., the MB attempted to convey that it is not a terrorist organization, but rather an ideological movement whose methods of operation are peaceful.
On the other hand, the Egyptian regime has been working to persuade the new U.S. administration that the MB is indeed a terrorist organization, as well as an umbrella organization for other terrorist outfits. In addition it was reported that Egyptian intelligence too had hired an American lobbying firm to improve the image of the Egyptian regime in the U.S. Egyptian parliamentary representatives met in January 2017 with U.S. members of Congress to impress upon them the necessity of designating the MB as terrorist. Another visit by an Egyptian parliamentary delegation was scheduled for January but has apparently been postponed to April. Additionally, the Egyptian daily Al-Yawm Al-Sabi', which is close to the regime, has in recent weeks been criticizing Western media, particularly The New York Times, for providing a platform for the promotion of MB ideas. The Egyptian press in general expressed criticism of the regime for failing to sufficiently counter the MB's media campaign.
This report will review MB media efforts to counter U.S. legislative and legal moves to designate it a terrorist organization, efforts by the Egyptian regime and official media to prove that it does indeed engage in terrorism, and claims by Egyptian writers that the regime is not doing enough to combat the MB's campaign in the West.
MB Works To Create U.S. Lobby
In fact, already in November 2016, immediately after Donald Trump's victory in the U.S. presidential elections, the movement began preparing to counter U.S. moves to designate it terrorist. The Egyptian Institute for Political and Strategic Studies, which belongs to the MB and operates from Turkey under the directorship of Amr Darrag, who served as minister of planning and international cooperation in the administration of former Egyptian president Mohamed Morsi, published a document by Dr. Badr Shafi'i on November 26 with recommendations for the movement on how to deal with America's intent to promote a terrorist designation of the MB. The recommendations include: Appointing elements within the movement to supervise these steps and make contact with experts on international relations; contacting politicians, clerics, and countries that could sympathize with the MB in order to improve its image in Congress; establishing a legal-media team and hold ties with members of Congress; hiring a U.S. law firm and public relations teams; and establishing a substantial Islamic lobby in the U.S., while strengthening ties with movements opposing Trump's policy.
Recommendations published by the Egyptian Institute for Political and Strategic Studies (Eipss-eg.org, November 2016)
In January and March 2017, the institute published two more documents by Shafi'i that also dealt with this issue, in which he reiterated his recommendations.
In addition, in recent months, the Arab press in general, and the Egyptian press in particular, reported on MB efforts to prevent the Trump administration from listing it as a terrorist organization. Thus, for example, MB sources outside of Egypt told the daily Al-Shurouq that the global MB organization was conducting widespread activity to this end. According to these sources, the movement was being assisted by the governments of Turkey, Tunisia, and Morocco, and by the governments of countries where the MB has substantial parliamentary blocs such as Kuwait, Jordan, and Algeria. The sources also disclosed that the movement's steps, not only in Egypt but in 82 countries around the world, as well as its contacts with members of Congress and senior U.S. writers and civil society organizations, are meant to prevent the decision.
Evidence of these moves could be seen in comments by London-based MB official Mohamed Soudan, who said in late January that MB elements were speaking to American politicians, State Department officials, members of Congress, and academics, in order to explain the nonviolent history of the movement since its establishment in 1928.
In other statements to the media, Soudan said that most of the MB's contacts in the U.S. were done via a public relations firm, and added: "We will defend our history and the movement's future with all possible legitimate and legal means." According to him, the MB will not sit idly by but rather operate on all fronts and conduct meetings with all American parties in order to prevent a U.S. decision designating it a terrorist organization.
On February 5, the Saudi website Elaph reported that the MB had signed a contract with an American lobbying firm, paying it $4.8 million to help it establish ties with Trump administration officials in order to improve its image in U.S. media. According to the report, the contract included organizing meetings with Trump administration officials, submitting documents on Egyptian government mistreatment of the movement and its members, publishing articles in American media, and providing platforms for movement officials in American print and TV media. Elaph added that elements close to the Obama administration had helped the movement sign the contract with this firm, whose officials include figures close to Obama's election campaign and to Hillary Clinton. According to Elaph, the firm employs dozens of former White House and State Department staffers who have extensive ties to members of Congress and political and strategic research centers in the U.S.
Furthermore, former MB official Tareq Abu Al-Sa'ad claimed that as part of its efforts to improve its image in the U.S., the movement relies on specific American families who are members of the MB and have close ties to the U.S. administration. He mentioned a family which he said has ties to American officials and research institutes, as well as other MB officials that are expected to contact human rights organizations to help improve its image in Washington.
One example of the MB's efforts on this front is a New York Times article by Gehad Al-Haddad, a former Egyptian MB spokesman who was arrested in 2013 and is currently incarcerated in Tora Prison in Egypt. Gehad is the son of Essam Al-Haddad, an aide to former Egyptian president Mohamed Morsi. In the February 22 article, titled "I Am a Member of the Muslim Brotherhood, Not a Terrorist," Al-Haddad rejected claims that the MB was a terrorist organization, stating that its ideology stems from the Islamic interpretation based on social justice, equality, and rule of law. He stressed that despite the Egyptian regime's hostility, the movement always fought for the weak in society and that it believes in democracy and pluralism, adding that during the Mubarak era, it even worked together with democratic movements to prevent him from bequeathing the presidency to his son Gamal. He added that the MB opposes violence and has always operated peacefully, and that violent movements that are said to have grown out of the MB actually left the movement because it could not accept their violent methods. Elements close to the movement said it had chosen Gehad Al-Haddad to pen the article because he had held close ties with U.S. officials during Morsi's presidency.
Al-Haddad's New York Times article (New York Times, February 22, 2017)
Another New York Times article on February 20, by Declan Walsh, argued that a terror listing for the MB, which has millions of followers, could have negative consequences, especially for countries where MB-linked parties are in power or are prominent in Parliament, with serious implications for domestic politics, American diplomacy and the broader fight against Islamist extremism. It stated further that marginalizing this movement could mean discouraging some of its moderate branches that have won wide praise for their democratic engagement, while empowering jihadist groups. Moreover, the proposed designation would reaffirm Trump's embrace of Egyptian President Al-Sisi, who has faced severe international criticism for Egypt's dismal human rights record in recent years and its ruthless persecution of the MB.
It should be mentioned that on February 23, Al-Masri Al-Yawm quoted Mohamed Soudan as saying that the MB had managed to convince Congress to not designate it a terrorist organization. The report quoted Soudan as saying that the global MB organization had managed to hold contacts with administration and Congress officials and had used documents to convince them that the MB was not and would never be involved in terrorist attacks, and that it routinely issues condemnations for attacks that take place in most countries of the world." However, the following day Soudan denied the statements attributed to him by Al-Masri Al-Yawm, and posted an article from the Egyptian daily Al-Misriyyoun on his Facebook page with the comment: "I know nothing of this statement and these comments, and I don't know where they (Al-Masri Al-Yawm) got this fiction."
Al-Sisi Regime Responds To MB Media Campaign
The Egyptian regime does not seem to working as intensively to promote the U.S. Congressional bill to designate the MB terrorist as the MB is to prevent such a designation. In January 2017, Mohamed Al-'Orabi, former Egyptian foreign minister and current member of the Egyptian parliament's foreign relations committee, and Ahmed Al-Fadaly, head of the Independent Party Current, attended President Trump's inauguration, and also met with members of Congress and administration officials. They presented President Trump with a memo demanding quick action to designate the MB as terrorist. Al-'Orabi said during the visit that the Egyptian parliament would soon launch a widespread campaign to advance this issue.
However, besides this visit, and MP statements about their intentions to act on the matter, no actual measures are reported to have been taken to promote the U.S. Congress's anti-MB bill.
In mid-January 2017, it was reported that a delegation on behalf of the Egyptian parliament's Foreign Relations Committee would travel to the U.S. later that month to meet with members of Congress and deliver a report on "the MB's violent and terrorist acts." Tarek Radwan, a representative of the committee, said that attempts were being made to arrange a meeting between the delegation and Sen. Cruz and Rep. Mario Diaz-Balart. The visit, however, apparently never took place. On March 6, it was reported that delegation would visit the U.S. in April.
Egyptian Foreign Minister Sameh Shoukry, asked by the daily Al-Watan whether he had discussed the designation of the MB as terrorist during his late February 2017 visit to the U.S., responded: "I did not address this matter, but I told [U.S. officials] that it was important to note that the MB provides the philosophical and religious basis for radical ideology, and that we cannot combat terrorism [solely] by designating [organizations] in different ways, since all terrorist organizations are interconnected. Thus, [for example] even if ISIS is eliminated, new groups will continue to spring up as long as the source of radical ideology exists." Shoukry added that the U.S. officials had grasped his point, that he was following the efforts of several members of Congress on the issue, and that the issue remains controversial.
Egyptian Daily: New York Times Supports Terrorism, Slandered Egypt
In contrast to Egyptian officials, the daily Al-Yawm Al-Sabi', which is close to Egyptian authorities and intelligence apparatuses, dealt extensively with the issue of designating the MB as terrorist, publishing a number of articles attacking the organization. It also criticized the U.S. media, particularly The New York Times, stating that it was enabling MB terrorism. On February 23, the day after The Times published Gehad Al-Haddad's op-ed, Al-Yawm Al-Sabi' published an article titled "New York Times Supports MB Terrorism, Publishes Article by Gehad Al-Haddad..." On February 24, it published an article titled "Questionable MB Plot to Slander Egypt in Western Media... Islamist [elements]: Organization Spending Millions of Dollars to Spread Its Poison."
On March 2, Al-Yawm Al-Sabi' published an article headlined "New Disgrace for New York Times: Paper Refuses to Publish Article Proving MB Terrorism; [Egyptian-American journalist and researcher] Michael Morgan after His Article Was Rejected for Publication...: 'The Paper Has Become an [MB] Movement Platform and the U.S. Will Pay the Price."
Another Al-Yawm Al-Sabi' article, published March 12, stated: "Since the onset of the June 30  revolution that ousted the MB regime, The New York Times has specialized in improving the MB's image and slandering Egypt." It quoted Islamic affairs expert Ahmed 'Atta as saying that the MB International Organization secretary-general Ibrahim Munir Mustafa had paid global media outlets, chiefly the Times, $50 million to continue its attacks on Donald Trump because of Trump's anti-MB stance.
Al-Yawm Al-Sabi' February 24 article attacking the New York Times
Egyptian Journalists To Al-Sisi Regime: Be More Decisive In Countering MB Media Campaign
Several Egyptian writers criticized the regime's inertia in the face of the MB's media campaign. On February 22, Al-Ahram columnist Ahmed 'Abd Al-Tawab wrote that the MB's media campaign shows that the movement fears being designated a terrorist organization. He wrote that it is "Egypt's responsibility" in this matter, "due to its decades-long experience with MB crimes, to provide the Trump administration with information and historical and current evidence that will help it combat the movement on the legal, political, and cultural levels, in accordance with the human rights [principles] that the MB endangers..."
Al-Ahram writer Muhammad Salmawi also wrote of the need for Egypt to step up its activity vis-à-vis the U.S. on the MB issue. In an article titled "The Voice of the MB – and Our Silence," Salmawi wrote of his surprise at Egypt's feeble reaction to Gehad Al-Haddad's New York Times article. The MB, he said, realizes that the way to influence American society is through public relations and lobbying firms, and the Egyptian regime needs to do likewise: "Those who follow the American press at this time cannot help but notice the intense campaign to improve the MB's image and cleanse them of any blood spilled now or in the past in the name of Islam. This campaign has a specific goal – to stop the Trump administration from designating the movement a terrorist organization, thus fulfilling one of [Trump's] campaign promises. To this end, the campaign twists facts with reckless abandon, made possible by the absence of an opposing viewpoint that could have corrected the erroneous information and responded to [the MB's] notorious lies. How much longer will we remain silent in light of a campaign that has raised its voice and spread throughout the American media since the onset of the June 30, 2013 revolution?
"Last week I read the article by the former official MB spokesman [Gehad Al-Haddad], penned from his Egyptian prison cell and published by The New York Times. I was surprised that some of the few [Egyptian writers] who addressed this matter settled for pondering how such a message was smuggled out of prison in Egypt... The problem is not how it was leaked, but how we could not deliver a similar message [in Western media]...
"How easy it is to criticize security measures that allow messages to be smuggled out of Egyptian prisons and given to newspaper offices... in New York. How easy it is to step up measures against all the prisoners [as a result]. But the MB continues to be heard in the American press – while our position cannot be found in the international arena...
"First, we must examine how the other side managed to gain such a noticeable presence in Western media – and such an examination is not difficult. The ongoing publication of pro-MB positions in Western media, and [this media's] disregard for the Egyptian popular will, stems not from some global plot against us or global sympathy with the mother movement that birthed all the groups that accuse others of heresy – but mostly from [the MB's] accurate grasp of how to operate vis-à-vis American social institutions, and of the active role played by large PR firms in society – whether in the press, the media, in Congress, or elsewhere...
"The way to actively operate in the U.S. is by arriving at an understanding with these large institutions – whether during a presidential or congressional campaign, or in the fight to influence decision-making circles by means of the press and media, or by means of members of Congress. Such a campaign is undoubtedly costly, but losing is costlier still..."
Salmawi, who is known for his antisemitic views, added: "The Jewish lobby in the U.S. has already understood the power of the PR institutions and the influence they wield over American society on all levels. Using this and other methods, they control the political decision[-makers] in the U.S. The MB and the other international elements that fund them have [also] understood this. Is it not time for us to understand what our enemies already have?!"
* C. Meital is a research fellow at MEMRI; H. Varulkar is Director of Research at MEMRI.
 Al-Watan (Egypt), September 20, 2016.
 Al-Ahram (Egypt), November 11, 2016.
 Cruz.senate.gov, November 4, 2015.
 Twitter.com/SenTedCruz, January 10, 2017.
 Rassd.com, March 5, 2017.
 Eipss-eg.org, November 26, 2016.
 Eipss-eg.org, January 28, March 3, 2017.
 Al-Shurouq (Egypt), February 8, 2017.
 Aa.com.tr, January 31, 2017.
 Elaph.com, February 5, 2017; Al-Masri Al-Yawm (Egypt), February 23, 2017.
 Elaph.com, February 5, 2017. Elements in Egypt affirmed the reports about the MB's efforts to form a lobby. Gamal Al-Minshawi, an Islamic affairs researcher and former official in Al-Gama'a Al-Islamiyya, told the daily Al-Yawm Al-Sabi' that the MB pays millions of dollars to foreign newspapers and news sites for positive coverage. Al-Yawm Al-Sabi' (Egypt), February 24, 2017.
 Al-Yawm Al-Sabi' (Egypt), February 17, 2017.
 Al-Yawm Al-Sabi' (Egypt), February 24, 2017. It should be mentioned that in 2007-2012 Al-Haddad was director of the Clinton Foundation's Climate Initiative in Egypt. Washingtontimes.com , September 18, 2013.
 New York Times (U.S.), February 22, 2017.
 Al-Yawm Al-Sabi' (Egypt), February 24, 2017. It should be mentioned that after Al-Haddad's article was published, a website close to the MB reported that Egyptian prison authorities had penalized him by placing him in solitary confinement. Rassd.com, February 27, 2017. MB associates also said that Al-Haddad and other MB prisoners manage to smuggle writings out of prison with the help of their lawyers, but an Egyptian security source said that Al-Haddad did not pen the article himself, and that smuggling such writings out of prison was impossible. Al-Watan (Egypt), February 23, 2017; Al-Yawm Al-Sabi' (Egypt), February 24, 2017.
 Al-Masri Al-Yawm (Egypt), February 23, 2017.
 Al-Misriyyoun (Egypt), February 24, 2017; Facebook.com/FreedomJusticeFrMohamedSoudan, February 25, 2017.
 Al-Yawm Al-Sabi' (Egypt), January 20, 2017; Al-Watan (Egypt), January 22, 2017.
 Al-Yawm Al-Sabi' (Egypt), January 12, 2017.
 Motamemservice.com, March 6, 2017.
 Al-Watan (Egypt), March 10, 2017. `
 Al-Yawm Al-Sabi' (Egypt), February 23, 2017.
 Al-Yawm Al-Sabi' (Egypt), February 24, 2017.
 Al-Yawm Al-Sabi' (Egypt), March 2, 2017. Michael Morgan is an Egyptian-American researcher at the London Center for Policy Research, who promotes the designation of the MB as a terrorist organization.
 Al-Yawm Al-Sabi' (Egypt), March 12, 2017.
 Al-Ahram (Egypt), February 22, 2017.
 In an article he published in the French-language Egyptian weekly Al-Ahram Hebdo, titled "Look for the Jews," Salmawi criticized the French law criminalizing antisemitism and Holocaust denial, stating that it does not forbid denying crimes against humanity but only crimes against six million Jews who "allegedly" suffered a holocaust during World War II. He also wrote that whoever wants to understand the connection between the Monica Lewinsky affair in the U.S., the trial against "French thinker" Roger Garaudy (who was convicted in 1998 of Holocaust denial) and the barring of Holocaust denier David Irving from several countries needs to "look for the Jews." Al-Ahram Hebdo, Egypt, February 4-10, 1998.
 Al-Ahram (Egypt), March 5, 2017.