July 26, 2022 Inquiry & Analysis Series No. 1646

A Packaged Past – Part III: Translated Excerpts From Chinese History Schoolbooks For The Seventh And Eighth Grades

July 26, 2022
China | Inquiry & Analysis Series No. 1646

JIANGXI CHINA – September 30, 2013: "Jiujiang, East China, primary school students play police, reporters, nurses, photography models, and firefighters, experiencing all the hard work and fun." (Copyright (c) 2017 humphery/Shutterstock)


The MEMRI Chinese Media Studies Project (CMSP) was launched in late 2020 to provide both high-quality translations and fresh analysis on a wide spectrum of Chinese-language content coming from the People's Republic of China (PRC). This content includes, but is not limited to, reports on military, political and ideological developments; commentary by regime officials on the West, particularly on the U.S.; and broader Chinese interactions with other important countries and regions.

This MEMRI project, which builds on over two decades of work in other languages, expanded in 2022 to an ongoing examination of the Chinese government's educational system, investigating the PRC's official textbooks for children from elementary to secondary schools. On June 7, 2022, Part I of "A Packaged Past," an analytical study of the content of Chinese history textbooks, was released; it focused on the PRC's treatment of ancient Chinese history. This was followed by the release of Part II on June 8, 2022, which focused on how the books described contemporary Chinese history.

MEMRI now offers the nuts and bolts of this particular area of research – translated excerpts from, and commentary to, these deeply ideological texts used by the PRC to shape young minds, in Part III of "A Packaged Past."

Additional reports and occasional papers on this vitally important topic will continue throughout the year.


Chinese history education uses four textbooks comprising 90 lessons. It follows historical materialism and the principles of centralization and a unified China, beginning with the Yuanmou people 1.7 million years ago and ending in 2017.The main themes of Chinese history textbooks are:

1. Chinese civilization is the only civilization in the world that has continued since ancient times and has never been interrupted. For a long time, Chinese civilization and other civilizations in the world have exchanged materials and ideas. Chinese civilization contributions to the world include a profound ideological system, rich scientific, technological, cultural and artistic achievements, and the creation of a unique system – all of which have profoundly impacted the progress of world civilization. Chinese history lessons should explain that in the long historical process, China has made outstanding contributions to the progress of human civilization and that it is of peaceful character and maintains that peace is paramount, and that it is tolerant in its inclusion of all streams and the grandeur of the world.

2. The Chinese Communist Party (CCP) has led the Chinese people through arduous struggles and established a new socialist China, with Chinese characteristics, and its major achievements have attracted worldwide attention.

3. Students are to be trained to "shape the historical cognition of the whole nation and strengthen cultural self-confidence" through the "formation and development process of the pluralistic integration of the Chinese nation and Chinese civilization and the integration of family and country."

4. The vast land of China gave birth to early humans. Peking Man is one example of this. From the archaeological discoveries of the Peking Man sites, we can learn about early human life and activity, and their evolutionary progress. About 10,000 years ago, humans in China gradually learned to cultivate crops, raise livestock, create stone tools, and fire pottery and began to live in settlements.

From Grade 7 Chinese History Text, Volume 1: Introduction To Unit 1, Prehistoric Period

Chinese History, Grade 7, Volume 1 (Approved by the Ministry of Education in 2016; A Textbook for Compulsory Education; People's Education Press)

"Five or six thousand years ago, some tribes gradually formed alliances and introduced leaders. The legendary Yandi and Huangdi were outstanding representatives of this period. They were revered as the first humanistic ancestors of the Chinese nation. Archaeological discoveries in the Yellow River, the Yangtze River, and the Liaohe River basins have confirmed that the origin and development of Chinese civilization are characterized by multiple integrations."     

Note: The textbook uses very vague language to lead students to believe that the Chinese originated from the hominids found in China. This textbook was approved in 2016 and had its fourth printing in 2019. The information about the origin of humans that it presents does not mention genome sequencing engineering and modern theory about the origin of the human race in Africa.

For this historical view of the origin of mankind, please refer to a November 30, 2020 report by the Xinhua News Agency on a September 28, 2020 speech by the CCP General Secretary Xi Jinping at the 23rd collective study of the 19th Central Political Bureau. The speech was originally published in Seeking Truth, a central government publication.

Xi said: "Firstly, archaeological discoveries show the historical context of the origin and development of Chinese civilization. The major achievements of archaeological discoveries in China demonstrate China's one million years of human history, 10,000 years of cultural history, and more than 5,000 years of civilization history. The latest archaeological results show that China is the place of origin of eastern humans. It ranks alongside Africa as the earliest place of human origin. Peking Man invented artificial fire techniques 500,000 years ago, one of the earliest in the world. As early as 10,000 years ago, our ancestors planted millet and rice. China tied with West Asia and North Africa for first place in the world as the origin of agriculture. China's inventions and discoveries in musical instruments, canoes, water conservancy facilities, and astronomy are also one of the earliest, if not the earliest, in the world. Archaeological achievements show the formation and development process of the Chinese nation and the integration of Chinese civilization. They demonstrate the integration of family and country, and reveal the values on which Chinese society depends for survival and the development and the cultural heritage of the Chinese nation that is practiced daily and subconsciously. They also help us better study the history of Chinese civilization and shape the entire nation. Historical cognition provides first-hand material, which has very important political, cultural, social, and historical significance.

"Secondly, archaeological discoveries show the splendid achievements of Chinese civilization. These achievements fully demonstrate that China was in the world's forefront in developing ancient civilizations in the Neolithic, Bronze, and Iron Ages. Our ancestors achieved amazing results in these fields: cultivating crops; domesticating animals; [developing] medicine, astronomy, and geography; manufacturing tools; creating characters; discovering and inventing technology; building villages; building cities; constructing and governing the country; [and] creating and developing culture and art. It has made amazing achievements. These major achievements demonstrate the enterprising spirit of the Chinese nation to pioneer and innovate, keep pace with the times, and strive for self-improvement. They are an endless treasure of knowledge, wisdom, and art. They are an important source of cultural confidence.

"Thirdly, the archaeological discoveries demonstrated the great contribution of the Chinese civilization to world civilization. Chinese civilization is the only civilization in the world that has continued without interruption from ancient times. For a long time, Chinese civilization has exchanged ideas with and learned from other civilizations in the world. Chinese civilization has contributed to a profound ideological system, rich scientific, technological, cultural, and artistic achievements, and the creation of a unique governmental system. It profoundly affected the progress of world civilization.

"Ancient Chinese agriculture, the Four Great Inventions [the compass, gunpowder, papermaking, and printing], lacquerware, silk, porcelain, iron and steel technology, the county governmental system, and the imperial examination system have distinctive originality in the history of world civilization.

"These major achievements demonstrate China's outstanding contribution to the progress of human civilization in the long historical process. It also demonstrates the peaceful character of the Chinese nation. Peace is the most important thing. The tolerance and forbearance of the differences of others in the world. China has the greatness of a big, leading country in the world."

"Successive wars during the Warring States Period affected economic development and social stability. People of the vassal states hoped to end the war and live a peaceful, stable life. After Qin State emperor Yingzheng took the throne, he made full preparations for eradicating the Six Kingdoms. He recruited talented people from various states, assigned each of them important tasks, and listened to their suggestions to actively plan for reunification. After the Shang Yang Reform, the Qin State surpassed the Six Kingdoms in strength. The conditions for reunification were met... In 221 B.C., the Qin completed the great cause of reunification.

"The Qin's reunification ended the chaotic situation of long-term battles since the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period, and established the first unified multi-ethnic feudal country in Chinese history." (p. 44)

From Grade 7 Chinese History Text, Volume 1, Unit 3, Lesson 9: "Qin Shihuang Unifies China"

A discussion question: "What are the benefits of national unification for economic and cultural exchanges among regions and ethnic groups?"

From Grade 7 Chinese History Text, Volume 1, Unit 3, Lesson 10: "The Peasant Uprising At The End Of The Qin Dynasty"

"Qin Shihuang completed the cause of unifying China. He implemented various measures to consolidate the unification. He created the system of prefectures and counties and other systems used by later generations. However, his rule is characterized by eagerness and tyranny."

Note: Of the textbook's glorious claims about Qin's unification of China, the most shameless is the statement, "People of all states hope to end the war and live a stable life." And therefore Qin's wanton war was born. Traditional Chinese history books are full of records of the brutal acts of Qin's unification war and rule. However, while this textbook notes that "the rulers of the Qin Kingdom exercised brutal rule," it does not mention the massive harm to ordinary people caused by the war during the reunification process. Instead, it implies that it was "to end the war and live a stable life."

According to traditional Chinese history books, the Qin Kingdom killed 1.6-1.8 million people in 22 wars in the conquering Six States era.

(See Jian Bozan, Chinese and Foreign Historical Chronology: In 260 B.C., during the Changping Battle, the Qin army buried 450,000 Zhao Kingdom soldiers and civilians alive. In 234 B.C., during the Pingyang Battle, the Qin army beheaded 100,000 Zhao soldiers and civilians. In 293 B.C., during the Yique Battle, the Qin army beheaded 240,000 Han and Wei Kingdom soldiers and civilians. In 274 B.C., during the Huayang Battle, the Qin army beheaded 150,000 Wei Kingdom soldiers and civilians. In 312 B.C., during the Danyang Battle, the Qin army beheaded 80,000 Wei Kingdom soldiers and civilians.)

There are even more outlandish historical records stating that throughout the Qin Kingdom's conquest in the Six States, Qin caused the death and wounding of two-thirds of the population. According to Su Qin and Zhang Yi, at the start of the war, there were over five million soldiers and more 10 million civilians in all Six States. By end of the war, Qin had divided seven kingdoms into 36 states. Two-thirds of the total population was either killed or wounded.

Under the circumstances, it is very hard to believe that the Qin could still have the manpower to do so many unthinkable things. It established and carried out cruel, barbarian laws and punishments. It had a 50% tax rate. It built the Great Wall in the north with the forced labor of over 400,000 peasants. It used more than 500,000 soldiers to guard the southern borders. It used the forced labor of 700,000 peasants to build the Afang Palace and Lishan Tomb. More than 10 years of war resulted in massive death and destruction; dead bodies were piled up on the roads and in the rivers. (The Book of the Later Han Dynasty, citing "The Emperor Century.")

This lesson goes on to describe the tyranny of Emperor Qin, but treats tyranny and the process of unification separately. It does not explain how such tyranny relates to the purpose of unity. The statement "People want to end the war and live a stable life" explains nothing, and completely ignores "people of various kingdoms" who, in fact, did not want to be conquered and ruled by the Qin.

From Grade 7 Chinese History, Volume 1, Unit 4, Lesson 17: "The Temporary Unification Of The Western Jin Dynasty And The Inland Migration Of The Northern Ethnic Groups"

"During the Eastern Han, Wei, and Jin Dynasties, the northern nomadic peoples began to move inland. The Di and Qiang peoples, who originally lived in the northwest, moved to Guanzhong in Shaanxi, from west to east. The Huns and Jie peoples, who were scattered across the Mongolian grasslands, moved to Shanxi, from north to south. The Xianbei people moved to Liaoning, Shanxi, or Hetao. In the Western Jin Dynasty, the population of various ethnic groups who moved inland in Shanxi and Shaanxi accounted for half of the local population."

Note: The CCP history textbooks originally focused directly on the unification of China, centered on the central plains culture. The Great Wall was a border defense and a symbol of resistance to foreign invasions. Many generals who fought against the invasion of the northern clans were hailed as national heroes.

After the establishment of the latest "multiple unity" empire, new ways of defining history emerged. The conflict with the northern clans was no longer a foreign invasion. The "five clans invading China" became "the northern nomads migrating inland." When talking about the Huns "moving inland," the Han Chinese culture-centered statements like "northern expedition," "recovering," and "restoring the central plains" remained. In reality, the Eastern Jin Dynasty's territory was less than a third of the Western Han Dynasty's.

From Grade 7 Chinese History, Volume 2, Unit 1, Lesson 5: "The Anshi Rebellion And The Decline And Fall Of The Tang Dynasty"

Chinese History, Grade 7, Volume 2 (Approved by the Ministry of Education in 2016; A Textbook for Compulsory Education; People's Education Press)

The Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms have been the continuation of the separatist regimes since the end of the Tang Dynasty. Their founding monarchs were all powerful military commanders.

"Regimes in the north changed hands frequently. Wars and political turmoil continued. The southern region was less affected by the war. The political situation is relatively stable."

Note: The division and chronicles of dynasties in Chinese history textbooks are based solely on the principle of unification.

For example, in 618, the Tang Dynasty was established with Li Yuan as emperor. In 755, the eight-year An Shi Rebellion started, causing 36 million deaths. In 763, the An Shi Rebellion ended and took away the power of central unity.

The second 200-year period of the Tang Dynasty, from 763 to 960, when the Northern Song Dynasty reunified the country, was generally known as the "separation of the vassal rule and the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms."

The textbook extensively described the first 130-year period of the Tang Dynasty's prosperity and foreign exchanges. However, it only briefly described the second 200-year period. Thus, it created the impression that unity supersedes separation.

Throughout Chinese history, the era of division has far exceeded the era of unity. The term "unification" in the textbook is a historical fabrication serving the aims of those in power.

From Grade 7 Chinese History, Volume 2, Unit 2, Lesson 10, p. 47: "The Rise Of The Mongolian Nationality And The Establishment Of The Yuan Dynasty"

About Genghis Khan: "The unification of the various Mongolian tribes was completed by Temujin. When he was young, Temujin had experienced many hardships because of his father's death in tribal disputes. He realized from his early experience that unification of the various tribes on the grassland could bring peace, harmony, and stable life to the grassland. For many years, Temujin led his troops to fight, defeat, and conquer all powerful tribes. In 1206, he completed the unification of the Mongolian grassland. He established the Mongolian regime and became its first emperor. He was given the royal, honorable name Genghis Khan."


1. The basic narrative of unification or division is that "only unity can bring peace." The terms "to bring peace" and "to enable people to live a stable life" as used for the murderous are ironic. This narrative avoids the brutal killings Genghis Khan committed in the unification process and conveys the idea that as long as it was for unification, the cost can be ignored.

There is no need to tell students the bloody price paid for this glorified unification. Additionally, the purpose of unity mentioned in this narrative has been controversial and never fully proven.

2. Winners are always righteous. Losers are always sinners. Any foreign invasion, as long as it succeeds, is accepted as orthodox doctrine of Chinese civilization.

From Grade 7 Chinese History, Volume Two, Unit 3, Lesson 17, p. 47

The Demise of the Ming Dynasty

"The immediate cause of the demise of the Ming Dynasty was the uprising of Li Zicheng and Zhang Xianzhong. After Li Zicheng led the peasant uprising army into the central plains, he popularized the motto 'Redistribute the Land and Exempt Us from Taxes,' which was enthusiastically supported by a vast number of peasants. His army quickly grew to more than one million people. Li Zicheng enforced strict military discipline which prohibited the wrongful killing of anyone, occupation of civilian residences, and looting. He also distributed money and food to the poor. The army fought bravely in more than 10 provinces, including Henan and Huguang."


1. This textbook completely ignores the historical records of Li Zicheng's battles with the Ming army, which involved heavy casualties and massacres.

The population of China near the end of the Ming Dynasty was estimated to be close to 100 million. Li Zicheng's battles and the massacres caused a total of 25 million deaths. Several million people died in Sichuan Province alone. The number of people slaughtered by another peasant uprising army leader, Zhang Xianzhong, was conservatively estimated as between 600,000 and over one million.

2. The textbook only points out that the rebels stipulated that they were not allowed to occupy civilian houses, or to loot or kill wrongfully. But it does not explain how the army of millions of people solved the problem of food and supplies. What exactly were the criteria for "wrongful" killing?

3. Chinese textbooks have always lacked a definition of legitimate force. For example, what are the differences between the force used for local self-protection and the force used for obtaining power?

"In August 1842, the Qing government was forced to sign, with the United Kingdom, the first unequal treaty in modern Chinese history, the Sino-British Nanjing Treaty. The main points of the Nanjing Treaty were opening up Guangzhou, Fuzhou, Xiamen, Ningbo, and Shanghai as trading ports; giving Hong Kong to the UK; compensating the UK with 21 million silver dollars; and stipulating that UK import and export tax rates would be negotiated by both parties."

From Grade 8 Chinese History, Volume 1, Unit 1, Lesson 1, pp. 2-7

Chinese History, Grade 8, Volume 1 (Approved by the Ministry of Education in 2017; A Textbook for Compulsory Education; People's Education Press)

The Opium War

"In 1843, Britain forced the Qing government to sign the Treaty of Humen, under which it obtained consular jurisdiction, unilateral most-favored-nation treatment, and the right to rent land and build houses in trading ports. The Opium War changed the development process of Chinese history; China lost its independence and sovereignty, and the natural economy of Chinese society was destroyed. China transitioned from a feudal society to a semi-colonial and semi-feudal society."


1. Chinese history textbooks, when writing about issues regarding China's isolation and unbalanced foreign trade, will not mention the fact that those are selfish policies of the court and had nothing to do with common people's desire for foreign trade and cultural exchange. The West's forcing the imperial court to open the port for trade was misrepresented as a threat and a humiliation to the nation. Due to certain political demands, the modern construction of a nation-state is used to explain that China's original historical process has been interrupted, and the concept that the Chinese people have been bullied. The conclusion: Westerners are bad.

2. "Consular jurisdiction" involves the incompatibility between Qing Dynasty justice and the modern rule of law. The Qing Dynasty government practiced medieval torture as its justice system. It had no concept of procedural justice.

3. The tariff issue involves the integration of government and business. Local officials can apportion and collect miscellaneous fees and taxes at will. This part of forced bribes makes the actual taxation far higher than the published rates. This practice was commonplace in the Qing Dynasty.

4. Several concepts in this history textbook do not withstand scrutiny, or even make any sense – for instance, how to define "the developmental process of Chinese history"; whether China is a "feudal society"; and how to define the "complete independent sovereignty" of the medieval countries. The Manchu regime, Qing Dynasty itself, was an outsider.

"The Burning of the Old Summer Palace was the permanent trauma left to the Chinese during the Second Opium War. It is a very shameful page in the history of human civilization.

"How did the Second Opium War break out? Why did the British and French coalition loot and burn the Old Summer Palace? What territories and sovereignty did China lose in the Second Opium War?

"Relevant facts: Yaluo Incident. Father Maria [Ma Lai, aka] Auguste Chapdelaine, was a French Catholic priest. He illegally entered Xilin County, Guangxi from Guangzhou and committed various horrific crimes. He was arrested and executed by local officials in February 1856. This is the Father Ma incident, also known as the Xilin Missionary incident."

From Grade 8 Chinese History, Volume 1, Unit 1, Lesson 2, pp. 8-12

The Second Opium War

"In 1860, under the pretext that the renewal of contracts was blocked, Britain and France once again sent troops to occupy Tianjin and to advance to Beijing. Emperor Xianfeng asked his brother Yi Xin to serve as minister of peace and to remain in Beijing. Emperor Xianfeng himself fled to Chengde Mountain Resort. In October, British and French coalition forces looted the Old Summer Palace, a famous royal garden in the western suburbs of Beijing, and later burned it down."


1. The Xilin Missionary incident was a very controversial affair. Qing officials accused the French Catholic priest Chapdelaine of fabricated crimes. The priest never acknowledged wrongdoing, and historical data show that local officials deliberately framed the believers.

2. In the Xilin Missionary incident, the priest and two believers were arrested by officials in Xilin County on February 24 and sentenced to death. On February 29, Father Ma and two believers, a man and a woman, were tortured and killed in cages. After their deaths, the two men were beheaded.

3. Regarding the British and French armies' burning of the Old Summer Palace: A number of Chinese literary works fabricate stories. The textbook did not mention that the direct real cause of the Anglo-French coalition troops' actions was the so-called "blocked contract negotiation." In fact, the Qing prince detained 39 people of the British and French delegation led by Mr. Pashali. They entered Beijing to negotiate the contract on September 17. By October 8, when the Qing court released the detained delegation, only 19 of the delegation members remained alive; the other 20 had been tortured to death. The horrific details shocked modern civilization. However, under the concealment, education, and propaganda of the Chinese authorities, Chinese public opinion online shows that a large number of people still believe that the behavior is acceptable, and even glorify it as heroism to protect sovereignty.

From Grade 8 Chinese History, Unit 1, Lesson 3, pp. 13-18

The Taiping Rebellion

"The Taiping Rebellion was the largest peasant war in Chinese history. Due to limitations of the peasant class, the Taiping Rebellion was unable to put forward a practical revolutionary program, stop the leaders' corruption, and maintain the unity of the leaders. However, the Rebellion lasted for 14 years and covered more than half of China. It dealt hard blows to the Qing Dynasty and foreign aggressors, and wrote a heroic chapter in modern Chinese history."

Note: Chinese textbooks have consistently ignored the bloody regime change, reflecting a belief in "people's lives in exchange for regimes." Historians estimate the Taiping Rebellion death toll at 20 million.

"Key terms: Revolutionary Program; Unity; Limitations of the Peasant Class"

From Grade 8 Chinese History, Volume 1, Unit 2, Lesson 4, pp. 20-23

The Westernization Movement

"The Westernization Movement was a self-help movement for the ruling groups in the late Qing Dynasty to seek strength and prosperity. It not only founded modern industrial and mining enterprises, transportation, and telecommunications, but also organized military forces, prepared coastal defenses, and established and promoted educational systems. Why, then, did the Westernization Movement fail to achieve the goal of self-reliance and wealth?

"The Westernization Movement is the first modernization movement in Chinese history. After more than 30 years of construction, China's modernized military industry, civilian industry, and transportation industries have gradually developed. Objectively, it created Chinese national capitalism. It also played a certain role in resisting the invasion of foreign capital.

"However, the purpose of the Westernization Movement was to maintain and consolidate the rule of the Qing government. Coupled with the extensive corruption of the rulers and the squeeze of foreign power, it did not make China prosperous and powerful."

"Key terms: National Capitalism"

From Grade 8 Chinese History, Unit 2, Lesson 7, pp. 32-36

The Eight Nation Alliance Invades China And The Boxer Protocol

"The Boxer Rebellion developed from Yihe Quan (the Righteous and Harmonious Fists), secret private associations and organizations practicing martial arts in [the provinces of] Shandong and Zhili. At the end of the 19th century, with the intensification of imperialist aggression and rampant activity by [foreign] missionaries, these organizations gradually changed from anti-Qing secret associations or purely martial arts groups to anti-imperialist struggle organizations with mass support."

Note: While the textbook did point out the blind xenophobia of the Boxers, it nevertheless stated that the Boxers were used by the Qing government. It added that "many of them marched into Tianjin and Beijing, posting notices along the way exposing the crimes of the imperialist aggression and expressing their anger at the foreign invaders by destroying churches, demolishing railways, and cutting off power lines." (p. 33)

The Boxers killed more than 400 foreigners, mainly missionaries, and 20,000 Chinese Christians. At Zhujiatang Church in Jingzhou, Hebei Province, more than 2,000 Boxers and more than 2,000 Qing soldiers killed 2,500 Christians (another record says 1,800) who had taken refuge in Zhujiatang. Most of the victims were women, children, and the elderly; also killed were two foreign priests.[1]

From Grade 8 Chinese History, Unit 3, Lesson 8, pp. 38-54

Bourgeois Democratic Revolution And Establishment Of The Republic Of China

Sun Yat-sen, Forerunner Of The Revolution

"Sun Yat-sen, the forerunner of the democratic revolution, was determined to use revolutionary means to overthrow the Qing government and establish a republic. Revolutionary ideas were widely spread, driven by Sun Yat-sen and others. Revolutionary groups continued to emerge, and revolutionary activities in various regions flourished. Democratic revolution gradually became an irresistible trend of the times.

"Sun Yat-sen tried to concentrate the revolutionary forces and establish a unified revolutionary organization. In August 1905, he united members of Xingzhonghui, Huaxinghui, and Guangfuhui to establish the China Alliance in Tokyo, Japan. At the inaugural meeting, the political goals were established: to 'expel the northern nationalities, restoring China; create the Republic; and equalize land rights.' Sun Yat-sen was elected premier of the China Alliance, and the organization's  structure was established at the meeting. It was also decided that the organization would publish a newspaper called People's Newspaper.

"The China Alliance was China's first large-scale, national, bourgeois revolutionary party. Its establishment gave the national bourgeois revolutionaries a unified leadership and a clear goal of struggle. It greatly promoted the development of the national revolutionary movement.

"In the People's Newspaper's first editorial [which he authored], Sun Yat-sen interpreted the political program of the China Alliance as 'nationalism, democracy, and the livelihood of the people,' collectively referred to as the 'Three People's Principles.' They became Sun Yat-sen's guiding ideology for leading the bourgeois revolution."

Additional Study: The Three People's Principles

"The Three People's Principles exemplified the China Alliance's political program of nationalism, democracy, and livelihood of the people.

"Nationalism is to expel the northern nationalities, destroy the Manchu-controlled Qing dynasty, restore Han-controlled China, and ban national oppression.

"Democracy refers to creating the Republic. It is the core of the three principles. It means to overthrow the Qing Dynasty's autocratic monarchy system and to establish a parliamentary republic under the rule of the bourgeoisie. In the Republic, all citizens are equal and the president and parliamentarians are elected by the citizens.

"The livelihood of the people refers to 'equal land ownership.' A national land price will be assessed, and the state will collect land taxes based on the governmental assessment. At the same time, the government will gradually buy land from the landlords and will own the land and give it to the poor people. This principle will solve the problem of inequality between rich and poor."

Note: Sun Yat-sen's Three Principles of the People initially emphasized the most inflammatory "nationalism," that is, "to expel the Manchus (barbarians) and restore China." But what the Chinese Communist Party's history textbook does not say is that the first to state these two phrases was Zhu Yuanzhang, Emperor Taizu, founder of the Ming Dynasty. He ended the Yuan Dynasty when the Mongols ruled China and created another Han Chinese dynasty, the Ming. In 1367, he wrote in an article titled "A Call To Arms To The Central Plains" (《谕中原檄》– also known as "In Accordance With The Will Of Heaven To Launch The Northern Expedition, To Crusade Against The Yuan Dynasty"《奉天北伐讨元檄文》) " expel the barbarians (Mongols), restore China, establish social order and law, and save all the peoples in the fire and water."

Subsequently, Sun Yat-sen's Tongmenghui of China (a.k.a. the United League of China, Chinese Alliance, 中国同盟会) used these two phrases for reference, making them one of the guidelines set after the establishment of the Tongmenghui in August 1905.

Following that, the Tongmenghui of China had a deep relationship with Japan and was influenced by Japanese "Petit Sinocentrism Thought" and the motto of "Expel the Manchus and restore China" that was proposed in the "Letter of Honest Advice to the Heroic Men of Eighteen Provinces"(《开诚忠告十八省之豪杰》)written by Japanese scholar Munakata Kotaro (宗方小太郎)during the Japanese-Qing War (Sino-Japanese War) in 1894. Kotaro himself had assisted Sun Yat-sen with his revolution.

But by October 1905, Sun Yat-sen had downgraded this motto to "nationalism." In his speech in December 1906, he did not mention "Expel the Manchus," but focused on "nationalism" and harshly attacked the theory of national revenge. After that, the motto "Expel the Manchus" rarely appeared in the revolutionaries' rhetoric.

At the end of 1911, after the success of the Revolution of 1911, the Republic of China was about to be founded, and the emperor of the Qing Empire established by the Manchus was about to abdicate. Represented by Sun Yat-sen, the revolutionaries who once advocated racial revolution completely gave up the proposition of racial revanchism, declared the implementation of "Five-nationality Unity for a Republic," formulated the Provisional Constitution of the Republic of China, and completely abandoned the motto of "Expel the Manchus." Later, imitating the American concept of the American nation, Sun Yat-sen changed the concept of emphasizing the Han nationality to the concept of emphasizing the "Chinese nation" with the Han nationality as the main body and including all ethnic groups, expressing the hope that "China will form a complete nation-state and become the two largest nationalistic countries in the Eastern and Western hemispheres, together with the United States."

In the history textbook, the CCP only emphasizes the mottos "Expel the Manchus and Restore China" put forward by the "Tongmenghui of China," led by Sun Yat-sen, but does not mention the historical evolution of Sun Yat-sen's national ideas and policies. This indicates that on the one hand, the Chinese Communist Party and the CCP regime established by the Han nationality want to implicitly express via the mouth of Sun Yat-sen the superiority of the Han nationality as the dominant ethnic group; the Han nationality's discrimination against ethnic minorities; and the "legitimacy" of the CCP's harsh rule in ethnic minority regions such as Xinjiang, Tibet, Ningxia, and Inner Mongolia; and that on the other, the CCP wants to demonstrate with the mottos the so-called "advanced nature" of its ethnic policy, which is now being pursued under the banner of "regional ethnic autonomy."

From Grade 8 Chinese History, Volume 1, Unit 3, Lesson 9, pp. 42-45

The 1911 Revolution Or The Xinhai Revolution

"The year 1911 was the Xinhai year on the lunar calendar. Therefore, the revolution that took place that year is called the Xinhai Revolution or the 1911 Revolution. It ended China's last reactionary imperial dynasty, the Qing dynasty; heralded the end of China's 2,000-year monarchy system; and created a truly modern national democratic revolution. It greatly promoted the ideological emancipation of the Chinese nation and opened the floodgates for China's progressive trend." (p. 45)

Note: The CCP's history textbooks indoctrinate students with so-called "historical facts" that have been taken out of context – that is, history textbooks are only allowed to relate content that benefits the Communist Party. In order to maintain power, the CCP, which was founded by the Han nationality, adopts typical political pragmatism towards history. Its core intent is still to assert that its regime represents the so-called "Tradition" and "orthodoxy" of China, just as the people of the Southern Song Dynasty discussed "the Chinese-barbarian discrimination." The Chinese Communist Party has long respected Sun Yat-sen as the forerunner of China's democratic revolution, which means that it is the "real" revolutionary party inheriting Sun Yat-sen's legacy – as opposed to the Kuomintang, which "betrayed" Sun Yat-sen and competed with the regime of the Republic of China for the legitimacy and discourse power of the orthodox Chinese regime.

"After-school activities: Read some books about the deeds of the revolutionary party members and learn the stories of the revolutionary party members, who would not hesitate to shed their blood for the revolution." (p. 45)

From Grade 8 Chinese History, Volume 1, Unit 3, Lesson 10, pp. 46-49

The Establishment Of The Republic Of China

"After the Wuchang Uprising, the provinces became independent. The development of the revolutionary situation required a unified central government. In December 1911, representatives of the provinces elected Sun Yat-sen as interim president at a rally in Nanjing." (p. 46)

Note: In a sense, the establishment of the Republic of China under the leadership of Sun Yat-sen was the result of another attempt to "Overturn Qing Dynasty and reinstate Ming Dynasty (反清复明)." The Taiping Heavenly Kingdom Movement (a.k.a. the Taiping Rebellion, 太平天国运动) which broke out in 1851, could be regarded as an "anti-Qing Dynasty" campaign. Although Hong Xiuquan, the leader of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, did not agree with the idea of reinstating the Ming Dynasty advocated by the Heaven and Earth Society (a.k.a Hongmen, Tiandihui, 天地会), the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom did deal a heavy blow to the centralized power of the Qing Court, which objectively paved the way for the establishment of the Republic of China 60 years later. What's more, it is interesting that the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom Movement was a Han Chinese-initiated revolution unanimously praised by the revolutionary parties established in the late Qing Dynasty, the later Kuomintang and the Chinese Communist Party. This is very rare. None of these is in the CCP's history textbooks.

There is no inevitable connection between a unified central government and the development requirements of the so-called revolutionary situation in which various provinces became independent after the Wuchang Uprising. It should be known that the independence of the provinces in China at that time was only a façade. In fact, they just wanted to be independent from the Qing Court, to "exclude and expel Manchus," rather than to establish their own independent states. This is often referred to as "when a wall is about to collapse, everybody gives it a shove," and every province wanted to sabotage the Qing government. The goal was to overthrow the Qing Court, which represented foreign ethnic rule.

The Qing dynasty lasted 278 years and finally fell. After nearly 300 years of foreign ethnic rule, the Han Chinese would inevitably demand the establishment of a Han-dominated regime. This can be clearly seen from the whole process in which the strongman Yuan Shikai, in order to become the president of the Republic of China, specially ordered General Tuan Chi-jui to force the Qing emperor to abdicate. In fact, as early as 1900, when the Eight-Power Allied Forces attacked the Qing Court in Beijing, the governors of the southeast provinces defied Empress Dowager Cixi's imperial decree to declare war on 11 countries, and started Mutual Protection of Southeast China in partnership, which was already a prelude to the independence of each province. Of course, after the end of the alien rule of the Qing Dynasty and the establishment of the Republic of China, the autonomy and relative independence of China's provinces were significantly increased.

From Grade 8 Chinese History, Volume 1, Unit 4, p. 55

The Beginning Of The New Democratic Revolution

"Facing the chaotic political situation under the rule of the Beiyang warlords, some progressive intellectuals believed that cultural changes were necessary to save the nation from peril. They launched a new cultural movement and promoted the liberation of the mind.

"In 1919, China's diplomatic failure at the Paris Peace Conference triggered a thorough anti-imperialist patriotic movement – the May Fourth Movement. The working class showed great strength. Marxism spread widely. The early Communist Party organizations were established one after another.

"In July 1921, the CCP was born. The face of the Chinese revolution took on a new look."

Note: As a result of the CCP's collaboration with Sun Yat-sen, it has deliberately disparaged and demonized the rule of the Beiyang government of the Republic of China (1913-1928), founded by Sun's rival and former "co-star" Yuan Shikai. The CCP depicts it as a period of "incessant fighting between warlords and people living in extreme poverty." It should be noted that the theory and establishment of the Republic of China was the result of Sun Yat-sen's leadership, so he enjoyed a high reputation. However, at the beginning of the Republic of China, Sun did not have many troops or much strength and feared Yuan Shikai, who was heavily armed in the north; he hoped to win him over and use him.

In fact, in recent years, historians have increasingly believed that the period of the Beiyang government of the Republic of China formed the beginnings of China's democratic society, and created a rare great era of large-scale democratic practices in China's history. For example, at that time, the freedom of the press in China was comparable to that in Europe and the U.S., and the local cultures of various provinces enjoyed free rein. In addition, the Beiyang government's achievements in the economic and diplomatic fields were quite remarkable. A series of economic miracles created by the Nanjing National Government of the Republic of China depended on the efforts made by the Beiyang government. During this time there were frequent cabinet changes and attempts at various forms of government, including the cabinet system, the parliamentary system, and the presidential system. Warlords waged wars, but the people were by no means left destitute.

It is extremely difficult to imagine that without such a period, China could have allowed the idea of "wholesale Westernization," a New Culture Movement (see below) marked with "advocacy of democracy and science, anti-Confucianism, and anti-feudalism," which greatly questioned Chinese traditional culture and had an enormous and destructive impact on the essence of Chinese traditional civilization and order. For example, in the early 20th century, up until the 1930s, scholars Wu Zhihui, Qian Xuantong, CCP cofounder Chen Duxiu, Cai Yuanpei, Lu Xun, and many others tried to latinize Chinese characters. It also made possible the influx and spread of Marxist thought and the founding of the CCP itself.

From Grade 8 Chinese History, Volume 1, Unit 4, Lesson 12, pp. 56-58

The New Culture Movement

The Rise Of The New Culture Movement

"The newly born Republic of China quickly fell into political chaos. After painful reflection, some progressive intellectuals realized that the reform of the political system alone was not enough to save China; they had to inspire a new ethical and moral consciousness and cultivate the independent personality of the people. They also had to thoroughly purge the poison of the old feudal culture and implement an innovative ideology and culture movement." (p. 56)

The Content And Significance Of The New Culture Movement

"The New Culture Movement attacked old morals and culture. There was rampant revival of Confucianism during the Beiyang government period. In response, the New Youth newspaper published a large number of articles strongly criticizing feudal morals and culture. Lu Xun's vernacular novel A Madman's Diary, part of the new literature, exposed the cannibalistic nature of feudal ethics and called on the people to rise up and overthrow the 'black' cannibalistic society.

"The New Culture Movement promotes democracy and science, which are the two slogans of the New Culture Movement. The slogans were introduced by Chen Duxiu, who also vividly referred to them as 'Mr. De' and Mr. Sai." Chen Duxiu believed that only these two gentlemen could cure all the sicknesses in China's politics, morals, academics, and thought." (p. 57)

"The New Culture Movement shook the dominance of feudal morality and ethics. It allowed the Chinese people to accept a baptism of democracy and science. It played a role in ideological propaganda and created the foundation for the subsequent May Fourth Movement. To a certain extent, the Movement's views on traditional Chinese culture were one-sided. It nonetheless opened the floodgates that had blocked the flow of new ideas, setting off a trend of ideological emancipation." (p. 58)

Note: The "democracy" that the CCP is talking about here is not Western democracy, but a false democracy that has been conceptually altered in order to deceive the world. Today, Xi Jinping often talks about democracy, claiming that his Communist Party is engaged in "whole-process people's democracy" and that it is "the most advanced" democracy – as if this would allow him to defend himself against Western attacks and become less passive. This is a trick devised to deceive the world and the Chinese people. We might well ask: If Xi Jinping's democracy is so "advanced," why does he not dare to allow the Chinese people to vote in genuine elections, with one person, one vote?

It is particularly absurd that Xi Jinping is now thinking of turning to China's ancients for help in reviving the traditional Chinese Confucian ethical code, which is characterized by rigid hierarchy and centralization. Not only does he not want to oppose traditional Chinese culture, which is beneficial to his power; he also wants to graft the centralization and loyalty to the monarch typical of this culture onto the communist ideology to obtain dual legitimacy – for his lifelong rule and the permanent rule of the Chinese Communist Party.

From Grade 8 Chinese History, Volume 1, Unit 4, Lesson 13, pp. 59-62

The May Fourth Movement

Start Of The May Fourth Movement

"At the end of World War One, the victorious nations such as Britain, the U.S., France, and Japan held the Peace Conference in Paris, France from January to June 1919. As one of the victorious nations, the Chinese government also sent representatives to participate. At the conference, Chinese representatives put forward legitimate demands, such as the abolition of imperialist privileges in China and the Twenty-One Articles, and the restoration of Qingdao's sovereignty. However, the British, French, and American powers manipulated the meeting and turned a deaf ear to China's demands. Furthermore, all German privileges in Shandong, including Qingdao, were transferred to Japan. As the news of this spread across the country, the long-suppressed anger of the Chinese people finally erupted like a volcano!

"As the surging anti-imperialist wave swept across the country, the Beiyang government had to release the arrested students and to remove Cao Rulin and others from their posts. The Chinese representative refused to sign the Paris Peace Treaty. The direct goal of the May Fourth Movement was achieved. This was a major victory for the Chinese people in their anti-imperialist struggle."

Historical Significance Of The May Fourth Movement

"The May Fourth Movement is a great patriotic revolutionary movement that is anti-imperialism and anti-feudalism. The progressive young intellectuals were the vanguard, and the broad masses of the people were participants. It is a great patriotic revolutionary movement launched by the Chinese people to save the nation from peril, defend its dignity, and gather its strength. The great social revolutionary movement of China is a great ideological enlightenment movement to spread new ideas, new culture, and new knowledge.

"The May Fourth Movement promoted the progress of Chinese society and the spread of Marxism in China. It had the significant revolutionary nature of anti-imperialism and anti-feudalism. It pursued the truth to save the country and to build a strong nation. It had the extensive participation of the masses of all ethnic groups and all walks of life. The combination of Marxism and the Chinese workers' movement prepared the ideology and cadre for the establishment of the CCP, and conditions that were ripe for new revolutionary forces, culture, and struggle to enter the stage of history. The turning point of the democratic revolution is a milestone in the historical process of the Chinese nation's pursuit of national independence and development and progress in modern times."

Note: The new democratic revolution was led by the proletariat and by the masses of the people. It opposed imperialism, feudalism, and bureaucratic capitalism. From the May Fourth Movement in 1919 to the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949 was called the New Democratic Revolution period. The period of the anti-imperialist and anti-feudal national democratic movement before this was called The Democratic Revolution Period.

From Grade 8 Chinese History, Volume 1, Unit 4, Lesson 14, pp. 63-69

The Birth Of The CCP

"After the May Fourth Movement, with the extensive spread of Marxism, some localities established early Communist Party organizations. In July 1921, the First National Congress of the CCP was held in Shanghai and proclaimed the birth of the CCP.

"Under what historical conditions was it born? After its birth, what new aspects did the Chinese revolution obtain?" (p. 63)

Note: Before the First National Congress of the Chinese Communist Party was held, the participants did not think it had much significance or political influence. Chen Duxiu and Li Dazhao, the early leaders of the CCP, did not even attend the meeting. The exact opening date of the First National Congress of the CCP was not known for a long time, due to a lack of historical records and materials. It was not until 1981, after comparison and calculation with multiple sources, that the CCP finally identified the date of the beginning of its First National Congress as July 23, 1921. However, the CCP's official body is still uncertain as to the exact date in early August 1921 that this meeting concluded.

The Spread Of Marxism

"Before the May Fourth Movement, few people in China knew Marxism. In 1917, the victory of the October Socialist Revolution in Russia gave Chinese progressive intellectuals hope. Publications propagating new thoughts and cultures sprang up like mushrooms. More and more progressive intellectuals began to pay attention to Marxism. In 1919, the New Youth newspaper published a special issue about it. Li Dazhao published an article titled My View on Marxism that gave a more systematic introduction to it. Subsequently, many groups were established throughout the country to study and propagate Marxism."

Note: Marxism was first introduced in China by The Globe Magazine, which was published by foreign missionaries long hated by the CCP. Founded by American missionary Young John Allen and others in September 1868, it was formerly known as Church News; it was published for nearly 40 years and ceased publication in May 1907. It had great, far-reaching influence on the development of China and neighboring Japan in modern times.

Note: Between February and April 1899, Issues 121 to 124 of The Globe Magazine serialized an essay by Timothy Richard and Cai Erkang that was based on translations of the first four chapters of the British philosopher Benjamin Kidd's book Social Evolution. The essay referred to their translation of the Communist Manifesto and the Chinese names of Marx and Engels.

The Victory Of The May Fourth Movement

"The victorious development of the May Fourth Movement made China's progressive intellectuals realize the power of the working class. Many intellectuals began to work with the working class, helping workers organize labor unions, open labor schools and worker literacy classes; put out publications reflecting workers' lives; and used plain and easy-to-understand language to promote Marxism. They inspired workers' class consciousness, and Marxism began to be integrated into the Chinese labor movement." (pp. 64-64)

Note: The May Fourth Movement can also be called the May Fourth New Culture Movement, which objectively promoted the spread of communist thought imported from the West across China. The CCP has been changing the definition of the May Fourth Movement and usurping the right to interpret it.

In fact, there were considerable differences among various political forces in China with regard to their understanding of the New Culture Movement and the May Fourth Movement. Liberals believed that the New Culture Movement was an enlightenment movement and the May Fourth Movement a national salvation movement. On the Kuomintang side, Sun Yat-sen and Chiang Kai-shek both advocated traditional Chinese culture, thus basically denying the New Culture Movement. Chiang Kai-shek considered the New Culture Movement to be "the worship of things foreign and fawning on foreign countries." Sun Yat-sen affirmed the May Fourth Movement. Chiang Kai-shek's attitude towards the movement was more subtle; he praised it on the surface and stressed that it was a patriotic movement, but did not talk about its anti-traditional aspect. In general, he distanced himself from the movement as much as possible.

Ironically, it is the Chinese Communist Party, which fears Western democratic values the most, that pragmatically holds a positive view of both movements. Mao Zedong considered the May Fourth Movement to be thoroughly anti-imperialist and anti-feudal; he propelled the New Cultural Revolution to a new stage, initiating the so-called New Democracy, in which the proletariat began to participate and later became the leading force.

"In July 1921, the First National Congress of the CCP was secretly held in Shanghai. Thirteen representatives, among them Mao Zedong, Dong Biwu, and Li Da, attended. They represented more than 50 party members across the country. Henk Sneevliet, a.k.a. Ma Lin, the representative of the Communist International, attended the meeting." (p. 65)

Related Historical Events

"When the First National Congress of the CCP was held secretly in Shanghai, it was disturbed by the French Concession patrol. The meeting was transferred to a cruise boat on Nanhu Lake in Jiaxing, Zhejiang Province. The attendees pretended to be tourists, and finally completed the [meeting's] agenda.

"This Red [cruise] Boat witnessed the great event that was groundbreaking in Chinese history, and became a symbol of the Chinese revolution. Since then, the CCP has adhered to the spirit of the Red Boat and has stood at the forefront of the development of history and times. It has continuously advanced the Chinese revolution and construction, and dedicated itself to fighting for the benefit and interests of the public and to be loyal to the people." (p. 65)

Note: As the Chinese Communist Party grew in mainland China and eventually seized power, its founding was called "epoch-making" by Mao Zedong. Thus, the Party's First National Congress, which was attended by only 12 official delegates, becomes very important. The CCP has always tampered with historical facts. For example, Mao Zedong was a minor figure among the delegates to this First National Congress, serving as a clerk – and playing a far less important role than was later suggested. The meeting's chairman was Zhang Guotao, Mao Zedong's future political rival. The congress elected Chen Duxiu, Zhang Guotao, and Li Da as the Central Bureau of the Communist Party, which became the leading body of the CCP and was known as the "three-man leadership." Eventually, Chen Duxiu was appointed general secretary of the Central Bureau, Zhang Guotao was appointed director of organization, and Li Da was appointed director of propaganda.

"The congress passed the first party program and established the name of the party as the CCP. The goal of its struggle was set out as overthrowing the bourgeois regime, establishing the proletariat dictatorship, and actualizing communism. It determined that the party's work should center on leading and organizing the labor movement. It established the Central Bureau, the party's central leading body. Chen Duxiu was elected as the secretary of the Central Bureau. The CCP, the vanguard of the Chinese proletariat, was born!

"The birth of the CCP was a great event in Chinese history. Since then, the face of the Chinese revolution has taken on a completely new look. The birth of the CCP was no accident; it was adapted to the objective requirements of China's social progress and social development in modern times. It was the inevitable result of modern historical choices.

"In July 1922, the CCP convened its Second National Congress in Shanghai. The congress reiterated that the party's ultimate goal was to achieve communism, and at the same time formulated the party's minimum program. It stipulated that during the stage of the democratic revolution, the main task of the party was to overthrow the warlords and the oppression of imperialism. The CCP would unify China as a true democratic republic.

"The CCP put forward the first anti-imperialist, anti-feudalism democratic revolution program in Chinese history." (p. 66)

Note: The Chinese Communist Party always likes to impose its own uninvited representation on the Chinese people, and then present its establishment and its subsequent violent seizure of power in mainland China as "the inevitable choices of the people and history."

The fact is that the founding and early development of the CCP was the result of efforts by the Comintern (also known as the Third International, which was actually the Soviet Russian government at the time) to expand its influence in the world. Most of the operating funds of the CCP in the early stage of its development were provided by the Comintern, headquartered in Moscow. The CCP was under the command of the Third International as part of the international communist movement. The funds provided by the Comintern to the CCP included precious jewelry, diamonds, and opium, in addition to U.S. dollars and rubles.

One recurring question is: When the CCP was founded in 1921, it had only about 50 members, so how could its founding be the result of the people's choice? In other words, the Communist Party was founded first and the people were forced to accept it later.

Chen Duxiu and Li Dazhao set up the precursor to the CCP in August 1920; it called itself the Socialist Party. Comintern representative Maring (Dutch name: Hendricus Josephus Franciscus Marie Sneevliet), who arrived in Shanghai on June 3, 1921, put forward the communist groups across China to send their representatives to Shanghai to hold a national congress. That's why the First National Congress of the CCP was held. At that time, the Shanghai Communist Group, chaired by Li Da, was the initiating team, and carried out the preparatory work for the First National Congress; it issued a notice to the communist groups around the country, requiring each region to select two delegates to attend the First National Congress of the CCP.

The CCP was formally founded on July 23, 1921, and joined the Comintern in 1922, receiving its guidance and assistance. In January 1923, Adolph Joffe, the newly established Soviet Union’s ambassador to China and a representative of the Comintern, signed the Sun–Joffe Manifesto with Sun Yat-sen in Shanghai. The CCP then began to cooperate with the Chinese Kuomintang (KMT) under the instructions of the Comintern and jointly launched the National Revolutionary Movement. After the first KMT-Communist Cooperation broke down in 1927, the two parties engaged in a decade-long military struggle. From the 1930s, the CCP began to gradually shake off the influence of the Comintern, and the domestic faction headed by Mao Zedong came to power.

"Homework: Students are required to fill in forms to understand the conditions for the establishment of the CCP. On what kind of ideological, class, and organizational basis was the CCP established?" (p. 67)

From Grade 8 Chinese History, Volume 1, Unit 5, pp. 69-84

From Cooperation to Opposition Between the KMT and the CCP

"In 1924, the CCP and the Chinese KMT launched cooperation to carry out the anti-imperialist and anti-feudal National Revolution movement, also known as the Great Revolution. Due to the KMT rightists' betrayal of the revolution, the National Revolution failed. The first cooperation between the KMT and the CCP failed.

"The CCP launched a series of armed uprisings against the rule of the KMT. Mao Zedong and others established the rural revolutionary bases, created a situation using armed workers and peasants to carry out the land revolution and explore a new revolutionary path.

"In 1934, dealing with the encirclement and suppression of the KMT army, the Red Army made a strategic move. The CCP led the Red Army through difficulties and obstacles and successfully completed the Long March. The CCP opened a new phase of the Chinese revolution." (p. 69)

From Grade 8 Chinese History, Volume 1, Unit 5, pp. 70-74

The Northern Expedition

Realization Of Cooperation Between The KMT And The CCP

"In June 1923, the CCP held its Third National Congress and formally decided to cooperate with the KMT, led by Sun Yat-sen, to establish a revolutionary united front. The CCP members joined the KMT as individual members. The reorganized KMT became a revolutionary alliance of workers, peasants, petty bourgeoisie, and national bourgeoisie. After repeated defeats against the Beiyang warlords, Sun Yat-sen felt deeply that the KMT must be reorganized and injected with fresh blood.

"In January 1924, under the auspices of Sun Yat-sen, the First National Congress of the KMT was held in Guangzhou. Li Dazhao, Lin Boqu, Mao Zedong, Qu Qiubai, and other CCP members participated in the leadership and organization of the conference. The declaration passed by the conference gave a new interpretation of the Three People's Principles and developed the new Three People's Principles: cooperate with Russia, cooperate with the CCP, and support workers and peasants. The convening of the First National Congress of the KMT marked the official cooperation point between the two parties.

"With the help of the Soviet Union and the CCP, in May 1924, Sun Yat-sen founded the Chinese KMT Military Academy, also known as the Huangpu Military Academy, in Huangpu, Guangzhou. Sun Yat-sen served as the prime minister of the military academy and Chiang Kai-shek served concurrently as the principal, and Zhou Enlai soon became the director of its political department.

"In just a few years, the Huangpu Military Academy enrolled more than 10,000 students and trained a large number of military and political talents. It prepared for the establishment of the National Revolutionary Army and the subsequent Northern Expedition." (pp. 70-71)         

The Northern Expedition Successfully Marches

"In 1926, the Guangzhou Nationalist Government decided to overthrow warlords Wu Peifu, Sun Chuanfang, and Zhang Zuolin and to unify the country. In July, 100,000 Northern Expedition Army soldiers took oaths and started the Northern Expedition. Chiang Kai-shek was the commander-in-chief." (p. 71)

"With the victorious march of the Northern Expedition, the revolutionary movement of workers and peasants in various places flourished. In the countryside where the Northern Expedition Army passed, a peasant movement broke out like a storm, giving the Northern Expedition Army great support. By the end of November 1926, 54 counties in Hunan had established farmers' associations comprising 1.07 million members. By January 1927, the membership had increased to 2 million. By July 1926, the Hubei Province Farmers Association had more than 30,000 members; by November, this number had increased to about 200,000. Urban trade union organizations and the labor movement also developed greatly. Under the leadership of the CCP, Shanghai workers launched three armed uprisings and finally won victory. They welcomed the Northern Expedition into Shanghai, writing a glorious page in the history of the Chinese labor movement." (p. 73)

The KMT's Right-Wing Rebellion Revolution And The Establishment Of The Nanjing National Government

"The soaring revolutionary movement of workers and peasants has touched the fundamental interests of the big landlords and big bourgeoisie. With the support of the imperialist forces, Chiang Kai-shek, Wang Jingwei, and other KMT rightists betrayed the revolution.

"In April 1927, Chiang Kai-shek launched the April 12 counter-revolutionary coup in Shanghai that shocked China and the world. He established the National Government in Nanjing. In July, Wang Jingwei held a Division of Work Conference in Wuhan. They openly clamored that 'I would rather kill a thousand people in vain than let one slip through the net.' They massacred communists, workers, and peasants. The vigorous national revolution failed." (p. 73)

Note: The CCP has always taken a "general rather than detailed" narrative for its early history, because there were many disgraceful episodes in its early years.

In late December 1922, the Soviet Union, which had just been established, planned to support Sun Yat-sen, to end the warlord competition and unify the Republic of China. Earlier, Soviet Russia had once wanted to support Wu Peifu, a Zhili Clique warlord, and Chen Jiongming, a Guangdong warlord who favored communism and was known as "the socialist general."

Sun Yat-sen was highly regarded in China, but had long suffered from his lack of military strength. He was desperate for foreign aid and was pragmatic in his diplomacy. Under the plan and with the support of the Comintern, Sun and the Soviet Ambassador to China, Adolph Joffe, signed the Sun-Joffe Manifesto of bilateral cooperation in January 1923. The first article of the manifesto ostensibly agreed with Sun, stressing that communism and the Soviet system could not be adopted in China. However, the Soviet Union and the CCP had their own plans.

The Soviet Union, led by Lenin, supported Sun Yat-sen for two purposes. First, it hoped Sun Yat-sen could unify China and remove the Western powers' threat to Soviet Russia (later the Soviet Union) in the east. Second, it hoped to develop the CCP, with the help of the organizational structure of the Kuomintang – or at least turn the Kuomintang into Bolshevik supporters, or even to achieve Bolshevization.

The Comintern quickly ordered the CCP members to join the Kuomintang and cooperate with it, thus facilitating the first KMT-CCP Alliance. In the next four years or so, the CCP's strength grew rapidly within the KMT. Sun Yat-sen's policy of uniting with Russia and accommodating the CCP won him military aid from the Soviet Union, and he established the Whampoa Military Academy and the National Revolutionary Army. He adopted the strategy of "subduing the North with the strength of the South" and finally enabled the KMT army to win the Northern Expedition.

From Grade 8 Chinese History, Volume 1, Unit 5, Lesson 16, pp. 75-80

Mao Zedong Paved The Road To Jinggangshan

Armed Revolution

"After the failure of the Great Revolution, the CCP led a series of armed riots, including the Nanchang Uprising and the Autumn Harvest Uprising. In the process of leading the Autumn Harvest Uprising, Mao Zedong gradually focused the revolution on remote rural areas. The armed struggle, using workers and peasants, opened up a road for rural areas to encircle the cities and seize power." (p. 75)

The Nanchang Uprising

"From the lessons of the failure of the Great Revolution, the CCP learned the importance of independent control of the revolutionary armed forces. The bloody slaughter policy of the KMT reactionaries aroused great indignation and strong resistance from the CCP and the revolutionary masses. The Nanchang Uprising fired the first shot of armed resistance to the reactionary rule of the KMT." (p. 75)  

The Autumn Harvest Uprising And The Jinggangshan Meeting

"On August 7 [1927], the Central Committee of the CCP held an emergency meeting in Hankou. The August 7th meeting adopted the general policy of the Agrarian Revolution and armed resistance to the reactionary rule of the KMT. It was decided at the meeting to launch an armed uprising during the autumn harvest. Mao Zedong put forward the famous thesis that "government is obtained from the barrel of a gun." (p. 76)

Related Historical Events

"En route to the autumn harvest uprising, Mao Zedong reorganized the army at Sanwan Village, Yongxin County. The historical event was later called the 'Sanwan Reorganization.'

"Mao Zedong, as secretary of the front line against enemy committees, led the reorganization. He downsized the army units, established party organizations and branches at all levels of the army, and implemented a democratic management system. He insisted that the officers and soldiers be consistent in adhering to the Party's principle of respecting and helping each other on equal footings. The Sanwan reorganization established the party's absolute leadership over the army." (p. 77)

"The Nanchang Uprising and the Autumn Harvest Uprising marked the beginning of the CCP's independently led armed struggle and the creation of a revolutionary army. The uprisings were a prelude to the transformation of the Chinese revolution from urban to rural areas to establish rural revolutionary bases." (p. 77)

"Mao Zedong led the Workers and Peasants Red Army in Jinggang Mountains. It fought local landlords, confiscated and divided landlords' land among the peasants. It established revolutionary regimes, carried out agrarian revolution and guerrilla warfare. It created a situation of 'armed division of workers and peasants.'

"In December 1929, the Workers and Peasants Red Army Fourth Army held the Ninth Party Congress, the Gutian Conference, in Gutian, Shanghang County, Fujian Province. It established the principles and ideology for building the party and the army." (p. 78)

Note: After Mao Zedong took charge of the CCP, he denounced the early CCP leaders' mistakes of "right capitulationism" and "left-leaning adventurous opportunism," in the belief that they had understood neither the truth that "political power grows out of the barrel of a gun" nor how to maintain the independence of the CCP. Historically, this has been a classic case of "Taking undeserved gains for granted."

In fact, the CCP in its early years was completely at the mercy of the Soviet Union and the Comintern. At that time, how could the small CCP have bargained with the Soviet Union and the Comintern? Thanks to the Comintern, the CCP quickly gained a place on the political map of China.

For the benefit of its own development and growth, the CCP, at the expense of China's national interests, became a traitor party loyal to the Soviet Union and selling Chinese territory. From the early days of the founding of the CCP to the eve of the founding of the People's Republic, it always strongly supported the independence of Outer Mongolia. It should be noted that Outer Mongolia was a national interest that had never been relinquished by the Beiyang government of the Republic of China – a government long demonized by the CCP. An inevitable result of this historical process is that the CCP agreed unconditionally to Outer Mongolia's independence after seizing power.

Due to Lenin's sympathies regarding Sun Yat-sen, the Soviet Union under Lenin finally chose to cooperate with Sun. Mao Zedong and the CCP should be grateful to the Soviet Union and the Comintern for arranging and "ordering" the CCP members to join the Kuomintang, which made the Communist Party's power grow rapidly.

After Lenin's death in 1924, Joseph Stalin, who was more interested in the national interests of the Soviet Union, appreciated Chiang Kai-shek's abilities. In order to win him over and secure his cooperation, Stalin essentially tolerated Chiang Kai-shek's armed purge of the KMT at the expense of the interests of the CCP, resulting in the bloody removal of CCP members from the KMT by Chiang Kai-shek.

It should also be noted that after the Comintern facilitated the first cooperation between the Kuomintang and the CCP, the Communist Party's appetite grew. When the Kuomintang convened its Second National Congress in 1926, 70% of the Kuomintang party cadres were from the CCP, and 75% of the 876 political cadres of the National Revolutionary Army were Chinese Communists. The CCP became a guest supplanting the host.

From Grade 8 Chinese History, Volume 1, Unit 5, Lesson 17, pp. 81-84

The Long March Of The Chinese Workers And Peasants Red Army

"The Zunyi Conference began to establish the leadership position of the correct Marxist line, with Mao Zedong as the main representative in the Central Committee of the CCP. In an extreme crisis situation, it saved the Party, the Red Army, and the Chinese Revolution. It was a life-and-death turning point in the history of the CCP. This meeting was a sign that the CCP had grown from infancy to maturity." (p. 82)

"The victory of the Long March shattered the KMT reactionaries' attempt to eliminate the Red Army and preserved the backbone of the Party and the Red Army. It saved the Chinese revolution. The Long March sowed the seeds of revolution and forged the spirit of the Long March. It opened up a new phase of the Chinese revolution." (p. 84)

Study Material

"The Long March is the first time in history. The Long March is a manifesto. The Long March is a propaganda team. The Long March is a sewing machine. It declared to the world that the Red Army is a hero. It declared to about 200,000,000 people in 11 provinces that only the Red Army way is the way to liberate them. It has sowed many seeds in eleven provinces, germinating, growing leaves, flowering, and bearing fruit. There will be harvests in the future." – Mao Zedong, On the Strategy Against Japanese Imperialism (p. 84)

Note: Whether it was the "forced strategic shift" admitted by the CCP itself or the "westward flight" claimed by the Kuomintang, it is clear that the CCP's so-called "Long March" was a rout and an escape by its Red Army. At the same time, however, it was a great victory for Mao Zedong and the domestic forces of the CCP he represented, and also opened the process of the ideological localization of the Communist Party. During the Red Army's "Long March," Chen Yun was sent to Moscow to report the Zunyi Conference to the Comintern. Later, the Comintern recognized Mao as the leader of the Communist Party. It was because Lin Yuying, the representative of the CCP in the Comintern, conveyed the instructions of the Communist International to support Mao Zedong that Mao finally defeated his political opponent Zhang Guotao.

At the same time, the Communist Party's "Long March" meant a major victory for Chiang Kai-shek, then China's leader. In his diary, Chiang claimed that the CCP's "Long March" was actually the result of his stratagem, namely, "'under the name of 'Communist Suppression'; in fact, the main purpose was to recapture southwest China. Only when the country is united can we fight the War of Resistance against Japan." At that time, China was still divided by warlords, and Chiang Kai-shek could control only a few coastal provinces, not the whole of China. The warlords in Sichuan, Yunnan, and Guizhou were particularly powerful. Thus, after consulting with his German military adviser, Chiang came up with a plan to "recover southwest China by suppressing the communists." So Chiang Kai-shek deliberately allowed the Red Army to retain a small force and pushed it southwest. The Red Army's "Long March" started in Jiangxi province and went southwest to Yan'an, with Chiang Kai-shek's Central Army pursuing it the whole way; it was thus able to enter Sichuan.

From Grade 8 Chinese History, Volume 1, Unit 6, Lesson 18

The Chinese Nation's Anti-Japanese War

Excerpt from the unit introduction: "In 1931, Japan launched the September 18th Incident, provoking a war of aggression against China. The Chinese nation was facing serious national peril. As the national crisis became more profound, the CCP held high the anti-Japan banner and the banner of national salvation. It took on the heavy, historical burden of opposing national enemies. It proposed establishing an anti-Japanese national united front. It worked with all parties to peacefully resolve the Xian Incident, which promoted the initial formation of the anti-Japanese national united front."

Note: In 1927, Chiang Kai-shek launched the "April 12 Military Purge" in Shanghai (referred to by the CCP as the "April 12 counter-revolutionary coup"), which dealt a major blow to the CCP. Its membership dropped from more than 25,000 to 10,000. From then on, the CCP began armed opposition to the KMT and established its Red Army in May 1928. But for the next few years, Chiang Kai-shek was too preoccupied with the second phase of the Northern Expedition to quell challenges from other warlords and unify China, and had little time for, or interest in, dealing with the tiny Communist Party. This gave the CCP a chance to breathe and to expand its influence again. At this juncture, Japan began its war of aggression against China in September 1931. It was a dream opportunity for the CCP, which was adept at sailing with every wind, to turn the tide. The Chinese Communist Party immediately took advantage of Japan's invasion of China to launch an offensive of public opinion, and with the support of the Soviet Union, the so-called Chinese Soviet Republic was established in Ruijin County, Jiangxi Province on November 7, 1931.

"On the front, the Chinese army organized many battles against the Japanese aggression. In the rear, the CCP mobilized the masses to establish anti-Japanese base areas, launching a people's guerrilla war. The front and rear battlefields coordinated operations; both made important contributions to the eventual victory. The CCP played a main role in the unity of the whole nation in the war. The Chinese battlefield was the main eastern battlefield of the world anti-fascist war." (p. 85)

Note: The Chinese Communist Party's official propaganda has always depicted it as the main force in the Anti-Japanese War, both in the frontal battlefield and in the battlefield behind enemy lines. This is absolutely untrue.

The fact is that the Kuomintang National Army led by Chiang Kai-shek was the main force in the war against Japan. In how many major battles did the Communist troops participate during the War of Resistance against Japanese aggression, whether it was the Battle of Shanghai, Nanking, North China, Taiyuan, East China, Central China, or South China? Despite its loud shouting, the CCP-led Eighth Route Army and New Fourth Army at best cooperated with and acted as a foil to the National Army.

Under the instruction of Mao Zedong and other Communist Party leaders, the CCP said one thing and did another. Despite its promise to obey Chiang Kai-shek and jointly resist Japan, it was secretly undermining the Kuomintang and expanding its own strength, sacrificing national interests for this purpose at all costs. Here are just a few examples:

1. From August 20-25, 1937, the CCP held its Luochuan Conference, which established the Party's policy of the Anti-Japanese War: "We must create base areas, contain and destroy the enemy, cooperate with the Kuomintang Army in operations, preserve and expand the Red Army, and strive for the leadership of the Communist Party in the National Revolution War." Mao Zedong ordered the Eighth Route Army to move across Shanxi to Hebei to support Fu Zuoyi's troops; he later told the front commanders via radio that the earlier order had been purely for propaganda purposes and that the Eighth Route Army should in fact move as slowly as possible. Mao specifically instructed the front-line troops to "move 25 kilometers on foot every day, marching for three days and resting for one day."

2. During the Anti-Japanese War, the Chinese Communist Party had many contacts with the secret service of Wang Ching-wei's puppet regime. In 1940, CCP representative Pan Hannian contacted Li Shiqun, head of Wang Ching-wei's secret service and an early CCP member; Li Shiqun's secretary Guan Lu was an underground CCP member. Li Shiqun then began to communicate and cooperate with the New Fourth Army of the CCP. In 1941, Pan Hannian even moved into Li Shiqun's private residence. Iwai Eichi (岩井英一), the Japanese consul in Shanghai who once met with Pan Hannian, wrote in his memoir: "The secret agents of the Chinese Communist Party provided the Japanese side with the information of the Kuomintang Army headed by Chiang Kai-shek through the cooperation between the Kuomintang and the Communist Party, with the intention of weakening the Kuomintang."

3. In April 1941, the Soviet Union and Japan signed the Soviet-Japanese Neutrality Pact (also known as the Japanese-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact) and the Joint Declaration, which stated: "The U.S.S.R. pledges to respect the territorial integrity and inviolability of Manchukuo, and Japan pledges to respect the territorial integrity and inviolability of the Mongolian People's Republic." The CCP gave full support to the pact in order to defend the Soviet Union, since it was conducive to breaking the German-Japanese encirclement of the Soviet Union. On April 15, the official CCP newspaper Xinhua Daily published an editorial in support of the pact; it said that the Soviet-Japanese Neutrality Pact did not change China's territorial rights, but ensured the security of "Manchuria" and "Outer Mongolia." In contrast, Wang Chonghui, foreign minister of the Nationalist Government of the Republic of China, issued a statement clearly emphasizing that the four northeastern provinces and Outer Mongolia were the territory of the Republic of China, and that the Soviet-Japanese Joint Declaration was absolutely invalid for China.

From Grade 8 Chinese History, Volume 1, Unit 6, Lesson 18

From The September 18th Incident To The Xi'an Incident

The September 18th Incident

"The September 18th Incident provoked a wave of anti-Japanese anger among people across the country. People of all ethnic groups in the Northeast and the patriotic soldiers remaining in the Northeast organized anti-Japanese volunteer militia to resist the Japanese aggression. The CCP sent Yang Jingyu and others to organize guerrillas in the Northeast to carry out anti-Japanese guerrilla warfare. The local war of resistance of the Chinese people began. At the beginning of 1936, various northeastern anti-Japanese armed factions began to reorganize. The Northeast Anti-Japanese Allied Forces, led by the CCP, was established, and began fighting the Japanese army in the Northeast." (p. 87)

Note: The Chinese Communist Party has long falsely claimed that Chiang Kai-shek issued an order to Zhang Xueliang's Northeastern Army not to resist the Japanese after the September 18 Incident, when the Japanese army invaded northeast China. In fact, Zhang Xueliang clarified in his later years that it was not Chiang Kai-shek who had issued the order not to resist; Zhang Xueliang himself admitted that he had given the order not to resist in Peiping. On the night of September 18, Chiang Kai-shek was not in Nanjing, but on a warship sailing from Nanjing to Jiangxi. He arrived in Nanchang on September 19, and only after he disembarked did he learn of the accident in northeast China, which was not reported to him by Zhang Xueliang himself but from Shanghai. Therefore, it was true that Chiang Kai-shek had nothing to do with the order of non-resistance on September 18. For decades, the CCP let Chiang Kai-shek take the blame for its own secret party member, Zhang Xueliang, in order to depict Chiang as not resisting Japanese aggression, so as to highlight the so-called "huge role" of the CCP in the War of Resistance against Japanese Aggression.

Northern China Crisis And The December 9th Movement

"After Japan occupied the Northeast, it extended its aggression to Northern China. The National Government adopted a non-resistance compromise policy. The Chinese nation faced the danger of subjugation and extinction.

"The grave situation made the students in Peking feel pained, [i.e.] 'In the vast land of Northern China, there is no room to set a peaceful desk.' On December 9, 1935, under the leadership of the CCP, thousands of students in Peking braved the severe cold to gather in front of Xinhua Gate to petition the KMT authorities. They chanted 'Down with Japanese imperialism,' 'No Northern China autonomy,' and 'Stop the civil war, and unite to fight the Japanese. They held demonstrations. The reactionary military police used broadswords, high-pressure hoses, and wooden batons to suppress unarmed young students. This was the famous 'December Ninth Movement.'

"This patriotic, national salvation movement exposed the Japanese invaders' conspiracy to annex Northern China. It attacked the National Government's policy of compromise with Japan and promoted reaching a new high point in the national anti-Japanese salvation movement." (p. 88)

Related Historical Events

"To save the growing national crisis, in August 1935, the delegation of the CCP to the Communist International issued the 'August 1st Declaration' in the name of the Central Government of the Chinese Soviet Republic and the Central Committee of the CCP. It called for an end to the civil war and for united resistance against Japan. At the end of the year, the Central Committee of the CCP held a meeting in Wayaobao. The meeting determined the policy of establishing a national united front against Japan. After the meeting, Mao Zedong gave a report on the strategy of opposing Japanese imperialism, pointing out that the basic feature of the current political situation is that Japanese imperialism sought to turn China into its colony. The Sino-Japanese national contradiction had become the main political contradiction, and the party's task was to establish an anti-Japanese national united front led by the CCP." (p. 88)

Note: After Chiang Kai-shek launched his Fifth Encirclement campaign against the Jiangxi Soviet, the CCP was routed and forced to make a strategic shift, and eventually chose to move north. But the aim was not to resist Japan, as the Communist Party claimed and propagated, but to get closer to the Soviet Union, because it would make the Communist Party safer. After the CCP fled to northern Shaanxi, it received orders from the Soviet Union and the Comintern. The Soviet Union, which was facing the threat of war from both east and west, ordered the CCP to seek to establish a "national united front" against fascism with its own government in order to continue to "defend the Soviet Union" and to "defend the Soviet Union by arms."[2] At the same time, efforts should be made to establish a united front to achieve the leadership of the Chinese Communist Party. Under the instruction of the Soviet Union, the CCP issued the "August 1st Proclamation" in 1935, shouting out the slogan of "anti-Japanese" for the first time, and that was the point of the beginning of the so-called "new stage" of the communist revolution, by using the Anti-Japanese War to oppose Chiang Kai-shek, to seek survival, and to expand its forces.

The Xian Incident

"The KMT generals Zhang Xueliang and Yang Hucheng were surrounding and defeating the Red Army in the northwest. However, they believed in the CCP's call for a national united anti-Japanese stance. They stopped fighting the Red Army and demanded that Chiang Kai-shek unite with the CCP in the fight against Japan. Chiang stubbornly insisted on his 'internal peace before external peace' policy. He went to Xian to force the generals to continue the attack on the Red Army.

"Zhang Xueliang and Yang Hucheng repeatedly implored Chiang Kai-shek for unity in Xian, to no avail. On December 12, 1936, they house arrested Chiang and conducted a military coup. They sent telegrams around the country calling to stop the civil war and fight the Japanese together. This is the 'Xian Incident' that shocked China and the world.

"After the Xian Incident, the CCP proceeded from the interests of the whole nation and advocated a peaceful settlement. It united with Chiang Kai-shek to resist Japan. Zhou Enlai went to Xian to participate in negotiations on behalf of the CCP. After the efforts of the CCP and all parties, Chiang Kai-shek was forced to accept the conditions of stopping the civil war and uniting the Communist Party to resist Japan." (p. 89)

Note: Whether before or after the CCP seized power in China, it always aims to achieve its own goals by all means. In order to deceive the public and world opinion, the CCP has been building a mendacious so-called United Front. By means of infiltrating the enemy, propaganda, inducement, sowing discord, or grandly preaching so-called "national righteousness," the Communist Party has been building its own networks of contacts and information to divide and break the enemy's camp. Much of what the CCP has done has no minimum political ethics or bottom line.

The Xi'an Incident is a classic case of the victory of the United Front strategy adopted by the CCP. After the Central Plains War in 1930, Chiang Kai-shek's advocate Chang Hsueh-liang was appointed deputy commander-in-chief of the Army, Navy, and Air Force of the Republic of China, becoming the second most powerful man in China after Chiang Kai-shek. But it is hard to imagine that Chang Hsueh-liang actually volunteered to join the Communist Party on June 30, 1936. Chang Hsueh-liang's former subordinate, the CCP general Lv Zhengcao, had explicitly told Yan Mingfu, the former director of the United Front Department of the CCP, that Chang Hsueh-liang was a member of the CCP. Chang himself once said that he could be said to be a Communist Party member.

In his later years, Chang Hsueh-liang also revealed, in his oral history, that in the military coup in Xi'an he was nominally the protagonist, but that the actual protagonist was General Yang Hucheng of the Northwest Army, because Yang's wife and many of his subordinates were members of the CCP.

From Grade 8 Chinese History, Volume 1, Unit 6, Lesson 19

The July 7 Incident And The National Anti-Japanese War

The Second KMT-CPC Cooperation

"After the Japanese aggressors launched a full-scale war of aggression against China, the CCP and the KMT issued separate statements to protest against the Japanese aggression. They expressed their anti-Japanese stance and sped up the establishment of an anti-Japanese national united front.

"According to the agreement between the KMT and the CCP, the main force of the Red Army was reorganized into the Eighth Route Army of the National Revolutionary Army, with Zhu De as the commander-in-chief and Peng Dehuai as the deputy commander-in-chief. The guerrilla forces that remained in the southern eight provinces after the Long March were reorganized into the New Fourth Route Army of the National Revolutionary Army, with Ye Ting as the commander of the army. In September 1937, the KMT Central News Agency publicly issued a declaration of the KMT and the CCP's cooperation. The declaration was drafted by the Central Committee of the CCP, and Chiang Kai-shek gave a speech recognizing the legal status of the CCP in the country.

"The anti-Japanese national united front, with the KMT-CCP cooperation as the main body, was formally established.

"The KMT and the CCP were finally united against aggression. The whole nation's resistance to Japanese aggression began to take shape." (p. 92)

Study Material

"The declaration of cooperation between the KMT and the CCP by the Central Committee of the CCP July 15, 1937" (p. 92)

"Cancel all riots to overthrow the KMT regime.

"Stop the policy of violently confiscating landlords' land.

"Abolish the modern Soviet government. Implement civil rights policy. Unify national power.

"Abandon the Red Army's name and organization. Reorganize the Red Army into the National Revolutionary Army, under the jurisdiction of the National Government Military Committee. A reorganized army will be on standby to fight at the front line of the Anti-Japanese war."

Note: The CCP Central Committee's declaration of KMT-CCP cooperation, published on September 22, 1937, was the further evolution and development of the August 1 Declaration drafted by Wang Ming, the representative of the CCP in the Comintern, on August 1, 1935, in accordance with the instructions from the Comintern.

After the Xi'an mutiny planned by the CCP at the end of December 1936, which forced Chiang to resist Japan, Chiang had given up the suppression of the Communist Party and promised to cooperate with the CCP in resisting the Japanese aggression. Thus, the CCP gained a legitimate position in China and temporarily relinquished the anti-Chiang policy (Mao Zedong originally intended to kill Chiang through the Xi'an mutiny, and thus very much resented Stalin's order to release Chiang within 10 days after the Xi'an Incident). At the same time, the CCP took advantage of the KMT's preoccupation with the War of Resistance against Japan and began to gain power.

The Communist Party's first promise in the Declaration was deliberately omitted from the history textbook. The pledge reads: "Dr. Sun Yat-sen's Three Principles of the People are essential to China today, and our Party is willing to fight for their complete realization." In 1945, In Mao Zedong's report on the Seventh National Congress of the CCP, the Three Principles of the People were fabricated as Sun Yat-sen's so-called New Three Principles of the People of "alliance with Russia, tolerance for communism, and assistance to farmers and workers." There is no such false Three Principles of the People in historical records, and the KMT has always resolutely denied the existence of the New Three Principles of the People.

The Nanjing Massacre

"On December 13, 1937, the Japanese army conquered Nanjing. The KMT government moved to Chongqing, making Chongqing its temporary capital.

"Wherever the Japanese aggressors went, they burned, killed, raped, and looted. After occupying Nanjing, the Japanese carried out a bloody massacre of the peaceful residents and committed heinous crimes. Some of them were used as targets for shooting or bayonet practice, and others were buried alive.

"According to the verification by the Military Tribunal for the Trial of Japanese War Criminals in Nanjing, after the Japanese occupation of Nanjing, more than 300,000 unarmed residents and surrendered soldiers were massacred." (pp. 93-94)

From Grade 8 Chinese History, Volume 1, Unit 6, Lesson 20

Resistance On The Frontal Battlefield

The Third Battle Of Changsha

"During the third battle of Changsha, the British and American allies were defeated and retreated one after another in the Pacific battlefield. The victory in this battle had a positive impact at home and abroad.

"After the anti-Japanese War entered the stalemate stage, the Nationalist Government was passively anti-Japanese and actively anti-Communist. In early 1944, the Japanese army launched the large-scale Yuxianggui Battle on the frontal battlefield of the KMT. The KMT army was defeated in all battles and lost most of Henan, Hunan, Guangxi, and part of Guizhou provinces." (pp. 98-99)

Additional Study

The Chinese Expeditionary Army Entered Burma To Fight The Japanese

"In 1942, the Chinese Expeditionary Army entered Burma to fight the Japanese. It fought and won many bloody battles and dealt a heavy blow to the Japanese army. It supported the Allied forces and made important contributions to the world anti-fascist war." (p. 99)

Note: This part mentions the frontal battlefields of the War of Resistance against Japanese Aggression and the Battle of Changsha, and the Chinese Expeditionary Force, and does not specify which Chinese troops under the leadership of which political party fought life-and-death battles against the Japanese army on China's front and in countries such as Burma and India.

The Chinese Communist Party is not only a traitor party, but also a shameless party of thieves. Obviously, it was the Government of the Republic of China led by the KMT that dominated China's War of Resistance against Japanese Aggression, and the KMT army undertook all the tasks of major battles on the frontal battlefields in China. However, the CCP has promoted itself as the so-called "leading force" and "mainstay" during the War of Resistance against Japanese Invasion.

Things have changed slightly in recent years. For example, on July 6, 2019, the official account of the Communist Youth League of the CCP published an article on multiple Chinese media platforms that concluded by stressing that "the 22 battles between the Kuomintang troops and the Japanese troops on the frontal battlefields, and the small but [very numerous, i.e.] tens of thousands, of guerrilla battles carried out by the communist troops behind enemy lines are worth remembering." In Xi Jinping's speech at the September 3, 2015 military parade commemorating the victory in the War of Resistance against the Japanese aggression, he only mentioned that the Chinese people had won victory in the war through struggle, and he did not say that the CCP was the mainstay of the War of Resistance against Japanese Aggression, nor did he compare the contributions of the KMT and the CCP in the war.

From Grade 8 Chinese History, Volume 1, Unit 6, Lesson 21

The War Of Resistance Behind Enemy Lines

"After the outbreak of the National War of Resistance, the Eighth Route Army, the New Fourth Army, and other anti-Japanese armed forces led by the CCP went deep behind enemy lines. They mobilized the masses to establish anti-Japanese base areas to fight against the Japanese invaders." (p. 100)

The Pingxingguan Victory

"After reorganizing into the National Revolutionary Army, the Red Army swiftly proceeded to the front of the Anti-Japanese War. On the one hand, it cooperated with frontal battlefield operations. On the other hand, it penetrated into enemy-occupied areas and carried out an extensive guerrilla war against Japan." (p. 100)

"The Great Victory at Pingxingguan was the first victory that the Chinese army won on the frontal battlefield since the entire nation's war of resistance. It smashed the myth of the 'invincible Japanese army.'" (p. 100)

Note: The "Battle of Pingxingguan" was led by Yan Xishan, commander of China's Second World War Zone in the War of Resistance against Japanese Aggression. It lasted one month (from September 3, 1937, when the battle plan was drawn up, to October 2, 1937, when Chinese troops withdrew from all fronts). China deployed 11 armies with a total of more than 100,000 troops, and fought against about 20,000 Japanese troops from two divisions. It was a medium-sized campaign with dozens of battles.

The CCP's so-called "Victory of Pingxingguan" or "Ambush battle of Pingxingguan" refers to the operation of the 115th Division of the 18th Group Army of the National Revolutionary Army (also known as the Eighth Route Army led by the CCP) in Pingxingguan area, Lingqiu County, Shanxi Province, in cooperation with the Kuomintang Army. This was the first battle after the Red Army was reorganized as the Eighth Route Army, and the first victory of the Chinese Army after the Anti-

Mao Zedong's On Protracted War And The Establishment And Development Of Anti-Japanese Base Areas

"After the outbreak of the National War of Resistance, the CCP fully mobilized and relied on the masses and adhered to the comprehensive resistance policy. To refute the false views of subjugation and quick victory prevailing in the KMT, Mao Zedong published On Protracted War in 1938.

"He pointed out that the enemy is strong, and we are weak, and China cannot quickly defeat Japan. The Japanese imperialist's war of aggression is regressive, barbaric, and unjust. China's anti-aggression war is progressive, righteous, and just. Japan is a small country and cannot withstand a long war. China is a big country and can support a long war. Therefore, China can neither win quickly nor perish.

"The Anti-Japanese War is a protracted war. The mighty power of war lies in the people. If the line of people's war is implemented, the final victory must belong to China.

"On Protracted War clarified the general policy of the CCP's strategy of protracted war against Japan. It greatly enhanced the determination and confidence of the people throughout the country to persist in the war." (pp. 100-101)

"The anti-Japanese Eighth Route Army and the New Fourth Army under the leadership of the CCP advanced behind enemy lines and turned the enemy's rear into the front of the anti-Japanese war. By 1940, anti-Japanese bases and guerrilla areas with a population of more than 100 million were established in North, Central, South, and Northeast China. They held back and fought against a large number of Japanese troops." (p. 101)

"The CCP vigorously promoted the construction of the anti-Japanese base areas, established an anti-Japanese democratic regime, and implemented democratic elections. It promoted a streamlined and simplified administration and reduced the burden on the people. It implemented a land policy of reducing rent and interest rates by landlords and paying rent and interest by farmers. It launched a mass production movement. The base area became the base where guerrilla warfare behind the enemy line was maintained and finally won." (p. 102)

Note: After the Battle of Wuhan in the War of Resistance against Japanese Aggression in 1938, China and Japan entered the stalemate stage of the war, and the KMT and CCP frictions began to intensify. The KMT's National Government began to accuse the CCP of passively fighting against the Japanese, saying that the CCP was using seven-tenths of its strength to develop its own forces, two-tenths of its strength to deal with the National Government of the Republic of China, and only one-tenth of its strength to fight against Japan (also known as the 7-2-1 policy), and that the guerrilla warfare of the Chinese Communist Party in the battlefield behind enemy lines was "only moving without fighting." This statement is well founded.

In May 1937, Zhang Wentian, then General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party, said at a national congress: The purpose of uniting the bourgeoisie today is to oppose the bourgeoisie tomorrow. Mao Zedong stated that the compromise and concession of the Chinese Communist Party would not change the goal of the revolution and the nature of the revolutionary regime, and the Communist Party would never give up its goal of making the proletarian party lead China in the future. "To concede now is to give the revolution time to recuperate," Zhang Hao (Lin Yuying, Lin Biao's cousin) said at the time. "The CCP needs to win the sympathy and support of the whole people. It needs to infiltrate all kinds of organizations and groups, from the Kuomintang to the Green and the Red Gangs and the Baojia system, to win over the people. Therefore, at present, we can only give priority to the Resistance against Japanese Aggression, followed by the Agrarian Revolution. But the Resistance against Japanese Aggression is in the open, and the Agrarian Revolution can still be carried out in the dark. As soon as we see that the revolutionary situation is at an upsurge, our strategy will change." In addition, Zhang Guotao, a main leader of the Chinese Communist Party in its early years, had similar recollections in his memoir.

Related Historical Events

Five Heroes of Langya Mountain

"The five heroes of Langya Mountain used blood and life to compose a magnificent poem. The story showed the great spirit of Chinese sons and daughters who would rather die than yield." (p. 101)

Hundred Regiments Battle

"It took several months to achieve brilliant results, which effectively attacked the Japanese aggressor. It raised the prestige of the CCP and the Eighth Route Army. It boosted the confidence of the military and civilians of the whole country to win the Anti-Japanese War." (p. 103)

From Grade 8 Chinese History, Volume 1, Unit 6, Lesson 22

The Chinese Nation's Anti-Japanese War

The Anti-Japanese War Victory

"The reason and great significance of victory in the Anti-Japanese War:

"The huge national awakening of the Chinese people, unprecedented national unity, and heroic national resistance are the decisive factors for the victory of the Chinese People's Anti-Japanese War. The CCP played a main role in the unity of the whole nation. The victory of the Chinese People's Anti-Japanese War is inseparable from the support of all peace-loving and justice-loving countries and people in the world.

"The Anti-Japanese War was the first national liberation war in which China won a complete victory against foreign invasion in modern times. It promoted the awakening of the Chinese nation. It laid an important foundation for the CCP to lead the Chinese people to achieve complete national independence and people's liberation. The Chinese battlefield is the main battlefield in the East of the World Anti-Fascist War. China made a great contribution to the victory of the War and to maintaining world peace. China's international status was improved."

Note: The official propaganda of the Chinese Communist Party claims that the Chinese battlefield during the Anti-Japanese War was the main theater in the East of the so-called World Anti-Fascist War. Even Mao Zedong, the leader of the CCP, did not believe it. According to the seventh volume of Mao's Collected Works, on September 24, 1956, when meeting with the Yugoslav delegation attending the Eighth National Congress of the Communist Party of China, Mao talked about China's role in the Anti-Japanese War. He admitted that "we were a detachment in the Second World War, not the main force." That assessment was self-aware. However, only a handful of the CCP media outlets have reported the remarks from Mao (please see In fact, it was the United States, the Soviet Union, and Great Britain that defeated the fascists. When Japan announced its surrender, China's strategic areas such as Peiping, Shanghai, Nanjing, Wuhan, and Guangzhou were still under Japanese occupation.

Related Historical Events

"From 1937 to 1945, the Eighth Route Army, the New Fourth Army, and other anti-Japanese armed forces under the leadership of the CCP fought the Japanese over 125,000 times. They wiped out more than 1.7 million Japanese and puppet troops at a huge cost of more than 610,000 casualties. More than 527,000 Japanese troops were killed.

"At the end of the Anti-Japanese War, the People's Army had grown to approximately 1.32 million, and the militia had grown to 2.6 million. The anti-Japanese democratic base area under the leadership of the CCP, the Liberated Area, expanded to nineteen areas, covering nearly 1 million square kilometers with a population of nearly 100 million." (p. 107)

Note: This paragraph just shows that during the War of Resistance against Japanese Aggression, the Chinese Communist Party was using the war to strengthen its own forces.

The Seventh National Congress Of The CCP

"In April 1945, the CCP convened the Seventh National Congress in Yanan. It summed up the historical experience of the CCP in leading the tortuous development of the Chinese Democratic Revolution. It especially summed up the experience of the Anti-Japanese War.

"It formulated the party's political line: Mobilize the masses to strengthen the people; defeat the Japanese aggressors under the leadership of the CCP; liberate the people of the whole country; and build a new democratic China.

"The conference elected the leading organ of the CPC Central Committee. Mao Zedong was elected the Chairman of the CPC Central Committee at the First Plenary Session of the Seventh Central Committee. The conference established Mao Zedong Thought as the guiding ideology of the CCP and included it in the party constitution.

"The party constitution adopted by the Seventh National Congress stipulates: The CCP takes Mao Zedong Thought as the guideline for all its work. Mao Zedong thought combines Marxist-Leninist theory and the practice of the Chinese revolution. The establishment of the party's political line has important and far-reaching significance. The Seventh National Congress of the CCP prepared the conditions for the final victory in the Anti-Japanese War. It pointed out the direction of the struggle for the CCP and the Chinese people after the war." (p. 106)

Note: The Seventh National Congress of the CCP formalized Mao Zedong's supremacy in the Communist Party and paved the way for the extreme personality cult that followed. From the Sixth National Congress of the CCP in 1928 to the Seventh CCP National Congress in 1945, there was a long gap of 17 years. This is exactly the 17 years when Mao Zedong engaged in a power struggle, from being marginalized in the Party to entering the core leadership of the CCP and finally gaining the position of tCCPder. It is also the 17 years when the domestiCCPaction of the CCP gradually replaced the Comintern faction, gained power, and finally won.

The convening of the Seventh National Congress of the CCP was repeatedly postponed due to Mao Zedong's careful layout and manipulation. On June 22, 1941, Nazi Germany attacked the Soviet Union, the Soviet-German War broke out, and the Soviet Union had no time to care about the affairs of the Chinese Communist Party. Mao took advantage of this opportunity to attack the Comintern faction within the CCP, represented by Wang Ming and Bo Gu. From February 1942, he launched the so-called Yan'an Rectification Movement, emphasizing the Sinicization of Marxism and the establishment of Mao Zedong Thought, gradually getting rid of the leadership of the Comintern, and turning into a communist party not controlled by the Soviet Union. In April 1945, just before the Seventh National Congress of the Communist Party of China, the Seventh Plenary Session of the Sixth Central Committee of the CCP adopted a Resolution on Several Historical Issues. This was the first resolution made in the history of the Communist Party, which marked the end of the Yan'an Rectification Movement and also meant that Mao had finally established his absolute authority in the CCP with the clamor and cooperation of his close confidant Liu Shaoqi and a few other loyalists.

Study Material

On Coalition Government by Mao Zedong (p. 106)

Note: On Coalition Government is the political report delivered by Mao Zedong at the 7th National Congress of the Chinese Communist Party. The most frequently used words in the report were "democracy" and "freedom."

At that time, the War of Resistance against Japanese Aggression had not yet ended, and the Chinese Communist Party was not strong enough. Its attitude to the outside world was somewhat subdued at the time, as the Communist Party was adept at hiding its strength, deceiving its rivals, and disguising itself. On the one hand, Mao Zedong used Sun Yat-sen to suppress Chiang Kai-shek and stressed that the Chinese Communist Party was Sun Yat-sen's legitimate successor. On the other hand, Mao catered to the preferences of the United States and Western countries, using the words and concepts of "democracy and freedom" that Americans so cherish, hoping to win the sympathy and support of public opinion in the United States and other Western countries so as to force the Kuomintang to give equal status to the Chinese Communist Party – the status being what Mao called "the legal status of all parties."

In the eyes of the Communist Party and Mao, "democracy" was indeed a good thing. At that time, only by shouting such slogans as "we need democracy" and "we oppose the one-party dictatorship of the Kuomintang" could the CCP win the position of co-ruling with the Kuomintang, win the initiative of the war for public opinion, and fundamentally realize the reversal of its status and strength.

"The most important freedoms of the people are freedom of speech, publication, assembly, association, thought, belief, and body," Mao Zedong declared without shame in his report. "Within China, only the Liberated Areas have been fully realized."

"The experience of the Anti-Japanese War gave us (the CCP) and the Chinese people the confidence that without the efforts of the CCP and without the Chinese Communists as the mainstay of the Chinese people, China's independence and liberation would be impossible. China's industrialization and agricultural modernization would also be impossible."

From Grade 8 Chinese History, Volume 1, Unit 7

The People's Liberation War

Unit Introduction

"After the victory in the Anti-Japanese War, people generally expected the peaceful construction of the country. The CCP made great efforts to achieve peace and democracy. However, the KMT insisted on its dictatorship and launched a full-scale civil war in 1946.

"The CCP led the military and civilians in the liberated areas in smashing the KMT army's key and overall offensives. They launched a strategic counteroffensive and three major offensive battles.

"In April 1949, the People's Liberation Army occupied Nanjing and ended the KMT's rule on the mainland. The People's Liberation Army marched across the country and the People's Liberation War ended victoriously." (p. 109)

Lesson 23: The Outbreak Of Civil War

"After the victory of the Anti-Japanese War, people yearned for peace. However, Chiang Kai-shek's established civil war policy is rekindling war in China. How does the CCP strive for peace and democracy? How did the KMT deliberately initiate a civil war? How did the military and civilians in the liberated areas defend themselves and fight back?" (p. 110)

Chongqing Negotiation

"In August 1945, Chiang Kai-shek invited Mao Zedong three times to meet in Chongqing to discuss national plans. His purpose was to gain preparation time for the launching of a civil war and the initiative in political public opinion. He wanted to pin the charge of unwillingness for peace on the CCP.

"Mao Zedong wanted to do everything possible to achieve peace. With great foresight and amazing courage, he went to Chongqing to negotiate with the Kuomintang." (p. 110)

The Military And Civilian Counterattack In Self-Defense In The Liberated Areas

"The KMT army launched a crazy offensive. The enemy was stronger. Facing the reality, Mao Zedong put forward the famous saying, 'all reactionaries are paper tigers.'

"The Central Committee of the CCP called on the military and civilians in the liberated areas to use self-defense to smash the offensive of the KMT army. It formulated the operational principle and policy of using mobile warfare as the main method; annihilation of the enemy's vital forces, concentrating superior forces, and destroying the enemy as the main goal.

"Mao Zedong and the CPC Central Committee established the strategic deployment and combat policies. The armed forces, with the support of the people in the liberated areas, followed those orders. They launched large-scale mobile warfare with the KMT forces." (pp. 111-112)

Note: Twice in history, the Chinese Communist Party used the so-called Kuomintang-CCP cooperation (a.k.a. United Front) to strengthen itself. The so-called "People's Liberation War" of the CCP was actually the "Second Chinese Civil War between the Kuomintang and the Chinese Communist Party." In a sense, it was also a proxy war fought in China by the United States and the Soviet Union after the end of World War II, each supporting one side in China. It's all Chinese fighting Chinese, what's there to brag about?

After-School Activities

"Various urgent domestic, political, and military issues should be resolved reasonably on the basis of peace, democracy, and unity. This is the only possible way to achieve national unity and establish an independent, free, and prosperous new China." – Mao Zedong's speech at Chongqing Airport on August 28, 1945 (p. 112)

Related Historical Event: The CCP Martyr Liu Hulan

In September 1946, the KMT army occupied Wenshui County, Shanxi Province. Liu Hulan, an alternate CCP member who led the land reform in Yunzhouxi Village, insisted on staying there to fight. In January 1947, Liu Hulan was recognized by the KMT army and the local landlord armed forces. She was arrested and beheaded. She was not even 15 years old.

"After Mao Zedong learned of Liu Hulan's heroic deeds, he wrote an inscription for her: Greatness in life; glory in death.

"In August 1947, Liu Hulan was posthumously recognized as an official member of the CCP." (p. 112)

Lesson 24: Victory Of The People's Liberation War

Unit Introduction

"In April 1949, the People's Liberation Army crossed the Yangtze River and occupied Nanjing in one fell swoop. The event ended the KMT's rule on the mainland.

"In three short years, how did the People's Liberation Army win the War of Liberation? What is the significance of the land reform in the victory in the Liberation War?" (p. 114)

Land Reform In Liberated Areas

"After the victory in the Anti-Japanese War, the CCP implemented an adjusted land policy. It changed the policy of reducing rent and interest during the War to a land policy where farmers are given their own land.

"In 1947, the CCP held a National Land Conference. It promulgated the Outline of China's Land Law. The outline stipulates that the land of landlords shall be confiscated; the land system of feudal exploitation shall be abolished; the land shall be owned by the cultivator; the land shall be distributed equally among the rural population. Subsequently, the general line of land reform was formulated. The line states: rely on the poor and hired peasants; unite the middle peasants; eliminate the land system of feudal exploitation step by step selectively; develop agricultural production.

"According to the general line of land reform and the Outline of China's Land Law, liberated areas launched land reform campaigns. Under the leadership of the CCP, after hard work and struggle, the land reform in the liberated areas was successfully completed in more than a year. The majority of peasants were given land, houses, food, and clothing.

"The land reform in the liberated areas resulted in a fundamental change in class relations and land ownership in the countryside. It inspired peasants' enthusiasm for revolution and production. Peasants enthusiastically joined the army. The active participation of peasants in the army provided important manpower and material guarantees for the victory of the People's Liberation War." (pp. 114-115)

Critical Thinking

"How did the liberated areas carry out land reform? What role did it play in the victory of the Liberation War?" (p. 115)

Note: The land reform was for the purpose of a power struggle. The CCP stole landlords' lands and gave them to the peasants. They made the peasants support the war. In the meantime, they eliminated the basis of the political enemy. Once they won the war, they reclaimed the land and set an unrealistic tax rate. The peasants started to starve. Once the famine came, they turned around and contracted the land back to the peasants. They are always right. Westerners probably still can't clearly see this trickery.

Three Great Battles

"The Battle of Liaoshen annihilated more than 470,000 KMT troops from September to November 1948.

"The Battle of Pingjin annihilated and reorganized over 520,000 KMT troops from January Pingyin January 1949.

"The Battle of Huaihai annihilated over 550,000 KMT troops from November 1948 to January 1949." (Map, p. 116)

Note: The death toll from the Chinese Communist Party's so-called "People's Liberation War" was 3 million. The Communist Party is fond of boasting about its "proud" record of massacring compatriots during the Chinese Civil War, a war in which blood and cruelty are nothing more than numbers. The CCP is a violent, ruthless revolutionary party. In the Second Civil War between the Kuomintang and the Communist Party, the CCP did not care about civilian casualties (such as the Siege of Changchun in 1948, which resulted in at least 160,000 Changchun citizens being starved to death; see and The CCP army was determined not to stop fighting the war until the KMT army was completely wiped out.

Moreover, the Communist Party has a tradition of killing its own people, with even more brutal and ferocious methods. In the early 1930s, at the behest of the Communist International, in the so-called Central Soviet Area, Hubei-Henan-Anhui Soviet Area, and Western Hunan-Hubei Soviet Area, the CCP carried out the "campaign to purge counterrevolutionaries" many times, arresting and killing its own people. Mao Zedong, Zhang Guotao, and Xia Xi (夏曦), the early leaders of the CCP, had actively created and led a series of atrocities, such as the Futian Incident (富田事变), the Baiqueyuan campaign to purge counterrevolutionaries (白雀园大肃反), and the Western Hunan-Hubei Soviet Area campaign to purge counterrevolutionaries (湘鄂西肃反), which resulted in a large number of Red Army generals, commanders, ordinary soldiers, party members, and even the masses being regarded as so-called "counter-revolutionaries" and brutally killed. (Please see,,  and The death toll from the numerous purges and mass famines that followed the Communist Party's takeover of China was even more gruesome.

"The three major battles annihilated and reorganized more than 1.5 million Kuomintang troops. The main force of the KMT troops was basically eliminated. The battles ensured and sped up the CCP's victory in the People's Liberation War." (p. 117)

Note: The so-called Liberation War caused 3 million deaths.

"Chase and kill the losing enemies till the last soldiers are dead. Don't worry about reputation and hesitate like the ancient Chuba King." – Mao Zedong's poem People's Liberation Army Conquering Nanjing (April 1949)

"Why does Mao Zedong emphasize chasing and killing the losing enemies till the last soldiers are dead? Ask students to express their views based on history." (p. 117)

Additional Study: "The Origin Of No Communist Party, No New China

"In March 1943, the Kuomintang published the book The Destiny of China by Chiang Kai-shek, which was written by a ghost writer. It put forward the slogan 'Without the KMT, there would be no China.'

"The CCP responded tit-for-tat by publishing a 'Without the CCP, there would be no China' editorial in the Liberation Daily.

"Inspired by the slogan, the people's musician Cao Huoxing composed the song, Without the CCP, There Would Be No China.

"The song was sung throughout the country with the victory in the Anti-Japanese War and the Liberation War. It helped to usher in the birth of New China. It was said that Mao Zedong himself suggested adding the word 'new' to the lyrics.

"Without the CCP, there would be no New China.

"Without the CCP, there would be no New China.

"The CCP worked hard for the nation.

"The CCP was dedicated to saving China.

"The CCP pointed out the road to the people's liberation.

"The CCP led China to the light." (p. 118)

From Grade 8 Chinese History, Volume 2, Unit 1

Chinese History, Grade 8, Volume 2 (Approved by the Ministry of Education in 2017; A Textbook for Compulsory Education; People's Education Press)

The Establishment And Strengthening Of The People's Republic Of China

Unit Introduction

"The founding of the People's Republic of China ushered in a new era in Chinese history. After more than 100 years of struggle in modern times, the Chinese people had finally won national independence. They had truly become the masters of the country.

"When the People's Republic of China was founded, it was faced with severe internal and external situations. It was blocked and threatened by the United States and other Western countries. Its economy was on the brink of collapse due to years of wars and difficulties. The CCP led the Chinese people to fight the Korean War in order to resist U.S. aggression and to aid Korea. The CCP launched another land-reform movement, consolidating the newly born People's Republic and paving the way for large-scale economic construction." (p. 1)

Lesson 1: The Founding Of The People's Republic Of China

"In September 1949, the first plenary meeting of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference was held in Peking. The meeting decided to establish the People's Republic of China. It passed The Common Program of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference. The program stipulated that the People's Republic of China was a new democratic and people's democratic country. It implemented a people's democratic dictatorship led by the working class. The new government was based on the alliance of workers and peasants that unites all democratic classes and all nationalities in the country. The state power belongs to the people. The leading organs at all levels must implement democratic centralism. The People's Political Consultative Conference will temporarily assume the powers of the national people's representatives to be convened in the future. The Common Program of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference will serve as the interim constitution." (p. 2)

Note: Without the legitimacy and support of free elections, the Chinese Communist Party can only repeat the myth that its power comes from the people and the power of the state belongs to the people. Since the CCP seized power in China, when have Chinese people ever seen free elections or any political rights at all?

"The Central People's Government Committee was elected at the meeting. Mao Zedong was elected chairman of the Central People's Government. Zhu De, Liu Shaoqi, Song Qingling, Li Jishen, Zhang Lan, and Gao Gang were the vice chairmen." (p. 3)

"The successful convening of the CCP People's Political Consultative Conference established a system of multi-party cooperation and political consultation under the leadership of the CCP." (p. 3)

Related Historical Events

"After the National People's Congress was held in 1954, the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference no longer performed the responsibilities of the National People's Congress. The People's Political Consultative Conference continued to exist as a united front organization. It became a stage for democratic parties and patriotic democrats to participate in politics. Its main functions are political consultation, democratic supervision, and participation in and discussion of politics. The CCP and the democratic parties implemented the policy of "long-term coexistence, mutual supervision, mutual understanding, and shared honor and disgrace." The policy was enthusiastically supported by the democratic parties.

"The CCP extensively absorbed various democratic parties and patriots from all walks of life to participate in politics and discussion. The CCP formed the broadest patriotic united front. That became an important form of promoting socialist democracy in China's political life." (p. 3)

Note: The Chinese Communist Party used to compete for power with the KMT under the guise of democracy, demanding to form a coalition government with the KMT and take turns in power. Has the CCP ever thought of the hypocrisy and absurdity of the "multi-party cooperation and political consultation system" it created? Where is the shred of democracy and supervision in this system? Which so-called participating party dares to question the CCP?

Founding Ceremony

"The founding of the People's Republic of China opened up a new era in Chinese history. After more than 100 years of heroic struggle, the Chinese people finally overthrew the rule of imperialism, feudalism and bureaucratic capitalism. China had truly become an independent country with a quarter of the world's population. The Chinese people finally stood up. The founding of the new China strengthened the power of world peace, democracy, and socialism." (p. 5)

After-School Activities

"Ask students to talk about their understanding of the founding of the People's Republic of China and the Chinese people's standing up since then. Require students to watch films such as Founding Ceremony and Building the Country."

Additional Study

"The symbolic meaning of the five-star red flag: The red symbolizes the revolution, and the five five-pointed stars and their related relationships symbolize the unity of the revolutionary people under the leadership of the Communist Party." (pp. 6-7)

"The symbolic meaning of the national emblem: The emblem symbolizes the new democratic revolutionary struggle of the Chinese people since the May Fourth Movement. It also symbolizes the birth of a new China under the leadership of the working class and a people's democratic dictatorship based on the alliance of workers and peasants." (p. 7)

Lesson 2: Resist the USA, Aid Korea, And Defend China

"In June 1950, the Korean Civil War broke out. The United States brazenly sent troops to invade North Korea.

"The so-called 'United Nations forces,' dominated by the United States, crossed the 38th parallel and hit the Yalu River on the Chinese border. American planes invaded China's airspace and bombed and shot China's northeast border cities. The U.S. Seventh Fleet invaded the Taiwan Strait. The fleet prevented the Chinese People's Liberation Army from liberating Taiwan. The United States' aggressive activities seriously threatened China's security.

"The Democratic People's Republic of Korea requested the Chinese government to send troops for assistance. In October 1950, the Chinese People's volunteer army, commanded by Peng Dehuai, according to the Central Committee's decision, went to the front lines of North Korea. The army was there to fight with the North Korean soldiers and civilians against the American aggressors. The army was there to resist the U.S. aggressors, aid North Korea, and defend China." (p. 8)

Note: The so-called war against the United States and aid to Korea was a big trap dug by Stalin and Korea for the Chinese Communist Party. Mao Zedong learned of the war only after it broke out, but he had no choice but to meet Stalin's demands and send troops to support North Korea. Mao's trusted confidant Lin Biao even refused to go to the command of the war, forcing Mao to send Peng Dehuai, who was not on good terms with Mao himself, to the war as the commander. The war ended the CCP's dream of taking over Taiwan by force and cost hundreds of thousands of Chinese soldiers' lives. The Korean War also led to a complete rupture in relations between the CCP and the Western bloc led by the United States, and the Communist Party had to lean more towards the Soviet camp.

War Heroes Huang Jiguang And Qiu Shaoyun

"Countless epic heroes emerged in the fight against the enemy in the Chinese People's Volunteer Army. Huang Jiguang and Qiu Shaoyun were two examples." (p. 10)

"Around the same time as the Shangganling Battle, a volunteer army section was preparing to seize an enemy highland. In order to shorten the attack distance and ensure the element of surprise in the battle, Qiu Shaoyun's platoon was ordered to lurch at the foot of a mountain only 60 meters away from the enemy at night. They were supposed to be ready to cooperate with the attack of the large force the next night. Unexpectedly, the enemy's artillery fire ignited and burned Qiu Shaoyun. To ensure victory in the battle and the safety of the lurking troops, Qiu Shaoyun strictly abided by the lurking discipline and remained motionless until he was swallowed by the fire and died heroically." (pp. 10-11)

"In the Korean War, the volunteer army carried forward a high degree of patriotism, revolutionary heroism, and internationalism. They were hailed as the 'loveliest people.' Due to their heroic battles alongside the Korean soldiers and civilians, the United States was forced to sign the Korean Armistice Agreement in July 1953.

"The Chinese people won the war against aggression, and the Chinese People's Volunteer army returned to China. The victory won a relatively stable and peaceful environment for China's economic construction and greatly improved China's international status." (p. 11)


"Apart from Huang Jiguang and Qiu Shaoyun, the Chinese People's Volunteer Army had many memorable heroes in the Korean War, such as Yang Gensi and Luo Shengjiao. Assign students to search for information, learn about their heroic deeds. Why were the Chinese People's Volunteer Army soldiers called the 'loveliest people?'" (p. 12)

Lesson 3: Land Reform


"Land reform is a profound social change in China to eliminate the feudal exploitation system. During the land reform, many places abolished the land boundary of the landlord. The land was allocated to the peasants, and some peasants were also allocated cattle, farming tools, supplies, and houses. What was that all about? Does anyone want to find out what really happened in the land reform?" (p. 13)

Implementation of The Land Reform Law Of The People's Republic of China

"After the founding of New China, the newly liberated areas with a population of more than 300 million have not yet carried out land reforms. According to statistics by the National Bureau of Statistics, before the land reform, landlords and rich peasants accounted for less than 7% of the total number of rural households and accounted for more than 50% of the total arable land. The poor peasants and farm hires accounted for more than 57% of the country's rural households and only occupied 14% of the total arable land. They had either no land or very little land.

"Landlords owned 20 to 30 times more arable land than the poor and hired peasants. This situation seriously hindered the development of the rural economy and Chinese society. The farmers urgently demanded land reform to obtain land.

"In 1950, the Central People's Government promulgated the Law of the People's Republic of China on Land Reform. It stipulated that the land ownership system of feudal exploitation by the landlord class would be abolished and that the peasant's land ownership system would be implemented.

"By the wintertime, the whole country carried out land reform in batches. Landlords' land was confiscated and divided up for peasants who had little or no land for farming. A small share was left to landlords so that they could cultivate themselves and reform themselves through labor.

"By the end of 1952, with the exception of some ethnic minority areas, land reform was completed in mainland China. About 300 million landless farmers were allocated about 116 million acres of land and a large number of farm tools, livestock, and houses. The land rent of more than 30 million tons of grain that had to be paid to landlords each year was eliminated. The peasants were truly liberated." (p. 14)

Study Material

"Abolish the feudal exploitation land ownership by the landlord class system. Implement peasant land ownership system. Liberate rural productivity. Develop agricultural production. Pave the way for the industrialization of New China." – The Land Reform Law of the People's Republic of China

"Why does the CCP want to abolish the feudal exploitation of land ownership by the landlord class system?" (p. 14)

Related Historical Events

"This land reform had the additional goal of facilitating the restoration and development of production. It paid extra attention to preserving the rich peasant economy and politically neutralizing the rich peasants. It was different from the past land reform policies. This reassured the middle peasants that their interests would not be harmed. It also stabilized the national bourgeoisie in the cities. It isolated the landlord class, reduced resistance in land reform, and thus helped to develop production." (p. 14)

The Significance Of Land Reform

"The completion of the land reform destroyed the feudal land system that had existed for more than 2,000 years. It eliminated the landlord class. The peasant's lives changed for the better. They obtained and owned the land. This was the consolidation of the people's power and the liberation of rural productivity. The rapid recovery and development of agricultural production prepared conditions for the country's industrialization."

Note: The CCP's lust for power never ends, and there is no line that cannot be crossed to achieve this end. In order to cooperate with the Kuomintang and avoid being completely destroyed, the Chinese Communist Party deceived Chiang Kai-shek and vowed in its Anti-Japanese declaration (The Declaration of Cooperation between the KMT and the CCP by the Central Committee of the CCP) that it would cease all the communist movements and stop the policy of confiscating landlords' land by violence.

But once the Communist Party seized power in China, it began to mercilessly attack the landlords, with the beautiful name of "land reform" that would achieve land ownership for peasants, namely the so-called system of "land to the tillers." However, just a few years later, the CCP carried out the Three Major Socialist Transformations and played a big joke on Chinese peasants, changing the peasants' ownership of land to collective ownership of land and completely abolishing the private ownership of rural land. Chinese peasants were completely cheated by the CCP and have held no land ever since.

From Grade 8 Chinese History, Volume 2

The Establishment Of The Socialist System And The Exploration Of Socialist Construction

Unit Introduction

"With the implementation of the first five-year plan, China began socialist industrialization construction. Great achievements were made. The construction of democratic politics proceeded smoothly. The system of people's congresses was established.

"In 1956, China completed the socialist transformation of agriculture, handicrafts, capitalist industry, and commerce. The basic socialist system was established. China entered the primary stage of socialist development.

"In the process of exploring the road to socialist construction, China made major achievements. There were also some mistakes and errors made like the 'Great Leap Forward' and the 'Cultural Revolution.' Socialist construction developed tortuously in exploration." (p. 17)

Lesson 4: The Beginning Of Industrialization And The Establishment Of The People's Congress System


"The New Year's Day editorial of the People's Daily in 1953 said: 'Industrialization is the ideal that our people have dreamed of for over 100 years. This is the fundamental guarantee that the Chinese people will no longer be bullied by imperialism and will no longer live a poor life. This is the fundamental guarantee that the Chinese people will no longer be trampled underfoot. It is in the highest interest of the people. Everybody must work together for this highest interest.'" (p. 18)

"In order to plan the socialist construction, the government compiled the first five-year plan for the development of the national economy. The basic tasks are concentrate the main forces on the development of heavy industry; establish a preliminary foundation for national industrialization and national defense modernization; develop transportation, light industry, agriculture, and commerce; train construction talents accordingly. The first five-year plan was implemented in 1953."

The Establishment Of The People's System

"With the development of economic construction, China's democratic political construction also stepped up. On the basis of universal suffrage across the country, in September 1954, the first National People's Congress was held in Beijing. The people's representatives of the whole country gathered together to discuss major issues of the country.

The General Assembly formulated the Constitution of the People's Republic of China. This was China's first socialist constitution. It was also a constitution that truly reflects the interests of the people in Chinese history. The Constitution stipulated that the National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China was the highest organ of power. This established the system of the People's Congress in the form of the fundamental law of the country." (p. 21)

Study Material

"All power in the People's Republic of China belongs to the people. The organ for exercising their rights are the National People's Congress and local people's congresses at various levels.

"The National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China is the highest organ of state power. – The Constitution of the People's Republic of China, 1954"

Related Historical Events

"In December 1953, New China held a nationwide grassroots election. The population of the electoral area was 570 million. More than 5 million people's congress deputies and people's congresses at all levels were elected across the country.

Many outstanding talents in industrial, agricultural, and other fields were elected as representatives of the people. People regard the election day as a holiday. They display their lanterns and festoons, and solemnly exercise their right to vote. This was the first time in Chinese history that all of the population participated in an election." (p. 21)

Note: The Constitution of the People's Republic of China enacted by the CCP states that all power belongs to the people. But what power could the Chinese people have under the Communist Party? Now, Xi Jinping has repeatedly emphasized that China is practicing what he calls "whole-process people's democracy," and the CCP's propaganda mouthpieces have joined him in calling democracy in the United States and the West a "joke," shamelessly saying that China is now a true democracy. The CCP, which seems to think it will have a say in defining democracy by saying so, has become a laughingstock around the world.

"The Congress elected Mao Zedong as the chairman of the People's Republic of China, Zhu De as the vice-chairman, Liu Shaoqi as the chairman of the Standing Committee of the First National People's Congress, and Zhou Enlai as the premier of the State Council.

The convening of the first National People's Congress formed a system of people's congresses. The system is the fundamental political system of China. It laid the foundation for the construction of socialist democratic politics." (p. 22)

Lesson 5: Three Major Transformations

Cooperation In Agriculture And The Handicraft Industry

"After the land reform, farmers were allocated land, and agricultural production was restored and developed. However, China's agriculture is still operated by individual households. Poor peasants lacked farming tools and funds. It was difficult for each family to solve irrigation problems. It was difficult for family units to withstand natural disasters. They could not use arable land efficiently or use advanced mechanized farm tools. This affected the development of agricultural production. Agricultural products could not meet the needs of industrialization.

"Farmers needed mutual assistance and cooperation. The state's socialist transformation of agriculture was mainly to organize scattered individual farmers. The transformation guided peasants to participate in agricultural cooperatives, take the socialist road of collectivization, and achieve common prosperity.

"The superiority of agricultural cooperation encouraged farmers to actively participate in cooperatives. At the beginning of agricultural cooperation, the principle of voluntary mutual benefit was implemented and gradually promoted through typical demonstrations. It has gone through three stages, from the agricultural mutual aid group, the primary agricultural production cooperative, to the advanced agricultural cooperative.

"In 1955, the country reached a high point of agricultural cooperation. In the second year, most agricultural households across the country joined agricultural cooperatives.

"The agricultural cooperative movement promoted the socialist transformation of the handicraft industry. In 1956, more than 90% of individual handicraftsmen participated in handicraft production cooperatives." (pp. 23-24)

Related Historical Events

"In spring 1953, in a village in Anyang County, Henan Province, 18 farmers' families organized and established an agricultural production cooperative. Some middle peasants said: 'You do it first. Let's wait and see.' Some wealthy households said sarcastically, 'a bunch of poor wretches want to start a cooperative. It is impossible. It's like saying chicken feathers can fly in the sky.'

"When the cooperative was first established, there were indeed many difficulties. The seven cows in the cooperative were so weak and thin that they could not stand up after falling down. Farm tools such as carts and plows were broken and rusted. The branch party secretary and president of the cooperative said: 'I am a CCP member. No matter how difficult it is at home. Even if my family doesn't eat for three days, I must lead everyone and run the cooperative. We will never bow to difficulties!'

"The cooperative members responded: 'We must succeed. We will make the chicken feathers fly in the sky.' The members worked hard together for a year. Production developed, output increased, members' income increased, and life improved. The superiority of organization is shown.

"The farmers who did not join the cooperative said: 'The poor wretch cooperative has succeeded. The chicken feathers are flying in the sky.' So, they asked to join the cooperative. Some farmers said: 'If they don't let me join, I will force my way in!'

"By autumn 1954, more than 80 farmers and middle farmers in the village joined the agricultural production cooperatives." (p. 24)

Public-Private Partnership

"Capitalist industry and commerce was an important part of the social economy in the early days of New China. It once suffered severe difficulties. The people's government helped private industry and enterprises to get over the difficulties and achieve development. It adjusted industry and commerce. However, private industry and commerce have negative aspects that are not helpful to the national economy and people's livelihood. Some private industry and commerce owners disregard the interests of the country and the people to make huge profits. Some even resorted to various illegal methods to seriously disrupt economic order. The people's government had to fight against these illegal activities many times. With the recovery of the national economy and the strengthening of the state-owned economy, a public-private partnership economy emerged and developed."

Historical Private Economy Transitioned To A Socialist Public Economy

"From 1954 onwards, the state's socialist transformation of capitalist industry and commerce gradually developed into a public-private partnership of enterprises. Both sides jointly operate the enterprise. The government representative has the leading role. Under the influence of the agricultural cooperation, in early 1956, the socialist transformation of capitalist industry and commerce reached a high point of public-private partnerships across industry and commerce. 

"In the process of transformation, the state implemented a redemption policy for the production of supplies and materials owned by capitalists. A fixed annual interest rate of 5% was paid for the capitalists' initial capital amount at the time of transformation. This redemption policy achieved a peaceful transition. It was a pioneering move in China's socialist transformation.

"By the end of 1956, the country had basically completed the socialist transformation of agriculture, handicrafts, and capitalist industry and commerce. It realized the transformation from private ownership of the means of production to socialist public ownership. The basic system of socialism had been established in China. This is the most profound social change in Chinese history. China entered the primary stage of socialism. In the later stages of the socialist transformation work, there were shortcomings such as hasty requirements, rough work, and extra fast changes." (p. 25)

After-School Activities

Reading Materials, Answer Questions

"The purpose of the socialist revolution is to liberate productive forces. Agriculture and handicrafts changed from individual ownership to socialist collective ownership, and private industry and commerce changed from capitalist ownership to socialist ownership, which inevitably liberated productive forces. This will greatly develop industrial and agricultural production and create social conditions.

"It was Mao Zedong's speech at a state conference in 1956. Combining this passage, talk about the significance of the three major transformations to economic development." (p. 26)

Knowledge Development: Tongrentang Public-Private Partnership

"Tongrentang is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine store in China. Founded in 1669, it is well known at home and abroad for its peculiar formula, exquisite production, and authentic medicines. Since the founding of New China, Tongrentang has always been cared for by the party and the people's government, and its business has developed greatly. In 1954, in order to implement the policy of reforming capitalist industry and commerce, the Beijing Municipal Bureau of Local Industry selected Tongrentang to be in the first batch of demonstration enterprises for public-private partnerships. Le Songsheng, the manager of Tongrentang, focused on the overall situation, followed the historical trend, and took the lead in the public-private partnership, which was highly praised by Mao Zedong. Since the public-private partnership, Tongrentang has further developed in terms of production, scale of sales, and development of new drugs." (p. 26)

Note: The official full title of the Three Major Socialist Transformations, understated in the CCP's history textbook, is The Socialist Transformation of Private Ownership of the Means of Production. We can imagine that as the name implies, this was a movement of robbery and looting, full of brutality and bloody violence.

Take the Socialist transformation of Capitalist Industry and Commerce as an example: The movement was in full swing from 1954 to the end of 1956. Prior to this, in 1952, the Communist Party launched the "Five Antis Movement" (a.k.a. Anti-bourgeoisie Movement) to shock and awe capitalists and destroy their prestige. At that time, many people lost their money because of the movement and became destitute overnight. Despondent and humiliated, many took their own lives, destroying their families. In Shanghai alone, incomplete statistics from January 25, 1952 to April 1, 1952 showed that 876 people committed suicide because of the persecution of the movement. The average number of suicides per day was almost more than 10, and among them were many businessmen and capitalists who committed suicide together with their multiple family members.

Lesson 6: Difficult Exploration And Construction Achievements


"The establishment of the basic socialist system is a major event in Chinese history, and it has also been pursued by the Chinese for many years. Facing the unprecedented socialist construction cause full of expectations, the CCP led the Chinese people to embark on arduous exploration and achieved a series of major achievements. There were also twists and turns and mistakes in the exploration process. How did socialist construction unfold? What are the construction's achievements?" (p. 27)

Related History

"In 1956, Mao Zedong delivered a report "On the 10 Major Relations" at the enlarged meeting of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee and the Supreme State Council. This report established a basic policy, which is to mobilize all positive factors at home and abroad to serve socialism. The 10 issues discussed in the report (that is, the 10 major relationships) are not only raised from summing up China's experience and studying the problems of China's construction and development, but also based on the experience and lessons of the Soviet Union. The arduous exploration of the path of socialist construction in the country has made a good start. The theoretical results of "On the 10 Major Relations" and the subsequently published "On the Correct Handling of Contradictions among the People" have provided valuable experience and theoretical preparations for the creation of a path to socialism with Chinese characteristics in the new historical period." (p. 27)

Zigzag In The Exploration

"In 1956, the CCP held its Eighth National Congress in Beijing. According to the basic socialist system and the new situation that has been established in China, the conference analyzed the main domestic contradictions at that time and pointed out that the main task of the party and the people is to concentrate our efforts to transform China from a backward agricultural country to an advanced industrial country as soon as possible. After the Eighth National Congress of the CCP, China began comprehensive and large-scale socialist construction.

"In 1958, the Second Session of the Eighth National Congress of the CCP put forward a general line for building socialism in a fast and economical way. Then the country reached the high point of the Great Leap Forward and the movement of people's communes. The Great Leap Forward and the communalization of the people reflected the people's desire to change China's backward economic situation, but their eagerness for success ignored objective economic laws. Coupled with natural disasters and other factors at that time, China's national economy experienced serious difficulties from 1959 to 1961.

"In order to overcome the difficult situation, the Central Committee of the CCP began to adjust the national economy and proposed adjustments to consolidate and improve the Bazi policy in early 1961. By 1965, the task of national economic adjustment was basically completed, industrial and agricultural production was restored and developed, and the new outlook of stable prices and a prosperous market appeared." (pp. 27-28)

Related Historical Events

"From January 11 to February 7, 1962, the CPC Central Committee held an expanded central work conference in Beijing. Participants in the meeting were responsible cadres from the Central Committee and various departments, bureaus, provinces, cities, autonomous regions... counties, important factories and mines, and the army, totaling 7,118. This meeting is usually called the Seven Thousand People Meeting, and it is the largest working meeting held since the founding of the CCP.

"The Seven Thousand People's Congress systematically summarized the basic experiences and lessons of economic construction since the Great Leap Forward. The conference's pragmatic attitude towards shortcomings and errors, as well as the spirit of democracy and self-criticism, inspired the whole party and strengthened the whole party's confidence in fighting together and overcoming difficulties. This conference played a positive role in promoting the overall adjustment of the national economy." (p. 28)

The Cultural Revolution

"In the mid-1960s, Mao Zedong believed that the party and the country were in danger of capitalist restoration. Thus, he emphasized 'taking class struggle as the key link' and wanted to prevent the restoration of capitalism by launching a 'cultural revolution.' In the summer of 1966, the Cultural Revolution was fully launched.

"The Central Cultural Revolution Team composed of Chen Boda, Jiang Qing, Kang Sheng, Zhang Chunqiao, and others became the actual headquarters of the Cultural Revolution. They took the opportunity to instigate 'all-out civil war.' Rebels organized beatings, smashing, and looting incidents in many places. Schools and factories were closed for 'revolution.' Some party and government agencies were hit, a large number of leading cadres and intellectuals at all levels were criticized and struggled, democracy and the legal system were trampled, and the social and production order fell into chaos. President Liu Shaoqi was slandered as a traitor and gangster and suffered cruel persecution, which became the biggest unjust case in the Cultural Revolution.

"The unrest in the country caused serious anxiety and anger among the older generation of revolutionaries. They fought tit-for-tat against the perverse actions of Jiang Qing and others, but they were suppressed and hit. Under extremely difficult conditions, Zhou Enlai and many cadres persisted in the daily work of the party and the country to minimize the losses caused by the Cultural Revolution.

"After the start of the Cultural Revolution, a counter-revolutionary group formed around Lin Biao, conspiring to instigate a counter-revolutionary coup and seize the highest power. Mao Zedong and Zhou Enlai cleverly shattered their conspiracy. On September 13, 1971, Lin Biao and others hurriedly fled and ended their lives in Wendul Khan in the Mongolian People's Republic. This was the 'September 13 Incident.' The Lin Biao counter-revolutionary clique was crushed.

"During the Cultural Revolution, Jiang Qing, Wang Hongwen, Zhang Chunqiao, Yao Wenyuan, and others gradually colluded to carry out conspiracy activities to usurp the party and seize power. Mao Zedong criticized them many times, saying that they were the Gang of Four. In September 1976, Mao Zedong passed away and the people of the whole country were in infinite grief. The Jiang Qing counter-revolutionary group stepped up its conspiracy to seize the supreme leadership of the party and the country. In October, Hua Guofeng, Ye Jianying, and others on behalf of the central government took drastic measures to isolate the Gang of Four and smash the Jiangqing counter-revolutionary clique in one fell swoop, ending the decade-long Cultural Revolution." (pp. 28-29)

"The Cultural Revolution brought the party, the country, and the people of all ethnic groups the most serious setbacks since the founding of New China and caused huge losses. There are complicated social and historical reasons for its launch. The history of socialist countries is very short. Our party has not fully understood what socialism is and how to build socialism, so it has taken a detour in its exploration. There is no such thing as a smooth sailing career in this world. The history of the world has always broken through the ups and downs in the ups and downs of Tito." (p. 30)

Note: This is the most controversial and unacceptable part of the history textbook. It not only downplays as "hard exploration" the political and economic movements that followed the founding of the People's Republic of China – such as the Anti-rightist Movement, the Great Leap Forward, and the Cultural Revolution, which led to huge social disasters and human casualties – but also highly praises the so-called construction achievements of the Mao era. This is the actual negation of the resolution of the Sixth Plenary Session of the 11th CCP Central Committee in 1981 on some historical issues of the Party since the founding of the People's Republic of China. In the Resolution on the Major Achievements and Historical Experience of the Party over the Past Century, which was recently adopted by the Sixth Plenary Session of the 19th CCP Central Committee, Xi Jinping did not challenge the previous two historical resolutions directly, but downplayed, whitewashed, or evaded all crimes committed by the CCP due to dictatorship and tyranny, including the June 4 Tiananmen Massacre. This is a huge step backwards.

Building Achievements

"After the start of the all-round socialist construction cause, under the leadership of the CCP, the Chinese people devoted themselves to the cause of socialist construction with high enthusiasm, struggled arduously, overcame numerous difficulties, and made great achievements." (p. 30)

Knowledge Development: Learn From Comrade Lei Feng

"With the vigorous development of socialist construction, while the people's material life has improved, society has also formed a good way of serving the people wholeheartedly. Lei Feng is a typical representative

"Lei Feng was an ordinary PLA soldier. He did his business and loved his business, worked hard in every post, was willing to be the screw of the revolution, and did a lot of good things for the people in the unknown. There is a saying: Lei Feng traveled a thousand miles and made a train. He won the honorary titles of Advanced Worker Skating and Red Flag Bearer many times.

"In 1962, Lei Feng unfortunately died on duty. His communist style of selflessness, happily helping others, and his words consistent with his deeds work style became a model for people across the country.

"In March 1963, Mao Zedong wrote an inscription, 'learn from Comrade Lei Feng.' A vigorous movement to learn from Lei Feng was set off across the country. Learning from Lei Feng and doing good deeds were commonplace. Lei Feng spirit educated and influenced generations of Chinese people." (p. 32)

After-School Activities

"1. Read the material and answer the questions.

"A large part of the material and technological foundation on which we now rely for modernization construction was built during this period. Most of the backbone of the country's economic and cultural construction... were also cultivated and accumulated during this period. This was the dominant aspect of party work during this period.

"This paragraph came from the resolution of the Central Committee of the CCP in 1981 on several historical issues of the party since the founding of the country. 'This period' in the article refers to the 10 years when China began to build all-round socialism, from 1956 to 1966.

"Combining knowledge of the text and the above materials, talk about your understanding and knowledge of this period.

"2. In the process of building all-round socialism, people's enthusiasm and fighting spirits were high. They formed a social style of hard work and striving for a strong and prosperous country.

"The construction of the Hongqi Canal was a typical representative of this style. Research and understand the construction process of the Hongqi Canal. Talk about your understanding of the spirit of Hongqi Canal." (p. 32)

Unit 3: The Road Of Socialism With Chinese Characteristics

Unit Guide: "In 1978, the CCP held the Third Plenary Session of the 11th Central Committee. It opened a new historical period for China's reform, opening up, and socialist modernization. The CCP opened the path of socialism with Chinese characteristics. It formed a theoretical system of socialism with Chinese characteristics, established a socialist system with Chinese characteristics, and developed a socialist culture with Chinese characteristics.

"Since then, China has reformed internally. It opened up to the outside world and gradually established a socialist market economic system. Overall national strength was continuously enhanced. The people's living standards greatly improved. At the end of the 20th century, the standard of living reached an overall well-off level. China is moving towards the goal of building an all-round well-off society." (p. 33)

Lesson 7: A Great Historical Turning Point


"At the meeting celebrating the 40th anniversary of reform and opening up, Xi Jinping pointed out: 'Establishing the CCP, the founding of the People's Republic of China, and the promotion of reform, opening up, and the cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics are three historical events. These are the events that occurred after the May Fourth Movement. They are the three milestones in the great national rejuvenation." (p. 34)

The Third Plenary Session of the 11th CPC Central Committee

"After 10 years of Cultural Revolution turmoil, many serious political and social problems had accumulated. After the Gang of Four was smashed, people demanded that the unjust, false, and wrong cases in the Cultural Revolution be rehabilitated. They demanded the correction of the Cultural Revolution's mistakes.

"On February 7, 1977, People's Daily, Red Flag Magazine, and People's Liberation Army Daily published an editorial. It publicly proclaimed: 'Any decision made by Chairman Mao, we firmly support. Any instructions given by Chairman Mao, we will unswervingly follow.' These policies were later called 'Two Anys,' and they caused widespread dissatisfaction.

"In 1978, the ideological and theoretical circles launched a big discussion on the standard of truth. This was a profound ideological liberation movement. It made people realize that practice was the only criterion for testing truth." (p. 34)

Related Historical Events

"In December 1978, Deng Xiaoping delivered an important speech entitled 'Emancipating the Mind, Seeking Truth from Facts, Looking Forward in Unity.' He pointed out: 'Emancipate the mind, use the brain, seek truth from facts, and look forward in unity. The first is to emancipate the mind. Only when the mind is liberated can we correctly use Marxism and Mao Zedong Thought as guidance to solve past problems and newly emerged ones. Only when the mind is liberated can we correctly coordinate and reform the rapid development of production relations and superstructure. Only when the mind is liberated can we determine the specific ways, means, guidelines, methods, and measures to realize the four modernizations according to China's specific situation.'" (p. 35)

"In December 1978, the Third Plenary Session of the 11th Central Committee of the CCP was held in Beijing. This plenum broke through the severe shackles of long-term 'left' mistakes and determined the guiding principles of emancipating the mind, using brains, seeking truth from facts, and looking forward in unity. It decisively ended 'class struggle as the key link' and re-established the Marxist ideological line, the political line, and the organizational line. It made a historic decision to shift the focus of the party and the country's work to economic construction and implementation of reform and opening up.

"The Third Plenary Session of the 11th Central Committee of the CCP was a great turning point in the party's history since the founding of New China. It started the great journey of reform, opening up, and socialist modernization. This meeting formed the second generation of the party, the central leadership collective, with Deng Xiaoping at the core. After the meeting, the CCP carried out a comprehensive movement to bring order out of chaos in ideological, political, organizational, and other areas." (p. 36)

"By the end of 1982, the large-scale redress of unjust, false, and wrong cases was basically completed. More than 3 million cadres and intellectuals were rehabilitated. Tens of millions of people who had been implicated were also freed. They were energetic in devoting themselves to the cause of socialist modernization.

"The party and the government also carefully adjusted and implemented policies on intellectuals, ethnic groups, and religions. The policies effectively mobilized the enthusiasm of people from all walks of life, promoting social stability, unity, and the development of socialist modernization." (p. 36)

Lesson 8: Economic System Reform

Historical Events Related To Economic System Reform

"Before the rural reform, the rural people's communes were integrated with the administrative community, unified management, centralized labor, unified distribution, dubbed 'everyone eating from one big pot.' Peasants lack production autonomy. After working hard for a year, they received very little income. There was very little enthusiasm for production.

"The household contract responsibility system was based on the public ownership of land. The land was long-term contracted to each household for cultivation. Agricultural production basically became household management and self-financing. The farmers said vividly: 'Pay the dues to the country first. Pay the dues to the collective second. Whatever is left is our own.'

"Farmers enthusiastically supported the household contract responsibility system. Their enthusiasm for production was greatly improved. They achieved bumper harvests year after year." (p. 39)

"With the support and advocacy of the central government, the household contract responsibility system was gradually rolled out throughout the country. By 1983, it was basically implemented in rural areas across the country. The implementation of the household contract responsibility system aroused farmers' enthusiasm for labor. It brought about the great liberation of rural productivity from agriculture and greatly improved agricultural production and farmers' income.

"With the development of agricultural production towards specialization, commercialization, and socialization, rural township and village enterprises also developed rapidly. This opened a new way for farmers to become rich and realize modernization." (p. 39)

Study Material

Decision Of The CCP Central Committee On Economic System Reform: "The profound changes that have taken place in the 35 years since the founding of China have demonstrated the superiority of the socialist system. However, this superiority has not been brought into play as it should be. The cause of the failure is that in the economic system, a rigid model has been formed that is incompatible with the development of social productive forces. There are several main drawbacks to this model. The responsibilities of government and enterprise are not divided clearly. Two command systems of central government and local municipalities artificially divide the entire country into different areas. The government controls the enterprise too tightly. The role of commercial production is ignored. The value and the market laws are ignored. There is serious egalitarianism in distribution. All these drawbacks caused a situation where enterprises lack the autonomy that they should have. Enterprises rely on government handouts. Employees rely on enterprise handouts. There is very little enthusiasm, initiative, and creativity from employees and enterprises. This also resulted in a socialist economy that was lifeless when it should have been full of vitality."

The Socialist Market Economy System: "In 1992, the 14th CCP National Congress proposed the establishment of a socialist market economy.

"In 1993, the Third Plenary Session of the 14th Central Committee of the CCP passed the Decision of the CCP Central Committee on Several Issues Concerning the Establishment of a Socialist Market Economic System.

"The socialist market economic system is integrated with the basic socialist system. To establish a socialist market economy, the system must make the market, under national macro-control, play a fundamental role in resource allocation.

"We must integrate the basic socialist system with the market economy in order to establish a socialist market economic system. This will help achieve coordinated economic development and stable and high-speed growth. It will be a huge impetus for modernization and a significant increase in China's economic strength." (pp. 40-41)

Lesson 9: Opening To The Outside World

The Establishment of Special Economic Zones

"The establishment of special economic zones played an extremely important role in introducing foreign capital, advanced technology, and management experience. It promoted further domestic reforms, expanded foreign economic exchanges, and developed socialist modernization." (p. 42)

After-School Activities: Reading Materials. Questions And Answers

"In 1984, Deng Xiaoping inspected the Shenzhen, Zhuhai, and Xiamen Special Economic Zones and said: 'The special zone is a window of technology and foreign policy. From the special zone, China can pull in technology, acquire knowledge, and learn management knowledge. The special zone should become an open base. It will not only benefit us in terms of the economy and cultivating talents, but also expand our external influence."

"Referencing this passage from Deng Xiaoping, talk about the role of special economic zones in the development of China's socialist economy." (p. 45)

Note: The Chinese Communist Party's Reform and Opening Up was an unhelpful move to save the communist regime with economic development. Chinese people are so creative, and they can have amazing achievements even when they are given very limited development space. The three decades of rapid economic growth that followed Deng Xiaoping's reform and opening up was not a gift of the Chinese Communist Party, but the result of the great creativity of the Chinese people.

Additional Study: Origin of the Term Special Zone

"At the Central Work Conference in April 1979, the person in charge of the Guangdong Provincial Party Committee proposed to take advantage of Guangdong's location and to set up export processing zones in Shenzhen, Zhuhai, and Shantou near Hong Kong and Macau. Deng Xiaoping said: 'It is better to call it a special economic zone. In the beginning, Shaan-Gan-Ning old revolutionary base was called a special zone. The central government does not have money but can give you some beneficial policies. You can build a bloody road to success yourself.'"

Lesson 10: Building Socialism With Chinese Characteristics


"In the great practice and relay exploration of reform and opening, the CCP leadership opened the path of socialism with Chinese characteristics. It gradually formed Deng Xiaoping Theory, the important Three Represents Thought, the scientific outlook on development, and Xi Jinping's New-Era Socialism With Chinese Characteristics Thought.

"How did the theories and thoughts form and develop? What was their tremendous role in socialist modernization construction? How was the role demonstrated?" (p. 46)


1. The Three Represents are: 1. The CCP must always represent the development requirements of China's advanced productive forces. 2. The CCP must always represent the direction of China's advanced culture. 3. The CCP must always represent the fundamental interests of the Chinese people.)

2.  The summary and division of the historical stages of the CCP in the textbook is now out of date, and it is expected that the textbook will soon be revised accordingly, because the Sixth Plenary Session of the 19th CCP Central Committee has just adopted the third resolution since the founding of the Communist Party, namely, the Resolution on the Major Achievements and Historical Experience of the Party over the Past Century. The resolution makes the historical chronology of the Communist Party in the eras of Mao Zedong, Deng Xiaoping, and Xi Jinping. As a result, Jiang Zemin and Hu Jintao were only transitional leaders in Deng's era, and Hu Yaobang and Zhao Ziyang, two of the Deng era's general secretaries of the CCP who made major contributions to the reform and opening up, became even less worthy of mention. This shows the arrogance and hubris of Xi Jinping.

The Establishment Of The Guiding Position Of Deng Xiaoping Theory

"In 1982, at the 12th CCP National Congress, Deng Xiaoping pointed out that our modernization construction must proceed from China's reality. We must integrate the universal truths of Marxism with the specific reality of China. We must follow our own path to build socialism with Chinese characteristics.

"In 1987, the 13th CCP National Congress systematically expounded the theory of the primary stage of socialism. It summarized the party's basic line in the primary stage of socialism, which focuses on economic construction, adheres to the four basic principles, and persists in reform and opening." (p. 46)

Note: Four basic principles: 1. the socialist road; 2. the people's democratic dictatorship; 3. the CCP leadership; and 4. Marxism-Leninism and Mao Zedong Thought. (p. 46)

"Deng Xiaoping was the chief architect of China's reform and opening and socialist modernization. The most important ideological and political heritage of Deng Xiaoping was the socialism with Chinese characteristics that he led the party and the people to create. The Deng Xiaoping Theory clarified the basic issues of building socialism, consolidating and developing socialism in China. It was a new stage in the development of Marxism in China. The 14th CCP National Congress, held in 1992, proposed that the whole party must be armed with Deng Xiaoping's theory of building socialism with Chinese characteristics.

"At the 15th CCP National Congress in 1997, Jiang Zemin gave a speech on holding high the great banner of Deng Xiaoping Theory. The speech emphasized comprehensively pushing the cause of building socialism with Chinese characteristics into the 21st century.

"The party constitution adopted at the conference stipulated that the CCP takes Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, and Deng Xiaoping Theory as its guide for action. The party constitution established Deng Xiaoping Theory as the party's guiding ideology. Those decisions were very significant to the construction of socialism with Chinese characteristics." (p. 48)

The 16th CCP National Congress

"In 2002, the 16th CCP National Congress was held in Beijing. At the meeting, Jiang Zemin gave a report... At the 16th CCP National Congress, the important thought of Three Represents was established as the guiding ideology of the CCP. The core content of the important thinking of the Three Represents was defined. The CCP must always represent: 1. the developmental requirements of China's advanced productive forces; 2. the direction of China's advanced culture; and 3. the fundamental interests of the Chinese people.

"It further answered the question of what socialism was and how to build socialism. It creatively answered the question of what kind of party to build and how to build a party." (p. 48)

The 17th CCP National Congress

"In 2007, the 17th CCP National Congress was held in Beijing. Hu Jintao delivered a report on Holding High The Great Banner Of Socialism With Chinese Characteristics. Striving For New Victory In Building A Well-Off Society In An All-Round Way.

"The theme of the conference was to hold high the great banner of socialism with Chinese characteristics, guided by Deng Xiaoping Theory and the important thought of Three Represents. The conference promoted thorough implementation of the scientific development concept; continued emancipation of the mind; persistent reform and opening. It also asked the country to promote scientific development and social harmony and to strive for new victory in building a well-off society in an all-round way.

"The scientific concept of development is a people-oriented, comprehensive, coordinated, and sustainable development theory. It provides new scientific answers to major issues. What kind of development to achieve under the new situation? It is the concentrated expression of a Marxist world outlook and methodology of development combined." (p. 49)

Note: According to Xi Jinping's current historical division of the Chinese Communist Party, the CCP held six national congresses during the so-called Deng Xiaoping era, from the 12th to the 17th. However, the history textbook does not mention the Communist Party's 12th and 13th National Congresses, held between 1978 and 1988, a period when the overall atmosphere of Chinese society was the most free and relaxed since the founding of the People's Republic of China.

The 18th CCP National Congress

"In 2012, the 18th CCP National Congress was held in Beijing. The theme of the conference was to hold high the great banner of socialism with Chinese characteristics. Use Deng Xiaoping Theory, the Important Thought of the Three Represents, and the Scientific Outlook as a guide to development. Emancipate the mind, reform, and open. Gather strength, overcome difficulties, and unswervingly move forward on the socialist road with Chinese characteristics. Strive to build a well-off society in all respects.

"At the 18th CCP National Congress, the Scientific Outlook on Development was established as the CCP guiding ideology." (p. 50)

Related Historical Events

"The 17th CCP National Congress continued to make comprehensive arrangements for the implementation of reform and opening. It arranged for socialist modernization and the realization of the grand goal of building a well-off society in an all-round way. It arranged for economic construction, political construction, cultural construction, and social construction.

"On this basis, the 18th CCP National Congress raised the construction of ecological civilization to a new height. It pointed out that 'the overall five elements layout of economic construction, political construction, cultural construction, social construction, and ecological civilization construction must be implemented as a whole.' 'Building Socialism with Chinese characteristics is based on the primary stage of socialism. The overall layout is all five elements in one. The overall task is to realize socialist modernization and the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.'" (p. 50)

"At the 18th CCP National Congress, the Scientific Outlook on Development was established as the CCP's guiding ideology. It put forward the basic requirements for winning new victories in socialism with Chinese characteristics. It established the goal of building a well-off society in an all-round way and deepening reform and opening in an all-round way. It made comprehensive arrangements for promoting the cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics in the new era. It put forward clear requirements for comprehensively improving the scientific level of party building." (p. 50)

The 19th CCP National Congress

"In 2017, the 19th National Congress of the CCP was held in Beijing. The theme of the conference was 'do not forget the original aspiration; keep in mind the mission; hold high the great banner of socialism with Chinese characteristics; decisively build a well-off society in an all-round way; win the great victory of socialism with Chinese characteristics in the new era; and strive unremittingly for the Chinese Dream of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.

"At the meeting, Xi Jinping gave a report entitled 'Decisive Victory To Build A Well-Off Society In An All-Round Way. Seize The Great Victory Of Socialism With Chinese Characteristics In The New Era.' The report pointed out that after long-term efforts, socialism with Chinese characteristics had entered a new era. This is a new historical position for China's development. The main contradictions in our society have been transformed. The current contradictions are between the people's growing needs for a better life and unbalanced and inadequate development.

"At the 19th CCP National Congress, Xi Jinping's New-Era Socialism With Chinese Characteristics Thought was established as the guiding ideology that the CCP must adhere to for a long time. Xi Jinping's New-Era Socialism With Chinese Characteristics Thought was the inheritance and development of Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Deng Xiaoping Theory, the important thinking of the Three Represents, and the scientific outlook on development. It was the latest achievement of Sinicization of Marxism. It was the crystallization of experience and collective wisdom of the party and the people. It was an important part of the theoretical system of socialism with Chinese characteristics. It was an action guide for the entire party and the people in the struggle to realize the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation." (p. 51)

After-School Activities

"Think about the question: Since the CCP Third Plenary Session of the 11th Central Committee, what have you been proud of about China?" (p. 52)

"The report of the 19th National Congress of the CCP pointed out: 'The CCP's original intention and mission were to seek happiness for the Chinese people and rejuvenation for the Chinese nation. The original intention and mission were the fundamental driving forces for the continuous advancement of the Chinese Communists.'

"Referencing modern Chinese history, talk about your understanding of the above passage." (p. 52)

Lesson 11: Strive Hard To Realize The Chinese Dream


"The Party Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping as the core had taken over the baton of history. It mastered the overall situation, planned tactics, making great efforts to govern, and gathered powerful forces to realize the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.

"Under the guidance of Xi Jinping Thought on the New-Era Socialism With Chinese Characteristics, the CCP led the people of all ethnic groups across the country. The great struggle, great project, great cause, and great dream were historic changes in the cause of the party and the country and promoted the entry of a new-era socialism with Chinese characteristics.

"Questions For Students:

Do you know what the Chinese Dream, two hundred-year goals, four comprehensive strategic plans, and new development concepts are? What achievements have been made recently in various undertakings in China? (p. 53)

The Grand Blueprint Of The Chinese Dream

"In November 2012, when visiting the 'Road to Rejuvenation' exhibition, Xi Jinping said: 'Realizing the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation is the greatest dream of the Chairman of the Chinese nation since modern times.'

"In 2013, Xi Jinping was elected Chinese president at the first session of the 12th National People's Congress. At the meeting, he profoundly expounded the grand blueprint of the Chinese Dream. He emphasized that the Chinese Dream was to realize the prosperity of the country, the revitalization of the nation, and the happiness of the people. He said that to realize the Chinese Dream, one must follow the Chinese path, promote the Chinese spirit, and condense the Chinese strength. In the end, the Chinese Dream was the people's dream. It must be realized by relying on the people. It must continue to benefit the people.

"Xi Jinping pointed out that in order to realize the Chinese Dream, the CCP has established two centenary goals. By the 100th anniversary of the founding of the CCP (in 2021), China will double the 2010 GDP and per capita income of urban and rural residents. A well-off society in all respects will be a reality. By the 100th anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic of China (in 2049), a prosperous, strong, democratic, civilized, and harmonious modern socialist country will be established. The great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation will be realized." (p. 54)

Study Material: "Xi Jinping's Speech at the First Session of the 12th National People's Congress" (p. 54)

"To realize the Chinese Dream, we must follow the Chinese road. This is the road of socialism with Chinese characteristics. This road is not easy to come by. It was developed in the great practice of reform and opening for more than 30 years. It is a continuous exploration since the founding of the People's Republic of China, for more than 60 years. It came out of the profound summary of the history of the development of the modern Chinese nation for more than 170 years. It came out of the inheritance of the Chinese nation's 5,000-year-old civilization. It has a profound historical origin and a wide range of reality basis." (p. 54

Note: Xi Jinping's Chinese Dream is a parody of the American Dream. However, the American Dream is a process in which people pursue their own dreams and realize their own values, while the Chinese Dream launched by Xi Jinping aims to realize the so-called great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation, build a strong country and a strong military, and build the so-called community with a shared future for mankind. Any one of them comes at the expense of the freedom and happiness of the Chinese people and is a complete nightmare for the Chinese people.

Great Achievements In China's Economic Construction

"In recent years, the internal and external environment of China's economic development has undergone profound changes. The Party Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at the core made a scientific judgment. China's economic development entered a speedy change, structural optimization, and power conversion. China innovated the ideas and methods of macro-control. It optimized and upgraded the industrial structure. It actively promoted scientific and technological innovation. It ensured the sustained and stable growth of the national economy.

"Ever since the 18th National Congress of the CCP, China has accelerated the construction of a new open economic system. It implemented the 'one belt and one road' construction. It prepared and established the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank. It accelerated the construction of a free trade pilot zone. It promoted the internationalization of the RMB. It demonstrated China's beautiful vision of working with other countries in the world to build a harmonious world of lasting peace and common prosperity." (p. 57)

After-School Activities

"Realizing the Chinese Dream of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation is the dream of the Chinese nation. It is the dream of every single Chinese. As a middle school student in the new era, what efforts can you make for the realization of the Chinese Dream?" (p. 58)

Additional Study: Building A Community With A Shared Future For Mankind

"Since the 18th CCP National Congress, Xi Jinping has focused on the world situation and development trend. He put forward the new idea of a world community with a shared future for mankind. He expounded this idea on many occasions.

"On September 28, 2015, Xi Jinping attended the 70th United Nations General Assembly. During the general debate session, he delivered an important speech: Join hands to build new partners for cooperation and win-win. Build a community with a shared future for mankind. He emphasized the need to create a new type of international relations, to create a community with a shared future for mankind.

"Xi Jinping pointed out: 'Achieving this goal requires our efforts in several aspects. We need to establish a partnership of equal treatment, mutual consultation, and mutual understanding. We need to create a partnership based on equality, fairness, and cooperation. We need to seek a safe pattern of openness, justice, and mutual benefit development. The promotion of harmonious but different and eclectic civilized exchanges is necessary. Building an ecological system that respects nature and green development is necessary.

"China's initiative to build a community with a shared future for mankind aroused enthusiastic responses from the international community. It had a positive and far-reaching impact on contemporary international relations.

"In February 2017, at the 55th session of the UN Commission for Social Development, the social-level resolution of the New Partnership for Africa's Development was adopted by consensus. The concept of building a community with a shared future for mankind was included in a UN resolution for the first time." (p. 58)

Note: Xi Jinping wants to build a Community with a Shared Future for Mankind and implement his Belt and Road Initiative. In other words, he wants to start a new business in opposition to mainstream global values and the Western-led international political and economic order.

Unit 4: Chinese National Unity and Chinese Country Unity

Unit Introduction

"Reunification of the motherland was the common long-cherished wish of the Chinese nation. Under the guidance of the concept of one country, two systems, Hong Kong and Macau returned to the motherland smoothly. Cross-strait relations (with Taiwan) continued to develop. With the joint efforts of all Chinese people, the great cause of motherland reunification would surely be realized." (p. 59)

The National Regional Autonomy System: Lesson 12: Chinese National Unity

"The realization of ethnic regional autonomy reflected the state's spirit, which was to fully respect and guarantee the rights of ethnic minorities to manage their own internal affairs. It was of great significance for maintaining ethnic unity, consolidating the unity of the motherland, and promoting the development of ethnic minority regions. It laid out a foundation for the common prosperity and development of all ethnic groups." (p. 61)

Study Material: Constitution Of People's Republic Of China

"All ethnic groups in the People's Republic of China are equal. The state protects the lawful rights and interests of all ethnic minorities. The state maintains and develops equality, solidarity, mutual assistance, and harmonious relations among all ethnic groups. Discrimination and oppression of any ethnic group are prohibited. Acts that undermine ethnic unity and create ethnic divisions are prohibited.

"According to the characteristics and needs of the minority nationalities, the state helps the minority areas accelerate economic and cultural development.

"Regional autonomy is practiced in areas where ethnic minorities live in concentrated communities. Autonomous agencies are established to exercise the power of autonomy. All ethnic autonomous areas are an integral part of the People's Republic of China."

Question and Answer

"Talk about your understanding of ethnic regional autonomy." (p. 61)

Common Prosperity And Development

"Before the founding of New China, due to historical and geographical reasons, the development of various ethnic groups in China was very uneven. The productivity of many ethnic minorities was very backward. For example, the Wa and Jingpo ethnic minorities in Yunnan province retained a primitive lifestyle. The Yi in Liangshan, Sichuan province lived in a slave society. The Tibetan people lived under the oppression of serfdom.

"After the founding of New China, the party and government carried out a series of democratic reforms and socialist transformations. In ethnic minority areas in accordance with local conditions, the party and government abolished exploitation and oppression. All ethnic groups became masters and entered socialist society.

"The state adopted many preferential policies and dispatched many personnel to the ethnic minority areas. The state strengthened the economic construction of ethnic minority areas using various methods such as technology, capital, and materials. These policies and activities promoted the common prosperity and development of all ethnic groups." (p. 62)

Note: Deeply influenced by the failed ethnic policies of the Soviet Union, the CCP's approach to dealing with ethnic issues and its self-proclaimed policy of regional ethnic autonomy have been a failure. Since the founding of the People's Republic of China, the overall ethnic policy of the CCP has always oscillated between the extremes of leniency and strictness. Hu Yaobang's policy towards ethnic minorities was the mildest and most relaxed, while Xi Jinping's current policy of systematic ethnic assimilation, crackdown, and religious repression is the most severe.

The Concept Of One Country, Two Systems: Lesson 13: Hong Kong And Macau Return To The Motherland

"The Hong Kong, Macao, and Taiwan issues were all left over from history. Solving these problems and realizing the reunification of the motherland was the strong desire of the entire Chinese nation, including compatriots from Hong Kong, Macao, and Taiwan, and overseas Chinese.

"After entering the new period of reform and opening, Deng Xiaoping creatively proposed the great concept of one country, two systems. His proposal was based on safeguarding the fundamental interests of the motherland and the Chinese nation. One country, two systems meant that under the premise of the reunification of the motherland, the mainland would adhere to the socialist system. Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Macau would maintain the capitalist system and way of life for a long time.

"Peaceful reunification and one country, two systems were the basic principles for accomplishing the great cause of the reunification of the motherland." (p. 65)

"The return of Hong Kong and Macao to the motherland marked the Chinese people's recovery from and revenge for a century of humiliation. They were important steps towards completing the great cause of the reunification of the motherland." (p. 68)

Note: The Anti-Extradition Law Amendment Bill Movement, also known as the 2019 Hong Kong protests, or the 2019-2020 Hong Kong protests, broke out in Hong Kong in March 2019. The Chinese Communist Party and the Hong Kong SAR government severely suppressed them jointly while denying the validity of the Sino-British Joint Declaration. Xi Jinping has abandoned Deng Xiaoping's promise of "one country, two systems, a high degree of autonomy, Hong Kong people governing Hong Kong, and the existing capitalist way of life remaining unchanged for 50 years," which was enshrined in the Sino-British Joint Declaration and the Hong Kong Basic Law. The Chinese Communist Party forcibly passed the Hong Kong national security law (officially the Law of the People's Republic of China on Safeguarding National Security in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region) on June 30, 2020, which actually made Hong Kong's "one country, two systems" exist in name only.

Promote The Reunification Of The Motherland: Lesson 14: Cross-Strait Exchange

"After the founding of New China, the party and government made the reunification of Taiwan and the mainland a sacred mission and clearly proposed the liberation of Taiwan. In the mid-1950s, the idea of striving to liberate Taiwan by peaceful means was established. Mao Zedong said: 'We are all Chinese. Peaceful means are the best.'" (p. 70)

Study Material: Anti-Secession Law

"There is only one China in the world. Both the mainland and Taiwan belong to one China. China's sovereignty and territorial integrity cannot be divided. Safeguarding national sovereignty and territorial integrity is the common obligation of all Chinese people, including Taiwan compatriots. Taiwan is part of China. The country will never allow the Taiwan independence separatist forces to separate Taiwan from China in any name and in any way.

"Adherence to the one-China principle is the basis for the peaceful reunification of the motherland.

"Realizing the reunification of the motherland by peaceful means is most in line with the fundamental interests of compatriots on both sides of the Taiwan Strait. The country has made the greatest efforts to achieve peaceful reunification with the greatest sincerity.

"After the country's peaceful reunification, Taiwan can implement a system different from that of the mainland, with a high degree of autonomy." (p. 72)

Note: On January 2, 2019, Xi Jinping said in his speech at the meeting marking the 40th Anniversary of The Issuance of the Message to Compatriots in Taiwan: "Our country must be reunified, and will surely be reunified. This is a historical conclusion drawn from the evolution of cross-Straits relations over the past seven decades; it is also critical to the rejuvenation of the Chinese nation in the new era."

In effect, the statement shows that Xi has taken the initiative to break the status quo in cross-strait relations and is preparing to force Taiwan to accept reunification.

The "one country, two systems" principle in Hong Kong was destroyed by the Chinese Communist Party's harsh crackdown on the Anti-Extradition Law Amendment Bill Movement in Hong Kong that started on March 15, 2019, making the cheating and savage nature of the CCP clearer to the Taiwanese people. As a result, anti-CCP sentiment in Taiwan became very strong. President Tsai Ing-wen's re-election on January 11, 2020, with a record number of votes, reflected the popular sentiment in Taiwan.

Xi Jinping is well aware that Beijing's formula of "peaceful reunification, one country, two systems" is not at all popular in Taiwan. Therefore, according to the Anti-secession Law specially designed for Taiwan by the CCP, the use of force against Taiwan has become a natural logical evolution and Xi Jinping's choice. Following his January 2019 speech, Xi's statements and expressions on cross-strait relations became stronger and more urgent each time, and his inner anxiety and frustration were evident in his speeches at the ceremony marking the centenary of the Chinese Communist Party on July 1, 2021, and at the meeting marking the 110th anniversary of the Revolution of 1911 on October 9, 2021.

The situation across the Taiwan Strait has entered a very dangerous period of instability.

Unit 5: National Defense Construction and Diplomatic Achievements

Unit Introduction

"The founding of the People's Republic of China opened a new chapter in foreign relations. In the face of the ever-changing international situation, China always adhered to an independent foreign policy of peace. It actively carried out diplomatic work, played an increasing role in international affairs, and made great contributions to maintaining world peace and promoting common development." (p. 75)

Lessons in this unit include: Lesson 15: The Great Wall of Steel; Lesson 16: Independent and Peaceful Diplomacy; Lesson 17: Development of Diplomatic Field;

Unit 6: Technology, Culture and Social Life

Lesson 18: Technological and Cultural Achievements: The Speech Of General Secretary Xi Jinping On September 28, 2020 During The 23rd Collective Study Session Of The 19th Political Bureau Of The Central Committee

Title: "Building Chinese-style Archaeology with Chinese Characteristics and Style and a Better Understanding of the Ancient and Profound Chinese Civilization

"China is one of the four ancient civilizations in the world. The Chinese nation has a long history and splendid culture. It has made great contributions to the progress of human civilization.

"Throughout history, Chinese civilization had a unique cultural gene and its own developmental history. Rooted in the land of China, interacting with other civilizations in the world, China made progress with the times. China has strong vitality.

"China's vast number of written documents recorded Chinese history for more than 3,000 years. There were more than 1,000 years of civilization development in China before the invention of the oracle bone inscriptions. There was no written record of human history development over a million years.

"Archaeologists unearthed the ancient remains buried underground. They revealed the buried history and transformed their interpretation and understanding into new historical knowledge.

"Archaeological work is an important work for displaying and constructing the treasures of the Chinese nation's history and precious Chinese civilization. Archeology is inseparable from understanding history.

"Today, China is undergoing extensive and profound social changes. It is carrying out great practical innovations to uphold and develop socialism with Chinese characteristics. Our practical innovation must be based on the law of historical development. We must move in the correct direction of history.

"I have repeatedly emphasized that party committees, party groups, and leading cadres at all levels should learn and master as much knowledge about China's history as possible. Today, we are holding the 23rd collective study on the topic of the latest discoveries in Chinese archaeology and their significance. The purpose is to better understand the ancient and profound Chinese civilization and strengthen cultural confidence.

"1. Fully understand the major achievements and significance of our archaeological work.

"Archaeology is a very important subject. Millions of years of human origin history and tens of thousands of years of prehistoric civilization history all rely on archaeological finds to reconstruct the truth. Even if the period's history of civilization is recorded in writing, it needs to be referenced, confirmed, enriched, and perfected through archaeological work. Historical and cultural heritage not only vividly tells the past, but also profoundly affects the present and future. It belongs not only to us, but also to future generations.

"To protect and inherit the historical and cultural heritage is to be responsible to history and to the people. We must strengthen archaeological work and historical research. Through these efforts, the cultural relics collected in the museum, the heritage displayed on the vast land, and the words written in the ancient books can come to life. These efforts will enrich the historical culture of the whole society.

"Archaeological research started very early in China. In 1921, China began to investigate the Yangshao cultural relics. China's modern archaeology was born from this event almost a century ago.

"After the founding of New China, our party attached great importance to archaeological work. It established and improved the archaeological work system. The professional team continued to grow. The scale of work continued to expand. Important discoveries continued to emerge. The level of academic research and technological development continued to improve. The international academic discourse power improved significantly. In the 1960s and 1970s, China achieved significant results in archaeological work such as the Terracotta Warriors and Horses of Qin Shihuang's Mausoleum, Mawangdui Han Tomb, and Hemudu Site.

"After the reform and opening, our archaeological work entered a rapid development period. Since the 18th CCP National Congress, the CCP Central Committee has put the protection and utilization of historical and cultural heritage in a more prominent position.

"I put forward many requirements for the protection and utilization of historical and cultural heritage. When I visited places, I saw many important local historical and cultural heritages. In August last year, I hosted a symposium at the Dunhuang Academy and gave a speech on the protection and research of cultural relics.

"After a continuous struggle of several generations of archaeologists, China's archaeological work made major achievements. These achievements extended the historical axis, enhanced historical reliability, enriched historical connotation, and revitalized historical scenes. In summary, there are mainly the following aspects.

"First, archaeological discoveries show the historical context of the origin and development of Chinese civilization. The major achievements of archaeological discoveries in China exemplify a million years of human history; 10,000 years of cultural history; and more than 5,000 years of civilization history. The latest archaeological results show that China is the hometown of eastern humans. It ranks alongside Africa as the earliest place of human origin. Peking apes (man) invented artificial fire techniques 500,000 years ago, one of the earliest in the world. As early as 10,000 years ago, our ancestors planted millet and rice. China ranked first, together with West Asia and North Africa, for the origin of agriculture.

"China's inventions and discoveries in musical instruments, canoes, water conservancy facilities, and astronomy are also among the earliest, if not the earliest, in the world. The archaeological results also illustrate the formation and developmental process of the Chinese nation. It demonstrated the history of Chinese civilization as a unity of diversity, and the relationship of family and country. It revealed the values on which Chinese society depends for survival and development and the cultural genes of the Chinese nation. These values are still unconsciously used daily. The major archaeological achievements provided us with first-hand materials for better studying the history of Chinese civilization and shaping the historical cognition of the whole nation. They have very important political, cultural, social, and historical significance.

"The second is that archaeological discoveries show the splendid achievements of Chinese civilization. These achievements fully demonstrated that China was in the world's forefront in the development of ancient civilizations in the Neolithic, Bronze, and Iron Ages. Our ancestors cultivated crops, domesticated wild animals, and developed medical and medicine fields. They observed astronomy and geography, manufactured tools, and created written Chinese characters. They discovered and invented technology. They built villages, cities. They created the government systems and governed the country. They created and developed culture and art. In these and other fields, they had all kinds of amazing achievements. These major achievements demonstrate the Chinese nation's pioneering and innovative spirit. The spirit of advancing with the times, and constantly striving for self-improvement. These major achievements are an endless treasure of knowledge, wisdom, and art. They are an important source of cultural confidence.

"The third is that archaeological discoveries show the great contribution of Chinese civilization to world civilization. Chinese civilization is the only civilization in the world that has continued since ancient times. It has never been interrupted. For a long time, the Chinese civilization and other civilizations in the world have exchanged ideas and reference. It contributed to the world a profound ideological system, rich scientific, technological, cultural, and artistic achievements. Its unique system creation profoundly affected the progress of world civilization. Ancient Chinese agricultural technology, the 'Four Great Inventions,' lacquerware, silk, porcelain, pig iron, and steel-making technology, county system, and imperial examination system, all have distinctive originality in the world civilization history.

"These major achievements demonstrate the outstanding contribution that China has made to the progress of human civilization in the long historical process. They demonstrate the peaceful character of the Chinese nation. Peace is the most important thing. They show that China is inclusive of everyone in the whole world.

"For a long time, China's archaeological work made significant progress, and archaeological discoveries had fruitful results. The vast number of archaeologists camped in the wilderness and worked in an extremely harsh environment. They showed deep patriotism, firm academic ambition, and a tenacious work style. Here and now, on behalf of the Party Central Committee, I extend my sincere greetings to archaeologists across the country!"

"2. Do a good job in archaeological work and historical research in China.

"I have repeatedly emphasized: 'cultural confidence is more basic, broader, and has a deeper confidence. It is a more essential, deeper, and more-lasting force.'

"China has a firm road, theoretical, and institutional confidence. Its essence is the cultural confidence built on the heritage of more than 5,000 years of civilization. Archaeological work is an important cultural undertaking. It is a work of great socio-political significance. The struggle in the field of history and culture will exist for a long time. We must attach great importance to archaeological work. We must use facts to fight back all kinds of distortions and slanders on the history of the Chinese nation. We must provide strong support for promoting the excellent traditional Chinese culture and enhancing cultural confidence.

"First, continue to explore the unknown and reveal the origin. There are still many unknown areas in ancient Chinese history. Archaeological work has a long way to go.

"There are still a lot of blanks in the history of the Xia Dynasty. Because of the lack of sufficient written records, it is particularly important to verify the history through archaeological discoveries.

"Are prehistoric figures such as the 'Three Emperors and Five Emperors' myth or reality? Archaeological work is also needed to solve these mysteries.

"We must implement major projects such as 'Comprehensive Research on the Origin and Early Development of Chinese Civilization' and 'Archaeological China.' We must strengthen the investigation of archaeological resources and policy needs. We must improve the level of archaeological work planning. It is necessary to make overall arrangements around some major historical issues. It is necessary to concentrate on tackling key problems, and to continuously make new breakthroughs.

"Second, archeologists need to do a good job in excavating, sorting out, and explaining archaeological results. The archaeological community should work with researchers in the fields of economy, law, politics, culture, society, ecology, science and technology, medicine. They need to do a good job in the research and interpretation of unearthed cultural relics and sites. They need to clarify the origin and development of China's civilization and its major contributions to mankind. They need to present it more comprehensively.

"It is necessary to absorb the latest historical research results. Archeologists need to complete the new findings into content of the ancient Chinese history in a timely manner. They need to tell the ancient history of China completely and accurately. Doing so, they will play a better role in educating people through history.

"Third, the government needs to do a good job in the protection of historical and cultural heritage. Archaeological relics and historical relics are witnesses to history and must be protected and used well. It is necessary to establish and improve the historical and cultural heritage resource asset management system. The government needs to build a large national cultural relic resource database. It needs to strengthen the overall guidance of the census of cultural relics and list announcements in related fields. It needs to enhance technical support and guide social participation.

"We must put the protection of historical and cultural heritage in the first place. We must provide reasonable use of it as well so that it can play its role in providing public cultural services and meeting the needs of the people's spiritual and cultural life. It is necessary to improve the protection mechanism of immovable cultural relics. The government needs to incorporate the management of cultural relics protection into the formulation and implementation of national land and space planning. It is necessary to formulate the system design and supporting policies of 'archaeology first, transfer later.' The land that may contain historical and cultural relics must not be disturbed until archaeological investigation, exploration, and excavation are completed in accordance with the law. It is necessary to learn from the lessons of major cultural relic disasters at home and abroad. The responsible government agencies need to inspect the implementation of the regulations and law. They need to strengthen the rectification of hidden dangers and enhance the protection of historical and cultural heritage. It is necessary to strengthen law enforcement supervision, standardize the crime-reporting process, and crack down on cultural relic crimes.

"Fourth, the government needs to strengthen the building of archaeological capabilities and disciplines. We must adhere to dialectical materialism and historical materialism, conduct in-depth theoretical explorations. We must explore the identification standards of human civilization, especially Chinese civilization, that are in line with historical reality. We must strive to build archaeology with Chinese specialties, characteristics, and style. We must increase our influence and voice in the international archaeological community.

"It is necessary to use the new methods and tools provided by science and technology to improve the discovery and analysis capabilities of archaeological work. We must enhance the protection capabilities of historical and cultural heritage. It is necessary to actively cultivate and expand the archaeological team. When more young people love and devote themselves to the cause of archaeology there will be many successors and talents in the cause of archaeology." 

"3. Make good use of archaeological and historical research results

"In the long history, the Chinese nation has formed a great national spirit and excellent traditional culture. This is the cultural gene of the Chinese nation. It is endless and ever evolving. It is also the spiritual force to achieve the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. It must be carried forward in combination with new reality.

"Through an in-depth study of history, we can strengthen the dissemination of archaeological achievements and historical research results. We must educate and guide the broad masses of cadres, especially young people, to understand the historical context of the origin and development of the Chinese civilization. They need to recognize the brilliant achievements of Chinese civilization and the significance of the Chinese civilization to human civilization. We must contribute to continuously enhancing national cohesion and national pride.

"We must tell the world the Chinese history story well. It is necessary to use the achievements of Chinese archaeology and historical research, through external propaganda, exchanges, and discussions, to show the broad and profound Chinese civilization to the international community. We need to clarify the splendid achievements of the Chinese civilization and its major contributions to human civilization. We need to let the world understand Chinese history and the spirit of the Chinese nation. Through these efforts, we will continuously deepen the world's knowledge and understanding of China today. We will create a good atmosphere of international public opinion.

"Party committees and governments at all levels must firmly establish the concept of the great responsibility of protecting historical and cultural heritage. They must care for archaeologists, and actively provide human, material, and financial support to create good conditions for archaeology, cultural relic protection, and historical research."

Note: Xi Jinping likes to talk about traditional Chinese culture, stressing what he calls cultural confidence, because the ethical principles of traditional Chinese culture are beneficial to his rule. Moreover, the promotion of Chinese traditional culture is conducive to shaping the Han Chinese into the main ethnic group of China and strengthening the concept of the Chinese nation.

Xi Jinping's ambition is not just to emulate Mao Zedong, but to surpass him. Mao disparaged, suppressed, and denied traditional Chinese culture in general, but Xi Jinping is now trying to revive the so-called traditional Chinese ethical thought, which is characterized by rigid hierarchy and the worship of centralized power.

Not only does he not want to oppose the part of Chinese traditional culture which is beneficial to his power, but he also wants to graft and utilize the thought of centralization and loyalty to the monarch in Chinese traditional culture to Marx and Lenin's communist ideology.



[2], April 25, 2021;,

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