December 2, 2002

Iraq News Wire

December 2, 2002
Iraq |

I. Senior Iraqi Official: "We Did Not Hesitate to Use WMD in the Past and Will Not Stand Idly by This Time Either"
In the first statement of its kind, a senior Iraqi official confirmed that his country is not ruling out the possibility of using weapons of mass destruction to defend the regime. His statements were published in a lead article in today's London-based Arabic-language daily Al-Quds Al-Arabi, which is known to support Saddam Hussein.[1] The article's title stated that Iraqi sources do not rule out the possibility of using chemical weapons to defend the regime. The following are excerpts from the article:

"A senior Iraqi official who refused to reveal his name said that the Iraqi regime would defend its existence and its reputation. The Iraqi official said unequivocally: 'When the regime was under intense attack in Al-Fau and began to be under threat, it did not hesitate to use all the weapons of mass destruction in its possession. Similarly, when the people of Halabja, or some of them, became guides for the Iranian forces that tried to breach the northeast [front], the regime did not hesitate to use chemical weapons.' Therefore, 'do not expect us to stand idly by in the face of any aggression that seeks to destroy and banish us not only from the regime but also from life.'"

A top party official from Iraq in Amman, Jordan told the newspaper: "The Iraqi regime has drawn up emergency plans to confront any American aggression." He said that the plans were based on the following elements:

"First, deployment of the Republican Guard forces at the periphery of the cities, primarily Baghdad, to resist any American ground offensive that seeks to take them. The mission of the Republican [Guard] forces will also be to resist any attempt at internal Iraqi rebellion, such as the one that followed the American offensive in January 1991 in the South and the North."

"Second, deployment of special forces that will include the 'elite of the elite' - in his words - inside the capital Baghdad, so that they can participate in street combat if the American forces or their allies enter. Then, will begin fierce resistance operations, such as those carried out in occupied Palestine."

"Third, deployment of groups of 'Saddam's Fedayeen' within the capital and in other cities, to control the internal situation and participate in the resistance operations."

The party official further stated: "The collapse of the Iraqi forces in 1991 and their refraining from resisting as much as was necessary will not recur this time, because Iraq and its 'loyal sons' are defending themselves and their personal and national 'honor'… We will make you proud this time, and prove to you that the Iraqis are men."

The official added that "Iraq does not put its trust in the Arab regimes and Arab masses at all; Iraq will rely on itself this time, and will not be surprised if some of the Arab regimes collaborate with the American aggression and even participate in it."

The top party official spoke "with bitterness" of Syria's vote in the U.N. Security Council in favor of Resolution 1441, saying: "The brothers in Syria did not consult with us at all on this issue; we believed that they would vote against it, or at worst abstain."

II. A Kuwaiti Daily Reveals an Iraqi Contingency Plan in Case Saddam is Killed

Without disclosing its sources, the Kuwaiti daily Al-Watan[2] reported from Tehran that it obtained an Iraqi document titled 'Decisive Reaction,' prepared recently by 'The Security Council' in Iraq to deal with contingencies in case of an American attack. The eleven point document stipulates that in case Saddam Hussein was to be incapacitated, his son Qusay would assume the political and military leadership of Iraq. It also calls on Iraq, in such a case, to use "all means in our possession" to further defend itself, including the dispatch of terrorist squads.

For the full text of the document, see Appendix A.

III. Religious Activism Continues

1. Baghdad: 500 Muslim Clerics Call for Jihad Against the U.S.
"Muslim clerics declared in a meeting in Baghdad [10/12/02] that 'the religious duty of all Muslims is to prevent, in any way possible, American aggression against Iraq.' They called for a 'political, economic, and military embargo against the U.S. and to strike its interests and any other target that may diminish its capabilities'..."

"The fatwa [edict], which was signed by about 500 Shi'a and Sunni Muslim scholars, states that 'if Iraq is attacked, Jihad will be the personal duty [Fardh 'Ayn] of every Muslim capable of fighting with his money or his life. This is true also of those who support the aggression or participate in it'..."[3]

On the other hand, Shi'a clerics meeting in Kuwait issued a fatwa nullifying all other fatwas that prohibit support for a military strike against Iraq, and specifically targeted Sheikh Qardhawi, who had previously issued a fatwa saying that whoever supported such a strike was a heretic.[4]

2. A Religious Conference in Amman Issues an Edict Against Cooperating with the U.S.
"A group of Muslim scholars issued a fatwa [edict] forbidding any Muslim leader from cooperating with the U.S. in its possible war against Iraq, and called for Jihad against the present American administration and Israel considering them 'enemies of Allah.' The fatwa was issued by the 'Conference of Islamic Scholars,' which was organized in Amman by the Islamic Action Front, the political arm of the Muslim Brotherhood, the main opposition organization in Jordan." According to the report, the fatwa also called for an "embargo on all American products..." and said that: "Governmental decisions to prohibit Jihad, and to forbid Muslims from fighting the hostile Jews and Americans, are criminal and abominable..."[5]

IV. Security Council Resolution 1441: Iraqi and Arab Reactions

1. An Iraqi Conspiracy Theory About WMD and International Arms Inspections
The pro-Iraqi daily Al-Quds Al-Arabi (London) published what seems like a possible argument that the Iraqi regime might use if international arms inspectors find incriminating materials related to WMD in Iraq. In an article titled "What is Happening in Iraq and around it," the author, Muhammad Salih Al-Musafir, wrote: "... In these difficult circumstances, and the Arab and Islamic impotence, I do not exclude the possibility that American, Zionist and British intelligence services, and recruited agents inside and outside Iraq, will try to plant nuclear materials, or some materials and equipment suitable for use in chemical, biological, ballistic missiles or other [types of] war in places known to the enemies, but unknown to the political leadership in Baghdad. Then the reconnaissance planes will come, and under the banner of the U.N., will announce the discovery of radioactive and chemical weapons that Iraq did not disclose to the U.N. And this will be considered a violation of the Security Council Resolution, and a violation of what has become known as international legal decisions, and hence the international oppressive American [will be given] right to invade Iraq..."[6]

2. Uday Saddam Hussein Criticizes Misuse of the 'Economic Card'
In a rather blunt 'working paper' submitted to the special session of the Iraqi National Assembly ["parliament"], which met on November 12 to discuss Security Council Resolution 1441, Saddam Hussein's elder son, Uday, called on the members to adopt the resolution and touched extensively upon the trade policies of the Iraqi regime, which were supposed to serve Iraq's political goals, even at the cost of its own economic interests.

Uday wrote that Iraq's trade agreements with other countries, such as the one with Russia which was hailed as "the agreement of the century" were signed to influence politics, and that a certain part of these transactions were made "to please a foreign minister who own companies, or a particular prime minister, or a particular head of state because they own companies in countries to which we offered trade priorities." He did not "want to name names," because "we had to protect our international relations." But, he asked: "Would it not have been appropriate to offer [the concessions] one at a time, instead of putting them all in one basket" to affect the Security Council Resolution "without prior knowledge and feelers about countries which pretended to use their veto powers, but changed their minds in the last minute and approved the resolution." Uday believes that it would have been preferable, in dealing with economic matters, be it with an Arab or a foreign counterpart, to test the waters to avoid surprises, including the one from Syria..

Uday suggests that it would have been better if some of the contracts awarded to Russia, France, and even China, were given to companies that exercise influence over American policy makers, whether Republicans or Democrats, and said that "if we were to award 15% or even 5% of these contracts to the British, for the same political reason, the results could have been different." And while Uday sees the conflict with the West, and in particular with the U.S., lasting for another 20 years because of ideological, religious, and policy differences, he maintains that Iraq might be able to use American and British companies in the future, to serve Iraq's interests.[7]

3. The Blame Game Among the Iraqi Leadership
The Kuwaiti daily Al-Rai Al-Amm quoted unidentified sources "close to the Iraqi leadership [as stating] that there was disagreement among the [Iraqi] leaders about the affects of resolution 1441. Vice president Taha Yassin Ramadhan insisted on rejecting the resolution, maintaining that the U.S. will not abandon its military plans against Iraq, and described accepting the resolution as 'the beginning of the end.' Ramadhan harshly criticized Iraq's diplomatic efforts for misjudging the position of countries categorized as friendly, such as Russia, China, and France. He said that Foreign Minister Naji Sabri Al-Hadithi and Deputy Prime Minister in Charge of Foreign Affairs, Tariq Aziz, were responsible for offering favorable commercial and economic agreements to countries that 'were using one language when talking to us, and another when talking to the Americans, and harboring a position different than the one they proclaimed'..."

According to this report, Uday Saddam Hussein was furious about the diplomacy of Tariq Aziz and Naji Sabri whom he described as naïve, because they misjudged countries that 'deceived us and got agreements worth billions, which if we had given a quarter of them to the British and the Americans we would not have come to this'...[8]"

4. Reactions to the Syrian Vote
Immediately following the approval of the Security Council resolution 1441, the Iraqi press, in general, maintained a low-key tone, maintaining that the leadership will "calmly study" the resolution and react to it.[9] However, other reactions in the Arab press dealt with Syria's vote, as well as Iraq's own responsibility for escalating the situation. The following are excerpts from such articles:

The London Arabic daily, Al-Hayat published a report from its correspondent in Damascus in which he said that "the bottom line is that Syria was able to obtain the best [conditions] within the current circumstances..." According to the dispatch, the Syrian vote "was probably a diplomatic victory..." and reflected Syria's ability to "reconcile between ideological principles and pragmatic care for its own [self] interests..." It went on to say that "Syria will make every effort to remain within the parameters of the resolution, because it is convinced that Iraq's 'NO' which was used by Saddam was the reason for reducing Iraq from a major regional country to its present condition..."[10]

In a surprising move, the Iraqi daily Babil, managed by Uday Saddam Hussein, quoted an editorial by the Saudi newspaper Al-Riyad, in which it said that "Baghdad was color-blind and that all its plans led to major crisis," And although Babil disparagingly titled its own report "Barking of the Dogs" (referring to the Saudi article), it nevertheless quoted the Saudi paper as saying that "[Baghdad] established a crazy alliance with rightist leaders such as the Russian Jerenovsky, the Austrian Heider, and the French LePenn, and that this political behavior will be in America's hands..."[11]

In reaction to this article and to other news and commentaries about Arab leaders and countries, such as Jordan, Libya and Egyptian President Mubarak, Babil was suspended for one month. Al-Sharq Al-Awsat which published this report said that it noticed that: "The suspension came after a cabinet meeting chaired by Saddam, although the minutes of the meeting did not include any reference to it..."[12]

V. The Future of Northern Iraq: A Debate Heats Up.
The ongoing disagreement between the Iraqi Kurds and Turkey concerning the future of northern Iraq, and the nature of the 'federal system' envisioned by the Iraqi Kurds in a post-Saddam era, seems to have heated up recently, following the first meeting of the Kurdish parliament in which a constitutional draft was discussed. The draft outlined the nature of the federal system as formulated by the Kurds, which Turkey hastened to oppose maintaining that it really meant 'statehood.' Iran, and Syria, having a considerable Kurdish constituency, soon joined the 'debate.' Additionally, northern Iraq attracted heightened media attention regarding the future of its oil reserves in case of an American strike against Iraq. The following is a brief review:

1. Turkey's Defense Minister Acknowledges the Deployment of 10,000 Turkish Soldiers in Northern Iraq
"Turkey's defense minister Sabah Al-Deen Oglu stated on October 14, 2002, that his country intended to establish a 'security belt' in northern Iraq... in case the U.S. launched a military strike against Iraq." He also repeated the Turkish threats to intervene in northern Iraq in case the Iraqi Kurds declared their independence., which reported Mr. Oglu's statement, added that: "intelligence information indicated that Turkey increased the number of Turkish forces deployed in the area from 4,000 to 10,000..."[13]

Earlier, "Turkey's foreign minister acknowledged that his country deployed hundreds of soldiers in northern Iraq in order 'to defend our security'... According to him, the second reason for this presence is 'humanitarian, because about 600,000 refugees crossed the Turkish borders in 1991, and when they returned, Turkey was obligated to take care of them, and this is an ongoing [problem]." When asked about the use of this force in case the Iraqi Kurds proclaimed an independent state, he answered only by saying that "any political solution must be based on the integrity of Iraq's territories..."[14]

At the same time, an article published by the Turkish daily Milliyet reported that "based on conversations with various officials and analysts... the possibility that Turkey may launch a pre-emptive strike in northern Iraq [to prevent the establishment of an independent Kurdish state] any time soon is out of the question... The official [Turkish] statements sound more like stern warnings... and clear messages not only to the Kurdish leaders, but also to all countries concerned, particularly the U.S..."[15]

On the other hand, Al-Hayat daily reported from Ankara that recently there were signs that Turkey may be going through a gradual and important change towards accepting the 'federal solution' in Iraq. The paper points out a statement by Yosuf Boltoush, spokesman for the Turkish foreign ministry, urging everyone to practice restraint and assuring that the developments in northern Iraq are under control. Al-Hayat mentions also a statement by an unidentified Turkish senior military official, who said that: "there was no need for military intervention in northern Iraq or for creating problems with the Iraqi Kurds, whom he described as 'our relatives'... At the same time, distinguished personalities in the Turkish media started questioning Turkey's fears from the developments in Iraq and stressed that good relations between Turkey and the Iraqi Kurds would pave the way for a wide range of economic cooperation between Turkey and Iraq, via the Kurdish bridge, be it within a federal system, or even an [independent] Kurdish state..."[16]

2. Iran Sides With Turkey in its Stand Against a Kurdish State
"Iranian president Muhammad Khatami stated that Iran, Syria, Iraq, and Turkey were united in their opposition to the establishment of an independent Kurdish state in the region. He said that such a development would pose a threat to the security of all four countries..."[17]

3. Syria Expresses 'Understanding' to the 'Federal Plan'?
In a statement to Al-Hayat daily, Dr. Barham Salih, prime minister of the Kurdish government in Suleimaniya [controlled by Jalal Al-Talabani] said that: "the Syrians expressed 'understanding' to the Kurdish vision... of 'federalism based on national unity'... He stressed that 'federalism' meant unity and not cessation"[18] [Salih made his statement while in Damascus for talks with Syrian officials]. Another news dispatch from northern Iraq said that Salih also met with leaders of the Iraqi opposition in Syria, and that the two sides were very close in their views concerning the nature of a post-Saddam regime.[19]

4. Al-Barazani: Turkey Contradicts Itself about the Status of Northern Iraq
"Mas'oud Al-Barazani, leader of the Kurdish Democratic Party, said that Turkish statements concerning the status of northern Iraq have been contradictory... On one hand Turkey says that Iraq's territorial integrity is very important, and on the other [Turkey] talks about its historical rights in Karkuk [major oil city in northern Iraq]..." Al-Barazani reiterated that the Iraqi Kurds agreed that the status of cities such as Karkuk and Mosoul were not subject to negotiations since "they were all Iraqi cities..."[20]

5. Babil Daily: Kurdistan, a Country Within a Country, But...
The newspaper, which is managed by Uday Saddam Hussein, published a surprisingly candid report about the autonomous Kurdish region in northern Iraq in which it talked about the freedoms that the citizens enjoy there, and their accomplishments, but also described what it termed as 'the political dangers' that surround the area. The following is a brief summary:

"It is supposed to be part of Iraq's territory, but no one invokes that name [Iraq] anymore... Here they use telephones by a company named 'Kurd-Tel'... they watch a television network called 'Kurd TV'... and everything else is Kurdish..." The article goes on to say that Kurdistan is protected by American and British planes [the no-fly zone in the north], and gets 18% of Iraq's oil revenues from the UN, and that it profits from illegal oil export to Turkey, and illegal commerce with Iran, which turned the area into "a regional commercial center"... Babil goes on to report: "In Kurdistan we find Internet café's [not too long ago, Baghdad got its first few government-supervised Internet café's, and reports from the Iraqi capital talked about some Internet enthusiasts who traveled to northern Iraq in search of free access to sites that were otherwise blocked by the Iraqi authorities], and there are 30 registered parties... its citizens stress that they enjoy freedoms unlike any of the neighboring countries..." However, the paper continues with an unmasked warning saying: "Despite its acquired freedom, Iraqi Kurdistan is surrounded by Syria, Iran, and Turkey; non of them want it [Kurdistan] to become a model for their own minorities... to the south, Kurdistan is surrounded by Iraqi forces, which did not hesitate to attack it in the past..."[21]

VI. Baghdad Courts Dissidents in an Effort to Form a 'National Unity Government'
The Saudi daily Al-Watan reported from Kuwait that Nizar Hamdoun, the former Iraqi deputy foreign minister and Abd Al-Razzaq Al-Hashemi, secretary of the Iraqi Solidarity Council, authorized by Saddam Hussein, contacted a group of 10 dissidents by phone from Amman, Jordan, and proposed to Abd Al-Amir Al-Rikabi (an Iraqi writer who resides in Paris) to head a 'national unity' government. The paper quoted Iraqi opposition sources in London saying that the purpose of this attempt was to "preempt an American military strike with a domestic mobilization that is not limited to the Ba'ath party. The same sources also reported that the selection of these personalities was based on two criteria; their opposition to an American strike against Iraq, and their support to Saddam's presidency..."[22]

On the following day, Al-Sharq Al-Awsat confirmed the report by quoting Al-Rikabi himself saying that there were indications that "Baghdad was ready to continue the negotiations with dissidents whom it considered 'nationalists' in exile, in order to reach a political agreement that satisfies their demands..." Al-Rikabi also said that: "unfortunately I have all the right qualifications to head a 'national unity' government, I am a leftist Shi'ite, who could be acceptable to leftist elements. I am a pure Arab, a writer, an activist, and I have Arab contacts... I say 'unfortunately' because I am a journalist and not a politician, but if I am asked to perform a national duty, I shall do it..."[23]

Concurrently, Iraq's minister of education Hamid Yusouf Hamadi declared that his government "makes a distinction between those who oppose it, i.e. those who have different points of view than the government, and [whom he called] 'agents who cooperate with the enemy to strike Iraq' (and others)."[24] [In another decision, Saddam Hussein instructed Iraq's foreign ministry to strengthen the ties between Iraqis living abroad and their relatives and homeland. He instructed the ministry to implement special procedures and laws to 'alleviate their alienation and estrangement from their beloved country.'[25] Uday Saddam Hussein had also 'called on Iraqi journalists and intellectuals to return to Iraq... and urged Iraqi embassies to strengthen their ties with them, and help them find honorable work opportunities, away from the Devil's temptations...'][26]

VII. An Egyptian Condemnation: Saddam is a Disastrous Curse to the Arabs
The Egyptian government daily Al-Akhbar published a scathing attack on Saddam Hussein written by Ahmad Rajab describing Saddam as a "disaster and a curse that befell the Arabs, Arab unity, Arab resources, and Arab oil. Saddam suspended Egypt's membership in the Arab League following Camp David, and did not face any Arab threat, such as suspending Iraq's membership in the Arab League, to dissuade him from invading Kuwait. And now, in a series of stubbornness, conceit, ignorance, and stupidity he paved the way for shredding the Arab homeland and redrawing its map. This is how the fate of the whole Arab nation has been tied to the follies of a bloody, insane despot whose game is destruction."[27]

VIII. Iraqi Opposition: American Oil Companies Will Have Priority in Oil Contracts
"Sharif Bin Ali Bin Al-Hussein, spokesman for Iraqi National Congress (INC) said that the INC would reconsider [in the post-Saddam era] the current oil contracts that Iraq has with other countries. He indicated that priority would be given to American oil companies... and said that contracts with Russia and France would be reconsidered, because they were all signed by a 'dictator,' but added that this does not mean an automatic cancellation [of any contract]..."[28]

IX. Higher Education in Iraq Meets Modern Needs
A report from Baghdad published by Al-Quds [Palestinian Authority] says that the "Iraqi ministry of education made plans [to meet] Iraq's needs in various specializations. It assembled a task force to develop certain specialties that combine various sciences... such as bioengineering, industrial engineering, laser and energy engineering, fiber-electronics, agricultural technology, hydro sciences, and nuclear modeling." According to the report the ministry developed an accelerated doctoral program for outstanding students, to be completed within 3 years after the B.A., the goal being to provide young teaching faculty and researchers and to increase their years of professional productivity... "These efforts will allow Iraq to break the international restrictions imposed on its educational institutions..."[29]

X. Russian Plan to Oust Saddam Hussein to Prevent U.S. Occupation of Iraq
"The Paris- based al-Watan al-Arabi magazine said, according to well-informed sources, that the military and intelligence leadership in Moscow had prepared a plan to topple the Iraqi president Saddam Hussein by a military coupe or an assassination operation in order to protect the Russian interests in Iraq and the region and to block plans of an American occupation of Iraq."

"In its recent issue, the magazine said that the higher Russian leadership decided to pursue a new strategy that stems from the fact that Washington will topple Saddam Hussein, but the Russian interest requires a plan that achieves this objective without leading to Russia losing of its historical influence and economic interests in Iraq."

"A well-informed source stressed that the said plan was held in top secrecy and full seriousness and on the grounds that the plan of the military coupe has no relation to the military coupe plans previously prepared by the CIA; a plan which is based on an experience of years of military and intelligence cooperation between Baghdad and Moscow and tons of the archive of the Russian intelligence."

"The magazine said that the scenario of the successful Russian coupe will be carried out at the hands of persons which are very close to the Iraqi president and are able to have access to him, adding that the Russian National Security Council took a decision to topple Saddam Hussein in order to protect and ensure the Russian interests in Iraq and the region."[30]

XI. Al-Talibani: Iraq's Kurds are U.S.'s Partners Against Iraqi Regime
"The secretary general of the Kurdistani National Federation, Jalal al-Talibani, has stressed that the parliament of Kurdistan has approved the principle that the Kurds of Iraq, are the partners of the U.S.A in the struggle against the Iraqi regime and for an independent and democratic Iraq."

"In a statement to the London-based Al-Sharq Al-Awsat daily issued yesterday, Talibani announced that the Turkish leaders informed him they will not interfere in northern Iraq. He called on Ankara to be confident and sure that the Kurds of Iraq are not asking for separation and the establishment of an independent Kurdish state."

"The secretary general of the Kurdistani National Federation party disclosed genuine difference between his party and the Kurdistani Democratic Party on the way of dealing with the likely American military interference in Iraq, as al-Barazani, wants to know beforehand what type of regime will succeed Saddam Hussein, and to be provided with guarantees to preserve the rights of the Kurds before accepting Washington's plans, while Talibani seems less hesitant."

"Talibani said it is presumed that London's conference, which will be held mid-December, will form a follow up committee with the mission of coordinating stances in various Iraqi opposition forces."[31]

XII. Iran will Export Goods to Jordan and Syria Via Iraq
"Iran's Ambassador to Amman Nosratollah Tajik said here on Wednesday that Iran will soon start exporting goods to Jordan and Syria via Iraq. In a meeting with Jordanian Head of Chamber of Commerce, Heydar Morad, Tajik added that the decision has been taken on the basis of an agreement recently signed between Iran and Iraq. The export of Iranian goods to Jordan and Syria via Iraq will shorten the current route through Turkey by 1,000 kms, he added."

"Morad, for his part, referred to the favorable relations between the two states and underlined further exchange of good launching joint projects. He cited the interest of the Jordanian government to broaden ties with all world countries, specially the Arab and Islamic states."

"Ways of expanding the economic and commercial cooperation between Iran and Jordan, in particular in the private sector were discussed at the meeting. The two sides also exchanged views on the date of holding Iran-Jordan joint commission and a prospective exhibition on the productions of both states. The volume of trade exchange between Iran and Jordan in the past Iranian year (ended March 20) stood at about $21 million."[32]

Appendix A:
"Considering the present situation in Iraq, and the serious threats from the U.S., Britain, and other parties in particular, which want to eliminate the Iraqi leadership represented in the person of president Saddam Hussein, the Ba'ath party and its leaders, and [considering] the emergence of western covetous intentions towards Iraq and its resources; Iraq - leadership and people - must defend itself by taking measures to undermine this possible aggression by cooperating with the honorable and goodhearted sons of the Arab nation and friends around the world."

"Therefore, the 'National Security Council' decided to implement a plan called 'Decisive Reaction' based on the principles of the glorious July Revolution and the spirit of the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party, to fight back globalization and to confront the danger looming over our people from the West, the plan calls for:"

"1- In case of any harm or ill-fate befall President Saddam Hussein personally, the leadership will revert automatically to comrade Qusay Saddam Hussein, who is in charge of the Republican Guard and the Republican Guard/Special Units. He will be vested with the same absolute authorities that President Saddam Hussein has in leading the country, the cabinet, and the army. Comrade Izzat Ibrahim Al-Dori will assume the responsibility for the party apparatus, while comrade Taha Yassin Ramadhan and comrade Tariq Aziz will be responsible for assisting Qusay Saddam Hussein in governing the country. This arrangement will continue until the situation stabilizes. An [official] State Decree will follow."

"2- Comrade Qusay Saddam Hussein will be responsible for developing an alternate plan to defend Baghdad, that will ensure complete protection from a possible air operation by the American and British enemy, or from acts of rioting that may occur in some areas of Baghdad. The plan should be presented to us within 72 hours after the deployment of the defending units and [assigning] their responsibilities, in a manner that prevents any gaps that could be used by the enemy or [could be used] to weaken the morale; and to secure absolute control over the entrances to Baghdad as soon as emergency and general curfew are declared a few hours following the attack."

"3- Considering that the purpose of the attack by the U.S., Israel, and the West is to eliminate the Iraqi leadership and to control [Iraq's] resources, and then control the Middle East region, it means that the Western philosophy of 'To Be or Not to Be' will dominate the situation. Therefore, we will use all means in our possession to defend our land and honor, regardless of type, quantity and manner, and regardless of consequences." [Here, Al-Watan adds a comment of its own saying: "We can consider this point as an authorization to use chemical weapons."]

"4- Therefore, we order all parties concerned to prepare the defenses as stipulated in file 314 'Decisive Reaction'."

"5- Expand the scope of war by returning the autonomous region [the Kurdish region in northern Iraq] to the control of the [central] leadership as soon as there are serious signs of an imminent attack on Iraq, and using the military bases there to undermine the enemy's ability to gain time and reexamine its previously formulated plans and actions to change the map and the status quo."

"6- In case diplomatic efforts fails to convince Turkey to refrain from aiding the U.S. and [allowing it] to use its air bases, we will be compelled to make it [Turkey] part of the battle to defend ourselves, by attacking selected targets in the depth of Turkey where political and military decisions are formulated, and where American forces are deployed."

"7- No military unit or air base, regardless of its nationality- whether in Israel or any Arab country that allows the U.S. and Britain to strike Iraq from its territory- will be safe from the hammer of our missiles and air force. We will deliver an early warning through diplomatic channels especially to Qatar, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, and Jordan [against] allowing the American forces to use their territories, or any foreign naval ship in the Arabian Gulf, which will be their graveyard."

"8- Prepare the 'Special Operations' units to implement the plans that were developed earlier to strike limited targets in Israel in cooperation with the Palestinian organizations and movements which had been contacted, and in some Gulf countries that assist the American and British forces, including Turkey which is considered the U.S. and Israel's ally number one in the area."

"9- Considering the viciousness of the political and military attack on Iraq, we will find ourselves compelled to take protective defensive and offensive measures inside Iraq and outside it, both militarily and diplomatically. This is the role of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs through its diplomatic missions and representatives, and the Iraqi intelligence apparatus through its stations, regardless of means and consequences."

"10- Instruct comrade Uday Saddam Hussein to prepare 'Saddam's Fedayins' and 'Al-Quds Army' and to coordinate with comrade Qusay Saddam Hussein and lieutenant general Defense Minister, and lieutenant general Commander of the Republican Guard and other defense organizations and party organizations, to [include] those two armies in the mobilization plans that were prepared earlier, or will be prepared later. Also, to prepare the 'Special Fedayin Units' responsible for special duties 712- A,B,G, to coordinate with the air force and army air commands."

"11- Instruct unit 999 to carry out its responsibilities, as soon as the order is issued, and to coordinate with comrade Uday Saddam Hussein as far as the mentioned responsibility in file 712-G."

"These instructions should be circulated based on specialties, in a manner that should facilitate operation and exact implementation of the plan, taking into consideration security issues."

"The vicious attack that our suffering nation is facing is an imperialistic-Zionist attack, which aims to discredit the honor and dignity of our struggling nation and the true religion of Islam; therefore it is our duty to take every measure that will undermine the opportunity for the enemy and for the weaklings whose weak souls led them into the arms of the West, motivated by their greed for a handful of dollars and [their efforts] to satisfy their Zionist masters."

"This plan should be implemented as soon as the orders are issued by those responsible for it, any one lagging will bear the responsibility for that."
"National Security Council"

[1] Al-Quds Al-Arabi (London), November 26, 2002.

[2] Al-Watan (Kuwait), November, 7, 2002.

[3] Al-Hayat (London), October 13, 2002.

[4] Al-Rai Al-Amm (Kuwait), October 18, 2002.

[5] Al-Hayat (London), November 4, 2002.

[6] Al-Quds Al-Arabi (London), November 11, 2002.


[8] Al-Rai Al-Amm (Kuwait), November 16, 2002.

[9] Al-Thawra (Iraq), November 10, 2002.

[10] Al-Hayat (London), November 11, 2002?.

[11] Babil (Iraq), November 11, 2002.

[12] Al-Sharq Al-Awsat (London), November 21, 2002.

[13], October 17, 2002.

[14] Al-Hayat (London), October 12, 2002.

[15] Milliyet (Turkey), October 15, 2002.

[16] Al-Hayat (London), October 18, 2002.

[17] Cumhuriyet (Turkey), October 16, 2002.

[18] Al-Hayat (London), October 15, 2002.

[19], October 18, 2002.

[20] Cumhuriyet (Turkey), October 16, 2002.

[21] Babil (Iraq), October 16, 2002.

[22] Al-Watan (Saudi Arabia), October 22, 2002.

[23] Al-Sharq Al-Awsat (London), October 23, 2002.

[24] Al-Sharq Al-Awsat (London), October 23, 2002.

[25] Al-Jumhuriya (Iraq), October 16, 2002.

[26] Al-Sharq Al-Awsat (London), September 2, 2002.

[27] Al-Akhbar (Egypt), November 14, 2002.

[28], October 18, 2002.

[29] Al-Quds (Palestinian Authority), October 26, 2002.

[30], November 27, 2002.

[31], December 2, 2002.

[32] IRNA, November 20, 2002.

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