March 25, 2024 Special Dispatch No. 11226

Calls For Terrorist Operations Against Israel From Jordanian Territory – Hamas And Muslim Brotherhood Officials, Clerics Close To Qatar: Jordanians Must Buy Arms And Undergo Military Training; Fighting Jews Is 'Islamic Duty'

March 25, 2024
Jordan, Qatar, Palestinians | Special Dispatch No. 11226

In the six months since Hamas' October 7, 2023 massacre in southern Israel, in which some 1,200 people were murdered and over 240 were taken hostage, and since the outbreak of the ensuing war in Gaza, the popular support for Hamas and hostility towards Israel has intensified – to the extent of possible terror attacks against Israel from Jordanian territory, in the north or the south, similar to the October 7 attack. The support for Hamas and hostility towards Israel are manifested in explicit calls by Islamic elements inside and outside the kingdom urging Jordanians to directly confront Israel and wage jihad  against it. These figures explain that, in the present circumstances, jihad has become a personal duty of every Muslim; that fighting the Jews, "the enemies of humanity," is an Islamic duty; that every Muslim soldier is obligated to fight the Jews, and that the Jordanians must fight alongside the Palestinians, so as to "be part of the war of liberation" in which "the eastern side" of the Jordan river (i.e., the Kingdom of Jordan) and its western side (i.e., the West Bank) will unite.  

Some of these figures also address the operational aspects of preparing for jihad against Israel from Jordan, and urge young people there to form cells, buy arms and train for military action.

In this context it should be noted that there have recently been attempts to smuggle weapons from Jordan to the West Bank and even an attempt by armed operatives to infiltrate Israel from Jordan to carry out a terrorist attack.[1] It should also be noted that southern Jordan, and especially the Al-Karak and Mazar areas, have changed in the recent decades, turning from areas loyal to the regime into centers of intensive Islamist activity. 

Three main circles are leading the incitement against Israel:

1. Hamas officials who urge Jordanians to escalate every form of confrontation and resistance against Israel and to block the border crossings with it. Abu Obeida, the spokesman of Hamas' military wing –  who on November 23 exhorted the Jordanians to escalate the resistance (i.e., armed struggle) against Israel – has gained considerable popularity on the Jordanian street. Praise and admiration for him have been frequently voiced in demonstrations, including by sheikhs and tribal figures in the Al-Karak Governorate, and children as well as university students dress up like him.   

2. Jordanian and Palestinian members of the Qatar-affiliated International Union of Muslim Scholars (IUMS) who incite against Israel, claiming that fighting the Jews is currently an Islamic duty and that jihad against Israel has now become a personal religious duty incumbent upon each and  every Muslim. These figures also incite against the Jordanian regime and its king, Abdullah II, on the grounds of his position on the Gaza war and Jordan's ongoing economic ties with Israel. Among the IUMS members disseminating this discourse are Hamas man Nawaf Takruri, who is also chairman of the Palestinian Association of Scholars Abroad, and Jordanian sheikhs Osama Abu Bakr and Muhammad Sa'id Bakr.

3. The Muslim Brotherhood (MB) in Jordan, which is one of the main elements behind the protests that take place every few days across Jordan, and also organizes events and conferences at which Jordanians are exhorted to wage jihad against Israel and smuggle arms to the Palestinians in the West Bank. Jordanian MB officials, especially Murad Al-Adaileh, chairman of the MB's Islamic Action Front party, encourage Jordanians to take part in the "war of liberation" against Israel, and claim that Israel is a "temporary entity."

This incitement has had an impact on the Jordanian public, as evident from the widespread support for Hamas and escalation of the antagonism towards Israel. Pro-Hamas slogans and calls for jihad against Israel are part of the public discourse in the kingdom, and are heard  on social media and at mass demonstrations that take part in Amman and across the kingdom several times a week. Among these slogans are "All of Jordan Is Hamas," "O Abu Khaled [Hamas military chief Muhammad Deif], We Swear Allegiance to You, to Your Weapons and to Your Soldiers," and "O Abu Obeida… All Jordanians Stand with You."  There are also slogans praising jihad and "death for the sake of Allah."

The sign bearing the picture of Abu Obeida calls him "the pride of the nation"; the sign to its left says "Resistance Is What We Opt For" (, November 24, 2023)

The displays of support for Hamas have also led to protest against the Jordanian regime and its king, who is accused of treason and of "defending the infidels." Much of the fury is focused on the fact that Jordan allows trucks carrying goods from the Gulf and from the kingdom itself to enter Israel through its border crossings, an arrangement known in Jordan as the "land bridge." Dozens of hashtags have been launched by Jordanian social media users calling to block this trade route, calling it "the bridge of shame" or "the bridge of treason."

This incitement against Israel and against the Jordanian regime is also evident on Jordanian social media, in videos and posts by clerics close to Qatar and in many designated hashtags that were recently launched. Ahead of Ramadan, the clerics repeatedly stressed that the month of fasting is also the month of jihad and victory and called on the Jordanians to march on the Al-Aqsa mosque and barricade themselves inside it.

The Jordanian regime, for its part, is ambivalent. Although it expresses support for the Palestinians and even for Hamas, and is attacking Israel in the context of the Gaza war,[2] it is apparently also concerned about this incitement and fears it will lead to an outburst.  Evidence for this is the criticism voiced by Samih Al-Ma'aita, a former information minister considered close to the regime, in response to the November 23 call by Hamas military spokesman Abu Obeida for Jordanians to escalate their resistance against Israel. Expressing rage at Hamas, Al-Ma'aita wrote on X: "Some Hamas officials, [acting] from Gaza or from Qatar, are deliberately trying to mobilize the Jordanians, and only the Jordanians, and prompt them to take to the streets…" He accused Hamas  of inciting the Jordanian tribes and the Jordanian public at large.[3]

In these circumstances, the Jordanian regime is trying to chart a careful course. On the one hand, it allows the protests and demonstrations to continue, perhaps in order to let the people "blow off steam." On the other hand, it keeps the protesters from approaching the Israeli border in order to prevent violent incidents. According to reports, the regime has also arrested several people for smuggling weapons to the West Bank. However, the regime seems quite reluctant to act against the incitement to jihad that is occurring right under its nose, especially given that some of the figures responsible for it are members of the Jordan Islamic Scholars League, which is subordinate to the Ministry of Endowments and Islamic Affairs.[4]

In  light of the above, the possibility exists that the incitement will ultimately result in terrorist activity against Israel from Jordan. It should also be noted that this threat to Israel and to Jordan's stability from elements identified with the MB comes on top of Iranian attempts to destabilize Jordan as part of expanding its influence in the region.[5]

This report reviews the discourse calling on Jordanians to wage to jihad against Israel, voiced by Hamas officials and clerics from the IUMS and the Jordanian MB. It also presents examples of praise and support for Hamas on the Jordanian street.    

1. Hamas Officials Urge Jordanians To Wage Resistance, Block Jordan-Israel Border Crossings

In the five months since the outbreak of the war in Gaza, Hamas officials have addressed the Jordanian people directly and exhorted them to escalate their resistance, i.e., their armed struggle, and even to block the border crossings between Jordan and Israel. These calls began already on October 22, 2023, with the outbreak of the war, when Isma'il Haniya, head of Hamas' political bureau, urged the Jordanian people to "continue the activities in support of Palestine and the resistance and [continue] this flood throughout Jordan, and to support the resistance and the Palestinian people."[6]

On November 23 Abu Obeida, the spokesman of Hamas' military wing, the Izz Al-Din Al-Qassam Brigades, called on Jordanians to escalate the resistance against Israel, saying: "We call on our brethren, especially in Jordan, to escalate every form of popular and mass activity and resistance – because you, our people in Jordan, are the nightmare of the occupation, and it fears the activity [of the Jordanian people] and [therefore] hopes, acts and strives to neutralize it and distance it from its Palestinian [cause]…"[7]

Abu Obeida delivering his November 23, 2023 message to the Jordanian people (, November 23, 2023)

On February 15 Hamas political bureau member Osama Hamdan exhorted the Jordanians to block the "land bridge," i.e., the land route from the Gulf to Jordan used by cargo trucks bound for Israel, saying: "We call on our fellow members of the nation, and especially on our people in the countries [through which this route passes], to block this trade route and keep trucks from reaching the Zionist entity, especially via Jordan, which neighbors Israel and is party to the conflict with it, and whose people stand with the Palestinian people and have clearly expressed their support for the [Palestinian] cause…"[8]  

2. Members Of The Qatar-Affiliated IUMS Incite Jordanians To Wage Jihad Against Israel, Destabilize Jordanian Regime

Another significant party that is inciting the Jordanian people to carry out terrorism against Israel is Jordanian and Palestinian members of the Islamic Union of Muslim Scholars (IUMS), which is supported and funded by Qatar. These clerics urge the Jordanians, including the Jordanian tribes, to prepare for jihad and join "the fighting against the Jews" by opening up another front, while also inciting them against the Jordanian regime.

Nawaf Takrouri, IUMS Member And Chairman Of Palestinian Association Of Scholars Abroad, Calls On Jordanian Young People To Wage Jihad, Urges Arab Peoples To Confront Treasonous Rulers

Hamas man Nawaf Takrouri, who is a member of the IUMS and chairman of the Palestinian Association of Scholars Abroad, encouraged young people in Jordan to wage jihad against Israel, open new fronts against it and fight it "any possible means." In a video he posted on his X account on February 23, he said: "I am calling upon Jordanian youth to employ any possible means of Jihad to fight this enemy, keep it busy, and open new fronts against it. I am not talking about the army, although it would not be strange for the Jordanian army – which we used to call 'the army of the Prophet' – to save its brothers and mobilize in order to defend Palestine, which is tantamount to defending Jordan and the neighboring countries, some of which do not fathom the scope of this war. Thus, this is a call for help, my brothers in Jordan, a call for action in every form

"Gaza needs you today, and you need it. This is a mutual need. Our people in Jordan, I direct my call especially to you, because Gaza needs you today for many reasons. The first is that you will be the next target of this war… Therefore, you action by every means is a requirement and necessity of the people of Gaza, and also a requirement of Jordan and its defense..."

Addressing the tribal sector in Jordan, Takrouri said: "O tribes of Jordan, I address you in the name of your renowned strength and nobility, and in light of your courage and your devotion to Allah's religion and the holy sites, and to your brethren, your neighbors, your loved ones and especially to the future of your children… People of Jordan, I address you knowing that you will not allow Jordan to be a conduit for aid to the Zionist entity… I say to my people in Jordan: This is your war [too]. There is an ongoing aggression now against the people of Gaza, and soon it will be directed against you. Therefore, we must be united."[9]

To view a clip of Takrouri's statements, click below:

In another video from March 7, Takrouri exhorted Muslim young people everywhere to make the enemy pay dearly for its crimes. The Jordanian people, he said, must "fight the oppressive enemy" and protest "on the border [with Israel], on the routes of the aid convoys [bound for] the Zionist entity, and at the gates of [King Abdullah's] palaces in order to force the officials to fulfill their role and keep them from continuing [their] negligence."[10]   

In a February 20 interview with the Al-Istiqlal newspaper, Takrouri directed harsh criticism as some of the Arab regimes and even called to overthrow them, saying: "Operation Al-Aqsa Flood exposed the truth about  these regimes, or [at least about] many of them, and revealed their faults and crimes, their neglect [of the Palestinians] and their treason… [It] exposed the stance of many of the rulers, who support the [Zionist] entity with their money, their positions and their decisions…"

Takrouri added: "This situation obligates the religious scholars to play a larger and clearer role… especially [those] in the countries surrounding [Israel]. They must impel the people to wage jihad, to [fulfill] their role and to destabilize the rule of the tyrants and traitors… These [rulers], who have closed their borders with Palestine, support the enemy and [allow] aid for the Zionist enemy to pass through their land and their airspace… must be treated by their peoples as occupiers. That is, their peoples must confront them, destabilize their rule and expose them. All the peoples must stand up against them."[11]

IUMS Member Osama Abu Bakr: Every Muslim Soldier Is Obligated To Fight The Jews

Dr. Osama Abu Bakr, a member of the IUMS and of the Jordan Islamic Scholars League, which is subordinate to Jordan's Ministry of Religious Endowments, incited jihad against the Jews in a March 1 video, saying: "The shari'a obligates each and every soldier in the Muslims' armies to come to the aid of his brethren in Palestine… It is the Islamic religious duty of every soldier who can do so to come and fight the Jews with his plane, his tank, his cannon, his machine gun or by any other means at his disposal…[12] This is a duty incumbent upon every member of the Palestinian security forces. They are the first soldiers who must do so. [But] anyone who fails to fight the Jews and direct his weapon against them is guilty of a grave sin, perhaps even of heresy, if he befriends the enemies of Allah and leaves the Palestinians to be their prey…"

Like Takrouri, Abu Bakr slammed  the Arab leaders who maintain the peace agreements with Israel, calling this a sin: "…Any ruler, functionary or Muslim army that abandons the people of Palestine and Gaza and does not support them is guilty of a sin… According to the shari'a it is a duty to support the people of Gaza with soldiers and military intervention… The rulers who have signed agreements and normalized [relations] with the Zionists sin when they maintain these agreements…" [13]  

In a video from February 23 Abu Bakr said that "the shari'a forbids [us] to remain silent over the existence of the land bridge supplying the Zionists with goods," and that this must be stopped "at any cost," adding: "The entire nation must rise up – young people, men and women – and end this bridge. This is a duty according to the shari'a…"[14]

IUMS Member Muhammad Sa'id Bakr: Jordanians Must Arm And Prepare For Jihad Against The Jews

Another figure who is inciting the Jordanians to fight Israel is Dr. Muhammad Sa'id Bakr, likewise a member of both the IUMS and the Jordan Islamic Scholars League. On October 7, 2023 he took to social media to welcome Hamas' massacre,[15] and since then he has repeatedly urged war and jihad against the Jews.

In January 30 comments to the Egyptian daily Al-Watan, Bakr stressed that, in the context of the war in Gaza, jihad is not a collective duty, which is incumbent upon the nation as a whole (but not on every individual Muslim). The Muslim nation, he explained, is not adequately fulfilling its duty in this context, and therefore jihad has become a personal duty of each and every Muslim.[16] In numerous social media posts, videos and lectures, he has reiterated that preparing for jihad against the Jews, whom he calls "the enemies of the nation" and "the enemies of humanity," is something young Muslims should be doing right now, on every level, "in order to take command of the upcoming campaign on the ground," which will be decisive and unite the eastern side of the Jordan river (i.e., Jordan) and its western side (i.e., the West Bank).

Bakr calls on all young Muslims to start preparing for this war by forming cells of up to five people and meet on a regular basis to train as much as possible. They must prepare on every level: the spiritual one (by coming back to Islam, growing closer to Allah, praying and reading the Quran); the psychological level (by "cultivating readiness to sacrifice" and "understanding the honor of martyrdom"); the shari'a level (by studying the issue of jihad and reading Quranic verses and hadiths that deal with it); the physical level (by training and exercising);  the military level (by "learning about the weapons most effective in combat," "practicing the principles of attacking, withdrawing, deception and camouflage" and taking "courses in the use of firearms and in self-defense"), and the financial level (by saving enough money to "prepare for the raid" and buy gear). They must also learn history (i.e., study the battles of the Prophet Muhammad and the military history of the jihad movements) and geography, especially of Jordan, Palestine and the border region, and "discover the strong and weak spots in the peripheral areas." In addition, Bakr recommends taking courses on medicines, poisons, biological warfare and other topics.

In one of his posts he urged his readers to be original, since "creativity creates an element of surprise." He also stated that "some people may think that [this preparation] is worthless. To them we say: Didn’t the resistance in Gaza also start this way?"[17]

At a January 4 event in support of Gaza organized by the Islamic Action Front, the political party of the Jordanian MB, Bakr praised Hamas' October 7 attack and its subsequent combat against Israel, said that the order of the day is to "genuinely join the jihad" and "fight the Jews," which is a personal duty of every Muslim, and reiterated the various types of preparation required. "We may be asked to go and fight in support of our brothers and the Al-Aqsa mosque," he said, "and we may need to fight to defend Jordan, our mosques, our women, and our children." Bakr's speech included antisemitic motifs. He accused the Jews of "murdering their prophets" and quoted the often-cited Hadith of the Stones and the Trees, which states that, before the Day of Judgement, the Muslims will fight the Jews and kill all of them.[18]

To view a clip of Bakr's statements, click below:

Among his other advice, Bakr recommends to teach children to fight. In a January 19 post, he wrote: "There is no choice but to prepare the [younger] generation for battle. Playing out scenes [of war] will spark a desire in the souls of  our children to carry this out in practice, even if [only] in the future…" Along with the message he posted a video of his young son wearing a scarf around his face and training with a toy gun.[19]

The photo posted by Muhammad Sa'id Bakr showing his son playing with a gun (, January 19, 2024)

3. The Muslim Brotherhood In Jordan: Israel's Existence Is Temporary, We Will Participate In The War To Liberate Palestine

A third element in Jordan that is calling for jihad against Israel is the Jordanian MB, along with its political party, the Islamic Action Front. The MB and its party are the main groups organizing the weekly street protests in Jordan in support of Gaza and against the Jordan-Israel peace agreement. Islamic Action Front secretary-general Murad Al-Adaileh regularly praises Hamas and armed resistance.

On February 5, 2024, Al-Adaileh shared on his X account excerpts from a video interview in which he said that "it serves Jordan's interests to support the resistance" and that "the Palestinian nation has today launched a war of liberation." Adding that "the West Bank is about to explode, and [this explosion] will be even bigger than Gaza [i.e. the events of October 7]," he called Israel a "temporary entity" and criticized the agreements signed by the Jordanian regime with it.[20]

At a February 11, 2024 speech at a rally in Jordan in opposition to the "land bridge" arrangement, Al-Adaileh said: "This pure land [i.e. Jordan] will not agree to be defiled by a land bridge for the Zionists… Those who allowed these trucks [to pass through Jodan] have brought [upon us] shame that is undermining our united Jordanian stance in support of this [Palestinian] people and this resistance… Arab rulers expected Hamas to come to its end in this conflict. Has Hamas come to an end? No. The project of liberation has begun. Today we are in an existential war, and with Allah's help we will triumph with this resistance. We declare clearly: Our choice is to support this heroic resistance… Treaties, understandings and agreements with the West or with the East will not prevent us from being part of the war of liberation… We are the offspring of all the martyrs of the [Jordanian] Arab Army who died at the [1968] Battle of Karameh, on the soil of Jerusalem and in Jenin, and our war will undoubtedly start soon."[21]

Murad Al-Adaileh (, March 6, 2024)

In a speech he delivered on March 6, Al-Adaileh called for the masses to participate in a "protest of millions" and in a "Jordanian flood" for the sake of the Al-Aqsa mosque, and threatened that there would be escalation during the month of Ramadan, stating: "We are just before Ramadan, which is [the month] of jihad… [and] we say to Netanyahu: Don't you get close to our Al-Aqsa Mosque! This mosque is a symbol of the nation and of this war… We will turn Al-Aqsa into a holocaust for you, and into [your] humiliation, shame and perdition, Allah willing."[22]

In addition, the Islamic Action Front party has been holding conferences and public lectures in which support for Hamas, armed resistance and jihad is prominently displayed. One such conference, held on January 23, 2024 in Al-Karak, was attended by Murad Al-Adaileh and by Jordanian researcher Ziad Ibhais, both of whom spoke about the importance and implications of Hamas's October 7, 2023 attack.

Ziad Ibhais said that October 7 was just a starting point and that, in the next stage, there will be armed factions throughout the entire West Bank that will exhaust Israel. Stressing that the Jordanian people are obligated to "directly support the resistance in the West Bank" and to provide it with "human and material capabilities," he added that "everything related to armament must [take place]freely." He also criticized the Jordanian regime for arresting Jordanians attempting to smuggle weapons to the Palestinians, asserting that it is forbidden to remain silent on the matter.[23]

The Islamic Action Front conference held in Al-Karak in January (, January 23, 2024)

It should also be noted that the aforementioned speech by IUMS member Muhammad Sa'id Bakr, in which he called on Jordanians to prepare for jihad, was delivered at an event organized by the Islamic Action Front.

4. Support For Hamas On The Jordanian Street: "All Of Jordan Is Hamas"; "The Great Jordanian People Will Wipe Out The Zionists;" "Normalization Is Treason"

Incitement to jihad against Israel and popular support for Hamas are evident in the Jordanian public sphere. On October 13, six days after Hamas' October 7 massacre, hundreds of thousands of people in the Jordanian capital demonstrated in support of Hamas, chanting, "They say Hamas is a terrorist [movement] – all of Jordan is Hamas."[24] This slogan has also been heard at other demonstrations in Jordan in the aftermath of October 7, including from the crowds protesting outside the U.S. embassy in Amman on December 31, 2023.[25]

Mass demonstration in Amman in support of Hamas on October 13, 2023: "All of Jordan is Hamas" (, October 13, 2023)

Further evidence for Hamas' popularity of in Jordan is the fact that, on November 23, 2023, just hours after the speech by Hamas military spokesman Abu Obeida in which he exhorted the Jordanian people to intensify its resistance against Israel, several dozen people gathered to demonstrate outside the Israeli embassy in Amman, calling for solidarity with Hamas.[26] On the following day, there was significant response to Abu Obeida's incitement, when after Friday prayers mass demonstrations were held in the capital and across the country in support of Abu Obeida and Hamas. The protestors brandished pictures of the Hamas military spokesman and chanted "O Abu Obeida, we heed you, all the Jordanian people stand with you."[27]

Protestors in Amman chant: "O Abu Obeida, we heed you, all the Jordanian people stand with you." (, November 24, 2023)

At another rally held in the Al-Karak Governorate in southern Jordan on November 24, protesters thanked and congratulated Hamas and especially Abu Obeida. A video from the event which was posted to social media shows a sheikh named Samih Al-Tarawneh praising the Hamas spokesman and chanting: "Greetings from us to Abu Obeida, the only person to mention the Jordanian graciousness [towards the Palestinians]. This is the first time that we hear that Jordan is the nightmare of the Zionists. Palestine for the Jordanians is not [only] stone and mud… but faith and religion." The crowd roared in response: "Greetings from the proud [city of] Al-Mazar [in the Al-Karak Governorate] to Abu Obeida, greetings from the proud Al-Karak to Gaza."

The Arab media reported on Abu Obeida's considerable popularity, which was evident at a rally held on Friday, November 24, in Amman, at which participants waved photographs and posters of the Hamas military spokesman. It was mentioned that his popularity is also apparent on social media platforms like Instagram, TikTok and WhatsApp, where users share songs and pictures of him, as well as hashtags based on his name.[28]

A child dressed as Abu Obeida at a February 23, 2024 demonstration outside the U.S. embassy in Amman (, February 23, 2024)

Students at a Jordan university pose with their faces covered to show support for, and solidarity with, Abu Obeida (, December 14, 2023)

Moreover, at the weekly demonstrations and protest rallies held in Jordan in solidarity with Gaza, slogans and harsh condemnations against Israel, the U.S. and even the Jordanian government are routinely heard. The regime is criticized for its peace treaty with Israel and for the fact that goods are delivered to Israel via Jordan. At a demonstration on February 16, 2024, for example, the following calls were heard, among others: "O Jordanian government, this is the Jordanian desire: No to the American bases and no to the Zionist embassy on Jordanian soil"; "The land bridge is the greatest shame"; "The great Jordanian people will wipe out the Zionists"; "Normalization is treason, the Araba Valley [Treaty, i.e. the Jordan-Israel peace treaty] is treason… The land bridge [to Israel] is treason, the American bases [in Jordan] are treason, the Zionist embassy [in Jordan] is treason."[29]

Harsh anti-government slogans were also heard at a February 23 demonstration outside the U.S. embassy in Amman protesting the supply of goods to Israel via Jordan, including "You have betrayed the promise and betrayed the neighbor [Palestine] and become defenders of the infidels."[30]

In a video from the same rally, participants are heard chanting the slogan of Hamas and the MB: "Your goal – Allah, your leader – the Prophet, your constitution – the Quran, your path – jihad and your most-exalted aspiration – to die for Allah."[31]

At a March 8 demonstration in the Jordanian city of Irbid, the crowds pledged allegiance to Abu Khaled aka Muhammad Deif, the commander of the Hamas military wing, chanting, "We pledge allegiance to you, o Abu Khaled, we pledge allegiance to you… to your weapons and to your soldiers…"[32]


[1],, March 23, 2024.

[2]  See MEMRI Special Dispatch No. 10950 - Jordanian Foreign Minister Ayman Al-Safadi: Hamas Is An Idea And Ideas Do Not Die – November 9, 2023.

[3], November 23, 2023. In an interview with Al-Arabiya, Al-Ma'aita again condemned Abu Obeida for urging the Jordanians to wage resistance, stating that this term "has military connotations" (, November 24, 2023).

[4] Ironically, one of the stated objectives of the League is to "preach moderateness and the renunciation of extremism" (

[5] See e.g. MEMRI Inquiry & Analysis No. 1746 - Jordan Increasingly Concerned About Iran Amid Activity Of Iran-Backed Militias On Its Northern Border – February 20, 2024.

[6], October 22, 2023.

[7], November 23, 2023.

[8], February 15, 2024.Several days later, on February 20, Hamdan noted that Hamas had not received any clarifications from the neighboring countries, i.e., from Saudi Arabia, the UAE and Jordan, regarding the land bridge, and reiterated his call for the people of these countries to act to block this route (, February 20, 2024).

[9], February 23, 2024. In a video he posted earlier, on February 16, Takrouri called to prevent the passage of goods to Israel via Jordan: "We call on the Jordanian people, including all its forces, [protest] movements and marches of jihad to block the road to these criminals and traitors and stop supplying the Zionist enemy. O people of Jordan, it is inconceivable that, while you demonstrate on the streets of Amman against the Zionist crimes, trucks pass behind your backs on their way to the Zionist entity, to support it with food, medicines and maybe [even] weapons." He enjoined the Jordanians to "hold [protest] marches at the crossings and on the borders… Become a permanent guard [force] preventing the provision of support to this enemy, and even undermine these entities [i.e., the regimes] that have turned themselves into its defenders. Your action against them is on par with the action of your [Palestinian] brethren against the enemy" (, February 15, 2023).    

[10], March 7, 2024.

[11], February 20, 2024.  

[12] Attacks on Israelis by members of the security forces of the neighboring countries have taken place in the past. Examples include the March 13, 1997 shooting by a Jordanian soldier on the border with Israel in which seven schoolgirls were killed, and the June 3, 2023 shooting on the Egypt-Israel border by an Egyptian police officer who fired on Israeli soldiers and killed two of them.

[13], March 1, 2024.

[14], February 23, 2024.

[15], October 7, 2023.

[16], January 30, 2024. Jasser Auda, a founder and board member of the IUMS, and a member of the Fiqh Council of North America and the European Council for Fatwa and Research, made similar arguments in a February 15 article, in which he called for Muslims to wage jihad in order to aid the Palestinians in their war against Israel. He explained that the religious duty of jihad, which is explicitly set out in the Quran, is a collective duty. This means that, if it is adequately performed by a sufficient number of Muslims, other Muslims are exempt from taking part in it. However, if it is not adequately performed, it becomes a religious duty incumbent upon every individual Muslim, especially upon those who are geographically close to the arena of fighting and who are mentally and financially able to engage in it. He went on to say that, given the current events in Gaza, the Muslim nation is not fulfilling its duty of jihad in Palestine, which means that all Muslims must take part in it – and if they do not, they are all sinners. He stresses that the duty of waging jihad rests first and foremost with the Muslim rulers, who have the necessary military and economic means at their disposal. See MEMRI Special Dispatch No. 11164, Fiqh Councils In Europe And North America: The Islamic Nation Must Wage Jihad To Help The Palestinians; Sykes-Picot Borders Have No Legal Status In Religious Laws Of Jihad, March 4, 2024.

[17], October 9, 11, 2023; November 2, 2023; January 3, 14, 2024.

[18] The hadith states that the Jews will hide behind stones and trees, but the stones and the trees will speak out and call: O Musim, O servant of Allah, there is a Jew behind me, come and kill him.", January 4, 2024.

[19], January 19, 2024.

[20], February 5, 2024.

[21], February 11, 2024. In a video he posted on February 22, Al-Adaileh reiterated that what is currently taking place is an existential war and that the victory of the resistance is certain, and called on his audience to attend a protest on the following day in front of the U.S. embassy in Amman, claiming that the U.S. is responsible for the siege on Gaza. He added: "We must raise our voice against America's crimes and against Arab cooperation with them.", February 22, 2024.

[22], March 6, 2024.

[23], January 23, 2024

[24], October 13, 2023

[25], December 31, 2023.

[26], November 23, 2023.

[27], November 24, 2023.

[28], November 27, 2023.

[29], February 16, 2024; similar slogans were heard at rallies in Amman on March 8,, March 8, 2024.

[30], February 23, 2024.

[31], February 23, 2024.

[32], March 8, 2024.


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