Iran's mullahs' regime may be toppled and replaced with a secular setup, but the repression in the country won't end if minorities in Iran are not given their rights. The people of Balochistan are demanding not just regime change but independence. The solution to Balochistan's problems is to break the chains of slavery for which its people have paid enormous sacrifices over decades. This position is shared by the people of Kurdistan and Ahwaz as well. For these reasons, it is the minorities in Iran that are most committed to the uprising against the Islamic Republic and they who are suffering the harshest consequences from the regime's crackdown.
On September 30, 2022, the Islamic regime violently repressed the demonstrations of Balochi protesters who were gathering in front of a police station in Zahedan – leading to what would become known as the "Zahedan massacre," or "Bloody Friday," which left more than 90 people dead. Suppression of Balochi people is almost the norm. I would like to remind readers that on November 27, 2022, the regime executed Mohammad Umar Khama Ejbari from Khurasan province, who had been imprisoned on false murder charges. Most recently, Iranian prison authorities executed Changyz Gorgaij Baloch, who was accused of drug trafficking with no evidence, and hanged a 24-year-old Baloch, Nyaz Gul, who was sentenced to death without a fair trial. Additionally, two minor Baloch brothers, Mohammad Rakhshani, 15, and Ali Rakhshani, 16, were reportedly sentenced to death by the Iranian judiciary in Zahedan city.
Ali Rakhshani, 16, and his brother Mohammad, 15, reportedly sentenced to death in Zahedan. (Source: Humgaam.net, December 3, 2022)
Balochi people flying the flag of Balochistan.
The Iran-Pakistan Nexus
Balochistan is divided among three countries: Iran, Afghanistan, and Pakistan. Iran and Pakistan have been cooperating to suppress the Baloch people's struggle for self-determination since the time the Shah of Iran.
As even the Pakistani daily Dawn reported, "The breakup of Pakistan [in 1971, an internal crisis in Pakistan resulted in a third war between India and Pakistan and the secession of East Pakistan, which created the independent state of Bangladesh] disappointed the Shah. The further dismemberment of Pakistan was a nightmare for him and he was concerned about the growing activities of the insurgents in Balochistan... Afghanistan was another area of common concern between the two countries, especially considering Afghan prime minister, Muhammad Daud Khan's hard position against Pakistan after his coup in 1973... [Khan] also kept... insisting that Afghanistan could no longer turn a blind eye to the sufferings of the Baloch... [However,] the Shah conceived that the Soviets were pushing ahead through Kabul an agenda that was ultimately aimed at the creation of a Greater Balochistan and the inevitable dismemberment of both Iran and Pakistan. The Shah pursued Pakistan to launch a military operation against the Baloch Liberation Front."
(Source: U.S. Central Intelligence Agency)
(Source: U.S. Central Intelligence Agency)
In fact, in 1973, the Shah of Iran visited Pakistan at the invitation of President Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, whose main opposition was the Pakistani faction of the National Awami Party (NAP). The NAP comprised Baloch and Pashtun leaders, and was led by veteran Baloch leader Nawab Khair Bakhsh Marri, who was a Baloch nationalist who believed in the path toward a federal system. However, after Bhutto's violent crackdown against NAP and against the Balochi people, the Baloch Liberation Front launched an uprising against the central Pakistani government that lasted from 1973 to 1977, in which the Marri clan led the way. Nawab Khair Bakhsh Marri was actually "the linchpin" of the 1973 Baloch insurgency.
Fearing that the Baloch uprising would expand from Pakistan-Occupied Balochistan (POB) to Iran-Occupied Balochistan (IOP), Iran sponsored ground and air military operations against the Baloch people. The Shah's army provided military hardware and financial support to the Pakistani army. A mutual agreement between the two countries paved the way for Pakistan to avail itself of 30 Huey Cobra attack helicopters and financial aid of millions of dollars to conduct and sustain military operations against the Baloch people. The conflict took the lives of approximately 15,000 Balochis and 5,000 Pakistan army personnel. The Bhutto regime was then overthrown by General Zia-ul-Haq, who released the NAP leadership from jail. Nawab Khair Bakhsh Marri, along with thousands of Marri Baloch patriots, migrated to Afghanistan and from there continued their political struggle for independence from Iran and Pakistan.
Nawab Khair Bakhsh Marri (1928-2014). (Source: Dunya News)
The Iran-Pakistan cooperation against the Balochi people continues to this day, as the repressive policies of the Shah against the minorities are continuing with the Islamic Republic regime. Just recently, on November 26, 2022, Pakistan air forces used Iran-made suicide drones against a camp of the Baloch Liberation Army in Kahan, a village in Pakistan-controlled Balochistan. In the drone attack, eight Balochi fighters lost their lives.
Iran-made suicide drone (Source: Baloch Liberation Voice)
The nexus between Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) and Iran's IRGC is jeopardizing regional peace and hindering the global economy. The ISI and the IRGC are exchanging military hardware, sharing intelligence, and promoting and sponsoring proxy wars that are threatening Western interests in the region. Furthermore, Tehran and Islamabad are assisting respectively China and Turkey to implement their expansionist agendas in the subcontinent.
Balochistan has a strategic geographical position, and is an important economic gateway, with trillions of dollars' worth of underground rare earth minerals such as oil, gas, uranium, copper, and coal, and the two deep seaports of Gawadar and Chabahar. Balochistan is the perfect outpost to counter and keep under control Iran and its nuclear ambition, and its dangerous relation with Pakistan that may provide Tehran with tactical nukes.
Today, Iran's minorities are realizing that they must remain united in order to bring an end to the Islamic Republic and to obtain independence. Kurds in particular are playing a pivotal role in reaching out to indigenous ethnic communities in order to cooperate in the uprising against the regime and to rewrite the borders in the region. The leader of the Free Balochistan Movement, Hyrbyair Marri (the son of Baloch leader Nawab Khair Bakhsh Marri) is also playing a key role in bringing the oppressed nations in Iran under a single umbrella. However, the West seems absent. Kurdish people were supported by the U.S. and some European countries to defeat ISIS, but unfortunately, they were later left alone to be butchered.
According to Marri, minorities in Iran have to fight for their own rights and freedom without waiting for the West – which in any event should understand that it cannot afford to overlook the geostrategic importance of Balochistan, Kurdistan, and Ahwaz. "Balochistan and Kurdistan have been made meat grinders... by their occupiers [i.e. the Iranian regime]. The International Community sees our plight but remains deaf and dumb. It is time for the oppressed people to unite," Marri stated.
(See ANNEX: The Balochistan Liberation Charter)
* Rudam Azad is a Baloch writer and a human rights activist.
ANNEX - Balochistan Liberation Charter
The following Balochistan Liberation Charter was promoted by the leader of the Free Balochistan Movement. The document relates to Balochistan's independence and the restoration of a democratic political system on the principle of one person one vote after independence and is open to the introduction of more amendments and further improvement. "This document does not claim the final wisdom. This is not a universal instruction and prescription for all times and all places. It is merely a plan and a guide for the Baloch people to regain their inalienable democratic rights of freedom and independence," says the introduction to the charter.
The leader of the Free Balochistan Movement, Hyrbyair Marri.
The ancestral homeland of the Baloch people is called Balochistan, yet today the Baloch are not the masters of their own country. A series of calamitous events – not least the imperialist wars of conquest in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries – have distorted Balochistan's natural development and have prevented the Baloch people from determining their own future.
A defining point in the history of Balochistan, however, was in 1666 when various Baloch confederacies were unified and brought under a single Baloch national state. Following from this moment of national unity, the Baloch nation established reciprocal diplomatic relations with their neighbors and beyond.
The historical and geopolitical borders of Balochistan were drawn up in the eighteenth century by the Baloch political leader and ruler Mir Naseer Khan Baloch also known as Noori Naseer Khan (1749-1794).
The British Empire invaded the sovereign state of Balochistan on 13 November 1839. As the result of the British colonial policy of "divide and rule," Balochistan was subsequently divided into three parts. By drawing an arbitrary line in 1871 called the Goldsmid Line, the western part of Balochistan was given to the Qajar Dynasty. A second line, the Durand Line, was drawn in the year 1893. With this line, the northern part of Balochistan was given to Afghanistan. These artificial borders were drawn against the consent, interest and well-being of the Baloch nation.
The occupation of Western Balochistan by the Qajar Dynasty was relatively shortlived. The Dynasty lost its dominance over Balochistan during the first decade of the twentieth century. The British in 1916 openly recognized and acknowledged Baloch political leaders as the effective rulers of Western Balochistan. In 1928 the Persian army headed by Reza Khan once again invaded and took control of western Balochistan.
Yet the Baloch nation has never relented in its struggle for independence. The systematic national political struggle to regain full independence from the British began in the early 1920s. Due to the ceaseless struggle of the Baloch people, Balochistan became independent on 11 August 1947 after the departure of the British from Eastern Balochistan. The news of Balochistan's independence was announced in New Delhi and reported in The New York Times on August 12, 1947. The Balochistan First Chamber, in its session of December 12-15, 1947, approved the declaration of Balochistan's independence unanimously; the Balochistan Upper House also endorsed the First Chamber's ruling in their session that was held January 2-4, 1948.
The artificial Islamic State of Pakistan was created on August 14, 1947. This new state of Pakistan has remained a real threat to the sovereignty of Balochistan from the very day of its creation. Within eight months of its formation Pakistan forcefully occupied the sovereign state of Balochistan on March 27, 1948.
This occupation runs counter to universally accepted notions of the right of freedom of peoples and to the right to self-government. And the recognition of these rights, and the injustice of occupation, is now drawing the Baloch masses into a united campaign against the oppressing powers. Their democratic struggle is gaining momentum and approaching a critical historical crossroad. With each passing day the masses of Balochistan are becoming more conscious of their birth-right.
Collectively, they are beginning to understand that the occupation and oppression now threaten their very existence and are the reasons of systematic extinction of their beloved nation. They know if the current occupation remains unchallenged, they will be marginalized and turned into a minority in their own ancestral homeland.
Under the domination of foreign occupying states, Balochistan's economy and society, and its political, educational, and legal institutions, have remained disastrously underdeveloped. The neo-colonial rulers have been imposing their worldview on Balochistan discarding the accumulated insight and knowledge of past Baloch generations. These actions have undermined the culture, language, literature, media, music, art, and moral and social values of Balochistan.
The occupation and oppression allow the rulers to manipulate the people, and has restricted "civil society" in Balochistan from its own independent course of development. Moreover, the occupying powers have succeeded in transforming the whole of Balochistan into a vast military garrison and a land of countless state prisons. In the process, Balochistan has been transformed into a playground of imported Jihadists, religious fanatics and unscrupulous state backed looters. The invading states' organs operate with full impunity and persecute anyone at will. Their illegitimate power is absolute. They arrest, shoot, imprison, torture, and kill.
The victims include the most educated, conscientious, and dynamic members of Baloch society: Baloch students, poets, workers, farmers, shopkeepers, writers, musicians, doctors, religious scholars, teachers, university professors, and political leaders. Even Balochistan's senior citizens and children are not spared the vindictive brutality of states' organs. Baloch political and human rights activists are subjected to medieval torture. Many Baloch victims have vanished, never to be seen again. Families and friends of these victims are left with no other option but to live in a state of perpetual sorrow, fear, and anguish.
Yet, amidst this terrorizing occupation the traditions of the Baloch people remain undimmed and embedded in today's Baloch culture. The principal ingredients of secularity, moderation, openness, liberalism, and tolerant and peaceful disposition are typical characteristics of Baloch social and moral values. The Baloch nation is a secular nation, which allows and respects diverse views and beliefs. The sanctity of the right to life and liberty are the paramount traits of Baloch traditions − and state sanctioned capital punishment is alien to the Baloch moral and political codes. In sum, the Baloch people possess all the characteristics and values needed to develop into a vibrant civil, democratic, and open society.
Additionally, the Baloch homeland is rich in natural resources, and Balochistan is located in one of the most strategic locations in the world. It is a corridor that links the Far East and South Asia to the Middle East and Central Asia. Balochistan can act as the depot for the exchange of goods between the aforementioned vast rich regions. International trade between these regions and beyond could be based on the countless ports that exist on the coast of Balochistan. Furthermore, this coast could be used for fishing and seafood farming. Balochistan's extensive land can be used for farming, agriculture, and manufacturing. Its climate is also suitable for harvesting solar, wind and sea energy. Most economic resource indicators favor Balochistan's speedy development. The relatively small population compared to its economic potential assign and place Balochistan in the potential rank of very wealthy regions. Under a free and democratic government, Balochistan could be transformed, within a moderately short period of time, into one of the most modern, affluent and democratic nations in the region.
Due to the unique location of Balochistan and its rich natural resources and secular culture, there is no reason for the economy of Balochistan to remain static. The illegal occupation of Balochistan has been the main obstacle to Balochistan's economic development. Had its peoples been free of occupation, its economic growth – as well as its social, political and legal development – would have easily outstripped that of neighboring countries.
It is the right of the people of Balochistan to determine their own destiny and their present and future well-being and prosperity, free from any illegal occupation and external subjugation. An informed and fair-minded Baloch democrat would never willingly remain confined under the bondage of enslavement under a colonial power. Every Baloch has experienced the indignity of being regarded a second-class citizen in their own homeland.
We are now united in our determination to break free and to establish full independence for our people. We seek nothing less than to join the community of free nations. Only by regaining full independence, and the restoration of a democratic Balochistan, we will be able to guarantee full rights to every citizen in Balochistan. This charter is the road map that will enable us to achieve this noble objective for our nation and our homeland.
Liberation, Democracy and Justice
The Fundamental Rights
Article: 1 – Since Balochistan has been illegally occupied, the liberation struggle for a free and democratic Balochistan is legal and just.
Article: 2 – The Baloch national struggle is for the pursuit of the most fundamental principles of the right to life, protection, self-preservation and to uphold the principle of equal rights for all members of society.
Article: 3 – The Baloch national struggle is for the moral primacy of each person as an end and not as a means to serve an end. On this basis, it upholds all individuals as equal.
Article: 4 – The Baloch national struggle is a secular movement. It is for the separation of religion from state and politics. It is for the power of reason and in opposition to any religious and ideological dogma.
Article: 5 – Freedom of religion, belief and expression are among the most fundamental rights of the citizens of Balochistan. Every individual is free to follow any religion or unorthodox belief provided that in so doing they do not impose their religion and belief and hence infringe the liberty of other people to believe the contrary.
Article: 6 – The Baloch democratic movement is for liberty and freedom in the true sense of the term. It recognizes and appreciates the fact that human imagination has no limitation. It regards this valued human quality as one of the most cardinal attributes of humanity. This quality of human nature is the essence and the reason for free thinking and expression. We cherish this human attribute and endeavor to encourage it to flourish it in an open and free society. The attribute of imagination is indivisible from one's existence. Blind fundamentalism, in all its forms, which restrict human imagination and contemplation, by any oppressive means, is contrary to human nature and against their birth rights. Hence, the Baloch democratic struggle places the right of free imagination, thinking and expression among its first-rate priorities.
Article: 7 – It follows from the very nature of the infinite horizon of human imagination that there will be diversity in perception, understanding, opinion and beliefs. On this account alone, violation of freedom of thought and expression of the citizens of Balochistan would be contrary to their natural rights and justice.
Article: 8 – Equality between men and women is one of the core principles of the Balochistan democratic movement. In the free and democratic Balochistan men and women will be treated equally and entitled to all rights, protections and freedoms under the law. This equality would be in all spheres of society, in civil, economic, educational, social, cultural and political rights.
Inclusive Methods of Struggle
Article: 9 – The Baloch national struggle for a free and democratic Balochistan is inclusive. It is for all people from all walks of life in Balochistan and outside Balochistan. These include all freedom loving men, women, and children regardless of their political persuasion, ethnic background or ideological and religious belief.
Article: 10 – The Baloch struggle for freedom is a portfolio of methods of struggle – it values any support, by Baloch and the international community, to achieve a free and independent Balochistan. The forms of struggle will include independent party politics, organized unions and associations such as trade unions and student unions, women's associations, writers' associations, lawyers' associations, journalist associations, farmers' associations, and so on. It will also include pressure groups: human rights activists, environmentalists, families of the state victims' campaigners, anti-nuclear campaigners, anti-war campaigners, and civil disobedience, including forms of struggle that are employed in self-defense.
Article: 11 – Participating in occupying states' pseudo parliament is contrary to the very spirit of this charter. Taking part in these colonial instruments of control will hinder our struggle to achieve freedom. Thus, any individual or political organization that approves this charter, cannot participate in Pakistani and Iranian bogus parliamentary systems.
Article: 12 – All forms of struggle for freedom will be within the boundaries of international law and human rights conventions.
The Legitimacy of Political System
Article: 13 – The ultimate aim of the Baloch liberation struggle is to put the destiny of the Baloch nation in the hands of Baloch people.
Article: 14 – The legal and moral legitimacy of the political system that governs Balochistan stems from decisions of the liberated people of Balochistan in free and democratic general elections, monitored by UN and other independent bodies and observed by national and international media.
Article: 15 – No political system has moral validity and legitimacy in Balochistan while it is not free from illegal occupation. Representative democracy and peoples' sovereignty in Balochistan will only have legal legitimacy if the exercise of political power is by the people and not in the name of Baloch people.
Article: 16 – The political power structure that is dictated by occupying powers is a negation and not the reflection of the sovereign will of the citizens of Balochistan. Such an oppressive political system is incompatible to freedom and democracy.
Article: 17 – The apparent dichotomy of democracy under subjugation can only be resolved through the liberation of the subjugated nation from the yoke of illegal occupation. Democracy, justice and respect for human rights in Balochistan will remain empty slogans as long as Balochistan is confined to the present colonial geopolitical boundaries and rules.
Article: 18 – Civil and political rights are only meaningful in a nation that is not illegally occupied and where its citizens aspire to be democratic and freely subject themselves to their own political authority, which has not been imposed from outside.
Article: 19 – Historical injustices and exploitation cannot be restored completely. No system of government can overcome all injustices that a nation has experienced in the past. But a democratic political system that operates on the principles of freedom, human rights, social justice, equal opportunity and economic efficiency is the one system that is both feasible and operable in Balochistan.
Meaningful Democracy and Peace
Article: 20 – A necessary requirement, to guarantee a meaningful democracy, is the provision of a democratic environment. This implies among other factors a free media and press, independent judiciary, free assemblies and associations, equality in economic opportunity, adequate education, and multi-party politics. A meaningful democracy cannot be implemented when the society, culture, politics, law, morality, language, economy, and environments of a nation are captive to a colonial hostile power. In the absence of these essential constituents, democracy remains nominal and it is used as a tool to hide the hegemony of military occupation.
Article: 21 – All Baloch political prisoners under the custody of occupying states should be released immediately and unconditionally.
Article: 22 – A committee should be formed, under the supervision of the UNO and national and international human rights organizations, to investigate the fate of all disappeared persons in Balochistan and to bring all perpetrators of such crimes to the International Court of Justice.
Article: 23 – Conflict Resolution
Since Balochistan has been illegally occupied, all the occupying forces should unconditionally withdraw from Baloch homeland. Otherwise, it is the legal and moral responsibility of International community to intervene in Balochistan to end the illegal occupation.
After the withdrawal of occupying forces, international community should assist the state of Balochistan in securing the borders and to establish political and legal institutions.
The provisional government of Balochistan will hold general elections in 24 months and transfer political power to elected members.
Article: 24 – All international and national media, human rights organizations and aid agencies must be given unrestricted access to all parts of occupied Balochistan.
Article: 25 – There should be full implementation of the rules set out in the Fourth Geneva Convention relating to the occupying states in reference to liberation resistance movements and armed conflict.
Constitutional Law and Justice
Article: 26 – A democratic republic of Balochistan will prepare and adopt a modern secular and democratic constitution.
Article: 27 – In a free Balochistan all forms of dictatorial political systems, under whatever name, will be rejected resolutely and categorically.
Article: 28 – The Balochistan political system will be laid exclusively on principles of personal liberty, freedom of thought and speech, a representative government and an independent judiciary. True implementation of these principles will ensure the independent state of Balochistan is saved from any form of dictatorship and unrepresentative political systems.
Article: 29 – A pivotal statute of a Balochistan constitution shall be the edict of equality before law. According to this statute, no one is allowed to interfere with or invade a person's liberty, privacy, and property without permission of law.
Article: 30 – There can be no liberty, fairness, maintenance of peace and order, freedom, security, free speech and justice without judicial freedom and independence. For the proper administration of justice, the judicial system in Balochistan will remain independent. The independence of a judiciary can act as a check and balance mechanism. It shall avert despotism, tyranny, misgovernment and injustices and ensure liberty within the law.
Article: 31 – To secure justice and fairness the courts of law in Balochistan will operate openly and fairly.
Article: 32 – In a Democratic Republic of Balochistan, it is of paramount importance to uphold and safeguard the unconditional principle of a fair trial. Everyone accused of unlawful activity will be given a fair hearing by an independent and impartial tribunal. The principle of the presumption of innocence applies to all accused. The minimum guarantees for the defense will be provided to all the accused. Every accused is entitled to the right of review of his or her case by a higher tribunal.
Article: 33 – Natural justice will comprise the foundation of a justice system in Balochistan. According to its first rule no person should be a judge in his or her own cause. A true and just judicial decision can only be reached when the judge is impartial. The second rule of natural justice states that everyone must have the right to be heard in his or her own defense. It would be contrary to natural justice if the accused is being denied the opportunity of being heard in his and her own defense.
Article: 34 – Every person in Balochistan will be protected with the same legal rights. The law will provide equal protection to all individuals whose freedom of action within the law is violated. These areas of protection will include the right of
Prosecution or civil action for assault,
The right of action for wrongful arrest, false imprisonment,
The right of bail, if arrested, and the right of habeas corpus.
Article: 35 – The right to life is the most fundamental right of every person and this cannot be taken from any person. The arbitrary deprivation of life by hanging, execution, torture or by any other forms of humane or inhumane practice are contrary to the very spirit of humanity and the Baloch moral codes and values. These actions will be prohibited absolutely and categorically under the Democratic Republic of Balochistan.
Against Discrimination and for Equal Opportunity
Article: 36 – A free and democratic Balochistan will take a strong and uncompromising stance against corruption and make every effort to eradicate it at all levels.
Article: 37 – For a responsible state apparatus to function effectively and dutifully it requires the formation of an efficient, transparent, and accountable body of institutions. In achieving this objective, the civil servants of a national or a local government will be appointed on their merit by open competition. Moreover, the civil servants must remain non-political and neutral. This is in order to be able to serve different elected governments impartially and fair-mindedly.
Article: 38 – A free Balochistan will endorse the fight against any discrimination on the ground of gender, background, belief, age and ethnicity. All ethnic and religious minorities in Balochistan will have equal rights in the same measure as with the rest of population to practice their faiths and to preserve and protect their languages and customs.
Article: 39 – A free Balochistan will act and operate according to the principles of equal opportunity; in the right of access to education, health, and legal protection. Implementation of equal opportunities will be done in an open, transparent, and accountable manner. This should operate on the principle of individual merit rather than family ties, nepotism, and favor.
Article: 40 – The state of Balochistan will make education one of its top priorities. Education will be compulsory and free up to the age of 16. Balochistan government will take concrete steps to ensure that a meaningful educational system is available, accessible, suitable and adaptable to all children. Priority will be given to promotion of respect to physical and mental dignity of pupils and full development of their talents, abilities, and potentials.
Article: 41 – Independent Balochistan will be a civil, open, tolerant and democratic society, where all individuals are treated as equal under the rule of law.
Article: 42 – The state of Balochistan will be based on human rights, freedom, democracy and the rule of law. It will protect democratic and personal freedoms including free, multi-party elections, the right to protest and freedom of speech and the press, as enshrined in the UN's Universal Declaration of Human Rights and International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.
Article: 43 – No government in Balochistan will be considered legitimate and democratic without being elected in an open and transparent election. The supreme power of any political system ultimately will rest in the hands of the people of Balochistan. Only the electorate in a secret ballot will decide the legitimacy of political sovereignty.
Article: 44 – A free and independent Balochistan aims to have a constitutional parliamentarian political system. A political system that will operate under an independent legal system with free political parties, free and fair elections undertaken on the principle of one person one vote.
Article: 45 – The Balochistan National Assembly (Balochistane Mazanen Diwaan) will be the highest democratic expression of the Baloch nation. The members of the National Assembly will be elected in free, open, and transparent elections. The National Assembly will be the representative body of men and women of Balochistan.
Article: 46 – The Balochistan National Assembly will be the pinnacle of truth, justice, honour and trust. This is the uppermost institution in Balochistan that will ensure and protect the democratic rights of the people of Balochistan. It will act as a fortress against any kind of totalitarian political system.
Article: 47 – The executive, the prime minister and the cabinet of ministers, together with the civil service, will operate on behalf of the state of Balochistan. All these state functionaries will be accountable for their actions to the Balochistan National Assembly (Balochistane Mazanin Diwaan), and ultimately to the people of Balochistan.
Article: 48 – A successful democratic political system needs an effective and stable channel of transition from one government to a newly formed elected government. The continuing element that will enable a stable transition of one government to another in Balochistan will be one
The political party that is commanding a majority in the National Assembly forms the government
The elected national assembly shall complete its constitutional term; the dissolution of the elected national assembly by any reason before completing its constitutional term would be illegal under the provisional constitution except when a 2/3 majority of its elected members wants the dissolution of the national assembly.
The Elected national assembly shall be dissolved for re-election by the head of state after completing its constitutional term. All parts of this article will be explained completely in the provisional constitution of Balochistan.
Article: 49 – Balochistan National Army will be formed out of various groups of Sarmacharan (Armed Baloch Liberation Organizations). The Balochistan national army will be a subordinate state organ to the elected civilian political authority. The scope and mandate of the Balochistan national army will be defined by the National Assembly, Balochistan's constitution and international law. The army will be subject and accountable to close scrutiny by Balochistan state, judiciary, civil society, and media. The principal duty of the army will be the territorial defense of Balochistan. Members of the Balochistan armed forces will be barred from any involvement in politics, commercial and other employment activities while they remain in the service.
Article: 50 – Holding unlicensed arms and any private army will be illegal.
Article: 51 – The illegal occupation of Balochistan by foreign powers has resulted in a divided society, with corruption and the misuse of illicit drugs, religious fundamentalism and intolerance, famine, disease, epidemics, and pestilence. In order to restore this gravely broken society and remove age old grievances, conflicts, economic and social disparities, the government of Balochistan will set up appropriate independent committees. These committees will act as arbiters among different social groups to improve their economic wellbeing and social cohesion in general. Every attempt will be made by empowering all social groups in the process of decision-making, in order that they work for the common good of society as a whole.
The Sovereign State of Balochistan
Article: 52 – The division of Balochistan into several parts is a legacy of the British Empire. The ultimate aim of the Baloch Liberation Struggle is to reunify the divided territories of Balochistan into one country and to grant full sovereignty to a single national Baloch state.
Article: 53 – The primary duties and functions of the state of Balochistan are: the protection of Balochistan from external aggression, the maintenance of internal law and order, the administration of justice, the provision of welfare services, and conducting and maintaining foreign relations.
Article: 54 – Currently in Balochistan, there is no viable and workable social and economic infrastructure. The poor infrastructure in Balochistan is caused by decades of illegal occupation, lack of investment and exploitation. A pressing responsibility of the government of Balochistan will be to plan, develop, manage, support, and promote an environmentally efficient infrastructure. The government of Balochistan will provide, foster, maintain, and regulate a workable infrastructure. The most vital components of this infrastructure are communications, transport and storage, energy generation and supply, electrification and electrical grid, clean water, and sanitation services. Other activities that should also be included on this list are regular investment in science and technology, social, cultural, and legal institutions. These groundwork improvements will create fitting an environment for sustainable levels of economic development. It will also ensure and promote effective mobilization of resources in all sectors of the economy. A successful and sustainable economy and civil society in Balochistan will ultimately depend on the reliability of its interconnected economic and social infrastructure.
Article: 55 – All citizens in Balochistan are free to travel, to set up an enterprise or work in any part of Balochistan. Nobody shall be treated less favorably with regards to their right to travel, the choice of profession, place of work and in their entitlement of labor and employment rights.
Article: 56 – All natural resources in Balochistan belong to the people of Balochistan. These resources will be managed and controlled by the state of Balochistan. Their use will be for the welfare of people who live in Balochistan. No other country or nation should have the right to exploit these resources for their own benefit and interest.
Article: 57 – Trade between Balochistan and other nations in all natural resources extracted from Balochistan will be guided by international and regional market prices.
Article: 58 – The government of Balochistan is responsible for introducing a comprehensive system of social security and a welfare state system. These services will include the national health services, the welfare services, and sickness and unemployment benefits.
Article: 59 – The free and democratic state of Balochistan is responsible for the protection of all vulnerable and unrepresented social groups in Balochistan. These groups include children, senior citizens, and all disabled individuals. The state of Balochistan will be responsible for providing economic and political safety nets for these social groups to improve their social, political, and economic standing so that they can enjoy the same equal rights and opportunities as the rest of population.
Article: 60 – The efficient and adequate provision of public goods will be one of the main responsibilities of the government of Balochistan. The provision of these goods must be in an open and transparent manner. The government will be held accountable for mishandling and the misuse of public funds in the provision of such goods and services.
Article: 61 – The independent state of Balochistan will be responsible for establishing an open and independent court of justice to investigate crimes committed by all sides against the people of Balochistan in the past decades. Those who were involved in crimes will be brought to justice and compensation will be given to the victims of these crimes.
Article: 62 – The independent state of Balochistan will demand compensation from the former occupying states that have looted and plundered Balochistan of its natural resources.
Article: 63 – A free and democratic Balochistan will work dutifully for national, regional and world peace and economic prosperity. It will work actively with the international human rights organizations and institutions that are working for world peace. It strongly believes in upholding international laws and codes and will proactively encourage living in peace with all its neighbors, respecting their rights and cooperating in the pursuit of mutual interest and economic prosperity.
Article: 64 – The state of Balochistan will set up a fund to support the immediate family members of those who paid the ultimate price for the liberation of our motherland.
Society, Economy, and Environment
Article: 65 – The Baloch Languages of Balochi and Brahui will be the national languages of Balochistan. English will be the second official language and the medium of communication in the international arena.
Article: 66 – Balochistan will act as a mixed economy where the private, the public and voluntary sectors of economy will operate within and according to the law of the land to serve the common good of the citizens of Balochistan.
Article: 67 – "Ma Choken Balochani" is the anthem of the Baloch Liberation Struggle. The National anthem of sovereign Balochistan will be chosen and approved by the provisional government or the first elected National Assembly.
Article: 68 – The Baloch liberation struggle's flag that has increasingly been adopted consists of three parts. Against the hoist is a blue chevron with a white star as an emblem (or charge). From the chevron to the fly, extend two equal fesses. The upper fess is red and the lower fess green. The national flag of sovereign Balochistan will be decided and approved by the first Balochistan national Assembly.
Article: 69 – An independent Balochistan shall be returned to its legitimate historical and geopolitical borders which were drawn at the time of Baloch sovereign state of Mir Naseer Khan.
Article: 70 – The date selected for national remembrance of the heroes of our liberation struggle and their ultimate sacrifice for regaining our independence will be on 13 of November. On this day in 1839 Mir Mehrab Khan and many of his soldiers lost their lives while defending Balochistan against the invading army of British Empire.
Article: 71 – No society can function in a humane and civilized manner without paying due attention and respect to the rights and welfare of other living species. In a free and democratic Balochistan the government of Balochistan will ensure that all animals are treated and protected in accordance to international animal rights conventions and treaties.
Article: 72 – Without Mother Earth, there would be no human species or civilization. The state and citizens of Balochistan will do their utmost to protect, respect and take care of their natural environment.
Article: 73 – Soon after regaining independence immediate action will be taken for the complete removal and eradication of all nuclear activities in Balochistan. Nuclear tests were conducted, against the wishes and without the consent of Baloch people, in Balochistan. They were carried out by Pakistan in the Raaskoh range and Chaagi district of Balochistan on May 28, 1998. An independent investigation, by the United Nations, on the impact of these tests on the people and environment in these regions in Balochistan will be requested. The areas that have been contaminated by radio toxicity will be cleaned and there will be independent scientific research carried out to establish the damage caused on the environment and the effects of radiation on the people living in these regions. The State responsible for this crime against the Baloch people will be held accountable and justice will be sought through the international system of justice. Any state held to account should also be made to pay compensation to those people affected from the disaster.
Article: 74 – Pressure groups will be integral to and part and parcel of an independent Balochistan. They will be recognized as lawful and essential watchdogs and dynamic forces for change. A democratic Balochistan recognizes diversity and upholds its tenets.
Article: 75 – No society or nation can survive and flourish without its industrious and responsible working population. Under an independent Balochistan state, work ethics will be embraced as the principal canon of Baloch culture and social order. This principle will act as a guiding principle in all sectors of the economy.
Article: 76 – With this charter coming into effect a committee of experts will be organized to draft the provisional constitution of Balochistan. This constitution shall incorporate the fundamental rights and responsibilities of the Baloch people that are envisaged in this charter. The provisional constitution will integrate the progressive elements for a modern democratic state and Balochistan's unique history, culture, circumstance and requirements.
Article: 77 – The provisional constitution will be presented to the Balochistan National Assembly (Balochistane Mazanen Diwaan) for ratification.
Enlightened modesty and humility are one of our guiding lights. Consequently, this document does not claim the final wisdom. This is not a universal instruction and prescription for all times and all places. It is merely a plan and guides for the Baloch people to regain their inalienable democratic rights of freedom and independence.
 Dawn.com/news/1272879, November 24, 2016.
 Dawn.com/news/1111939, June 11, 2014.
 Twitter.com/RudamAzad/status/1597556870431940610/photo/4, November 29, 2022.
 Twitter.com/hyrbyair_marri/status/1595512542352314382, November 23, 2022.
 Balochistanliberationcharter.com/index.php/english. The text has been very lightly edited for clarity.