On July 3, Egyptian Defense Minister 'Abd Al-Fatah Al-Sisi removed Egyptian President Muhammad Mursi and appointed Supreme Constitutional Court head 'Adly Mansour interim president. This move came after Mursi rejected Al-Sisi's 48-hour ultimatum to meet what he presented as the demands of the people, which included his resignation and the holding of early elections.
Mursi's ouster by the military sparked a wave of responses in the world and in Arab media. The most support for the military's move came from Saudi Arabia and the UAE, which ever since the rise of the Muslim Brotherhood (MB) in Egypt have feared the strengthening of the movement in their own countries and the threat that this could present for the regimes there. Indeed, Saudi King Abdallah bin Abd Al-Aziz was the first world leader to congratulate the Egyptian people and its new leaders for bringing Egypt out of a tunnel "the scope and implications of which only Allah knows."
Official media in Saudi Arabia and the UAE harshly attacked the MB, depicting Mursi's ouster as the end of the rule of political Islam; Saudi columnists even compared the MB regime to the regime in Nazi Germany. One noticeable exception was the London-based Saudi press, which criticized the move and claimed it was undemocratic.
Alongside the congratulations that the Emir of Qatar Sheikh Tamim bin Hamad Al-Thani sent to 'Adly Mansour on his appointment as interim president, and the announcement by the Qatari Foreign Ministry that Qatar stood by the Egyptian people, the official Qatari press voiced harsh criticism over Mursi's ouster by the army. Furthermore, the recent days' coverage by the Qatari Al-Jazeera TV of the events in Egypt reveals that the channel sides with the MB. This has provoked anger amongst many Egyptians and even led to the resignation of some of the channel's Egyptian employees.
Jordan, which has a strong MB presence in the opposition, quickly congratulated the new president, and Jordanian Foreign Minister Nasser Judeh sent a letter to the military congratulating it on its actions. Later, King 'Abdullah II personally congratulated interim president 'Adly Mansour.
In Syria, where the MB constitutes a central element in the opposition fighting against the regime, President Bashar Al-Assad and the state media expressed satisfaction with the Egyptian military's actions, and perceived them as a blow to the Syrian MB as well.
Opposite the supporting camp stands the MB movement, which was shocked by the military's actions; it claims, inter alia, that the move undemocratic and was carried out against it as part of a Zionist-Jewish-American plot, with the assistance of Arab opponents of the MB.
Saudi, UAE Presses Rejoice: The Rule Of Political Islam Is Over
The toppling of the Mursi government was welcomed by the Saudi and UAE governments, as reflected by their official presses. Articles in the papers of both countries criticized the recently toppled MB government in Egypt, which they said had failed due to its inexperience in running Egypt's affairs and had thus led it to perdition. The schadenfreude over the failure of political Islam in Egypt is quite noticeable in these articles; they also express hope that the scenario of its failure and subsequent removal will be repeated in other countries where it holds power.
The MB "May Not Recover For Decades"
An editorial in the Saudi daily Al-Sharq stated that Mursi's ouster by the army was a political earthquake for Egypt and the region. It said: "It would appear that the era in which political Islam rules is over even before it began. One year of MB rule in Egypt was enough to bury the attempt alive. The errors and blunders [of this regime] facilitated Dr. Muhammad Mursi's removal at the decision of the Egyptian army. This is a political earthquake in every sense of the word; its repercussions [are already] felt in most Arab capitals and especially in the capitals [that experienced] the Arab Spring...
"The followers of [MB founder] Hassan Al-Banna are now in the worst predicament they have [ever] been in. Their president in Egypt was compelled to relinquish his position in the seat of power; senior [movement] officials there are on the verge of returning to jail; and the worst thing as far as they are concerned is that they have become veritable pariahs, and they may not recover for decades. Their [movement]'s compatriots in Tunisia reiterate that 'Tunisia is not Egypt' and are apprehensive about a 'Tunisian Tamarrud' movement... Their brothers in Gaza (Hamas) are following the situation in thunderous silence, since they fear... the revenge that will be exacted on them by the new Egyptian administration. The situation of the Jordanian MB appears no better after the downfall of the stellar [Egyptian] model... The downward slide [of the MB in Egypt] came more swiftly than the [MB's] opponents expected, and its prospects for a return are dim..."
"The Young People Of The Tamarrud Movement... Have Issued The MB A Final Exit Visa From Egyptian History"
In an article in the official Saudi daily Al-Madina, columnist Abd Al-Mun'im Moustafa argued that Mursi's downfall represents what he claims is the fall of the MB not only in Egypt but worldwide: "It is possible that the supporters of the MB in Egypt did not realize, as events unfolded around them, that the downfall of their movement following [its] first experience in power in the largest Arab country in the Middle East is [also] their final exit from history...
"The truth is that the fate of this movement – which gave birth to most of the movements of political Islam, among them those [espousing] armed violence in the name of religion – is highly dependent on the question of whether it has vision, capability, and the good leadership that will be able to manage [this] defeat and its ramifications. Its current leadership tends to incite to violence and to call upon its supporters to martyr themselves in order to defend what it calls 'the Islamic project' – and all this will likely slam the door of history once and for all on the movement and on all its branches in the region and worldwide...
"The revolutionaries of Tahrir [Square], the young people of the Tamarrud movement, and all the Egyptian forces that are working [with them] have succeeded not only to depose a failed, racist, and fascist president, but have also issued the MB a final exit visa from Egyptian history, as well as from the region... What happened in Egypt is basically the writing of the first chapter of the book of the MB's exodus from Egypt..."
"The MB Plan In Egypt Has Entered The Stage Of Its Death"
An editorial in the UAE official daily Al-Khaleej states that the MB is no different from its predecessors and had no real plan except one to gain power. It noted: "The MB's plan in Egypt has entered the stage of its death – after only a year in power, when it became clear that it has no real plan that will be a springboard for the salvation of Egypt...
"During its year in power, it transpired that it [the MB] is no different from those who preceded them in power, and that its plan was only to [gain] power, and its motto 'Islam is the solution' was only a ladder to get there... Its fall, and the fall of its plan for Egypt, is not the end of it; these will have repercussions for all of political Islam's plans in the rest of the Arab and Islamic world..."
It Will Take The Egyptian People Many Years To Repair The Damage Caused By The MB
Salim Al-Humaid, columnist for the UAE government daily Al-Ittihad, justified the Egyptians' joy at the fall of the MB regime, and called the MB "the movement of destruction and devastation."
He wrote: "What we are currently witnessing is [their] intoxication with victory, and the Egyptian people deserve to feel that way... The [MB] deception, that successfully [fooled] some of the people, evaporated before their eyes as soon as the MB came to power. [The MB] quickly disgraced itself when it stepped up preparations for the rule of Allah on earth and for the Muslim Brotherhoodization of the country, attacked the constitution... and subordinated it in the service of total Brotherhoodization of the state's institutions. It caused the Egyptian people to lose years that they will not be able to get back for the foreseeable future...
"The various social damage caused by the MB's brief rule in Egypt will take the Egyptian people great efforts and many years to repair... Without a doubt, the impact of the oppressive MB rule will not disappear overnight, despite the brevity of its duration – and this shows the MB's vast capacity for destruction and devastation. The MB movement can simply be described as a 'movement of destruction and devastation.'"
In Egypt, "the army" and the "June 30" protestors are acting together. Source: Al-Watan, Saudi Arabia, July 4, 2013.
Saudi Columnists: The Mursi Regime Was Dictatorial And Fascistic
Saudi columnists emphasized that the MB regime did not abide by democratic principles, and some even compared it to the Nazi regime.
The MB's Problem: It Clings To A Fascist Mentality
Abd Al-Rahman Al-Rashed, general manager of Al-Arabiya and columnist for the London-based Saudi daily Al-Sharq Al-Awsat, stressed that even though before coming to power the MB expressed support for coexistence with other elements, after the elections it adopted a fascist approach, similar to Hitler's in Germany:
"The Brotherhood's problem can be summed up in one word: Fascism. As painful and hurtful as this word is, it unfortunately properly describes the mentality leading the Brotherhood. Nazism was a national movement in Germany, and Fascism was also as such in Italy. Nazism won in democratic elections but Hitler and his party cancelled institutions and decided to eliminate their rivals claiming that the national project Hitler is leading justifies such a move.
"The Brotherhood kept talking about believing in co-existence with people of different ideas, of accepting the peaceful transition of power and most importantly of working within institutions. But once they attained authority, they clashed with the political parties that began the revolution.
"They eliminated the parties that voted for them whether they were youths, Nasserites and others as well as parties who allied with them against their rival Ahmad Shafiq. After winning the presidency, the Brotherhood engaged in a dispute with state institutions...
"Then the Brotherhood became enemies with media outlets by filing complaints to either arrest media figures or have media outlets pay fines. Two weeks ago, they issued a decision to stop the broadcast of the five biggest opposition private TV channels under weak investment excuses.
"Angering the army, threatening the judiciary, excluding allies of youths and leftists and becoming rivals with the biggest media sector made Mursi's collapse inevitable...
"The Brotherhood's problem is that of intellectual understandings and behaviors. They are not ready yet to transform into a democratic civil organization. They still have the same fascist mentality, and they believe their stances are the only right ones, claiming that they alone represent Islam and rejecting to politically co-exist with others! Their behavior since day one expressed ignorance of the most important skills for governance: pragmatism.
"They lost the greatest opportunity for them to govern Egypt, the most important and the biggest country in the Arab world, because of their superiority. They also made the Egyptian people lose the greatest chance in a historical transition towards a peaceful, democratic and civil system that changes the country. And they are not alone at this. The experiences of political Islam organizations are similar."
The MB Sought To Attain What Hitler Did
In his column in the official Saudi daily Al-Watan, Mujahid Abd Al-Muta'ali argued that the MB had aimed to create a regime like Hitler's, or, alternatively, a long-lived regime such as that of former Egyuptian president Mubarak, with the Brotherhoodization of society and by elevating Mursi's to the rank of caliph.
He wrote: "The experience of the previous year arouses suspicion that [the MB attempted] to Brotherhoodize the state, with the aim of attaining what Hitler did; thus, we saw a Islamic [quasi-]Gestapo. At the very least, [the MB's objective] was to attain what the previous [Egyptian] national party [i.e. the National Democratic Party headed by Mubarak] had, remaining perpetually in the seat of power.
"The tone of the speeches [by supporters] that during this first year elevated Mursi to the level of the Righteous Caliphs, and the EgyptoIslamic [term used in original Arabic] media that referred to the ruler as the one holding supreme authority, the first caliph, and an honest man – [all these] hint that his fourth year [in office could have been rife] with speeches accusing of heresy all who refused to vote for one of the other Righteous Caliphs of the MB party. The Salafi ideology is the best tool for this, because [its adherents] are expert [at accusing other Muslims of heresy]. To this very day, they do not realize that in a civilian state, the ruler is the servant of the people, not the shadow of Allah on earth...
Mursi clings to the seat of power, saying: "The people's decision is null and void; the army's decision is null and void; the decision of the [MB Supreme] Guide...!!!" Source: Al-Khaleej, UAE, July 3, 2007.
Reservations Regarding The Egyptian Army's Actions
Articles In Al-Hayat: The Army's Intervention Attests To The Failure of Egyptian Democracy
Elias Harfoush, who writes in the London-based Saudi daily Al-Hayat, argued that it was inappropriate for the Egyptian army, as an institution, to defend democracy, and that its intervention in Egyptian crises attests to the failure of Egypt's political process and Egypt's politicians. "The Egyptian army has demonstrated, by means of the current clash with the MB regime, that it still regards itself as the only force that can be relied upon to defend the homeland and its supreme interests, and as the only [body] entrusted with the country's future. Likewise, [it believes] that its role supersedes that of the elected constitutional institutions – and this includes the presidency.
"[But] when the army is transformed into the 'source of authority' in deciding party disputes and running the country's affairs, it means the collapse of the political process – and this is definite proof that the politicians have failed in running the affairs of their country. The Egyptian politicians who view the army as a 'savior' in Egyptian crises are serving neither the army nor Egypt.
"True, the MB erred by hastening to grab the reins of power,... legal, legislative and media, but an army is not the institution that should be defending the democratic process – neither in modern Egypt nor in any other place... Do we need to remind people that the Egyptian army never once intervened to defend the voice of a single opposition member, nor to save the life of a liberal or Islamist or to free him from prison?
"The cost of three more years of the Mursi government could have been lower than the cost of the political role that the Army will again play in Egypt. [If the army takes a political role], this will be a crushing blow to the democratic process that cost Egypt so dearly up to January 25 ."
Similar arguments were made by Al-Hayat columnist Khalid Al-Dakhil: "Last Wednesday, the Egyptian Armed Forces removed Muhammad Mursi, the first elected president in Egyptian history. They did not stop there – they placed him under arrest... The argument that the political dead end and the dangers stemming from it required military intervention to remove Mursi may be correct, but the method of his removal stands in total contradiction to the nature and objectives of the revolution
"Sixty years after the July 23 [Free Officers] Revolution, Egypt still needs the army to remove the president as an extraordinary measure... [Mursi's] removal may have been justified, because he could not find a way out of the dead end, in light of the increasingly revolutionary atmosphere, but there is a huge problem because [his removal] was carried out outside of the constitutional framework and without legal measures. This means that office of the president is still not immune... and that the votes that brought him to power have no value or legal immunity..."
"The army" shoots "the Egyptian ballot box results." Source: Aljazeera.net, July 8, 2013.
Al-Quds Al-Arabi Editor: Military Coup With A Civil Cover
'Abd Al-Bari 'Atwan, editor of the London-based Saudi daily Al-Quds Al-Arabi, who is known to have despised Mubarak, also criticized the Egyptian military and Defense Minister Al-Sisi. He argued that the move was a military coup undertaken by Al-Sisi, in which he acted like the MB general guide or Iran's supreme leader:
"General 'Abd Al-Fatah Al-Sisi has proven that he is the actual ruler of Egypt, and that the military institution is the only power capable of carrying out a coup against ballot boxes at any time under the guise of 'meeting the demands of the masses and protecting its national interests.'
"This is a military coup with a civil and religious cover, and a promise of democracy. This explains the fact that the Sheikh of Al-Azhar and the Coptic Patriarch were present when the announcement was made deposing President Mursi and his MB allies and throwing them into the unknown... General Al-Sisi did not follow in the footsteps of his master, Field Marshal Muhammad Hussein Tantawi, and headed a military council, but rather preferred to be the kingmaker and sit on the throne without leading, just like the MB general guide or the supreme leader of the Iranian revolution...
"The Egyptian military planned well for this day. Maybe they benefitted from the Turkish military's example; they played the role of the protector of the civil state, and prevented extremist Islamists from getting into power, even through elections... [thus] ensuring the loyalty of Al-Azhar, the Coptic Church, the National Salvation Front, and the Tamarrud movement, which includes the youth. It got them and their followers to support its resolute intervention...
"Comparisons with the Algerian experience in the 1990s are unavoidable, but there are minor differences: The Algerian military aborted the electoral process that swept the Islamists to power before announcing the results, whilst the Egyptian military aborted it after the results..."
In another article, 'Atwan warned that the "military coup" could lead extremist Islamists to take up arms: "...On Friday [July 5], hundreds of thousands of Islamists descended to the squares in different governorates, expressing their insistence on returning their president. They threatened to turn to violence if authorities refused to respond to their demand. And all, or some, of them follow word with action. We have witnessed similar scenes in Afghanistan, Iraq, Syria, Libya, and Yemen...
"The military coup will eventually serve the extremists groups within the Islamist stream in general, and the MB in particular. [The coup] stresses the outlook of Al-Qaeda and other organizations, that oppose democracy and see it as a Western innovation that deviates from Islamic law. [Therefore,] they demand to take up arms and boycott elections [as a means] of establishing an Islamic state, which will be the basis of a future caliphate."
Top: Last year's protests in Egypt: "Down with the military rule..." Bottom: Current protests: "Down with the rule [of the MB General] Guide" Source: Al-Quds Al-Arabi, London, July 8, 2013.
Qatar: Emir Congratulates New Egyptian President, Press Criticizes Army's Move
Reinforcing the position of Qatar's Foreign Ministry, editor-in-chief of the Qatari daily Al-Watan Muhammad Al-Meri wrote: "...Qatari policy has always been in favor of the fraternal Egyptian people [and it supported] the elections that they held in order to realize their aspirations for democracy and social justice. [This was] demonstrated by the Foreign Ministry announcement [expressing congratulations on Mursi's removal] that reiterated the Qatari position in support of the Egyptian people during the January 2011 revolution and for Egypt in the difficult stages that followed.
"As the announcement clarifies, Qatar will continue to respect the desire of the Egyptian Arab Republic and the Egyptian people, with all its elements, just as it did unceasingly at various historic stages, without any reference to the [party] in power... Qatar's position towards the [recent] events dovetails with its previous positions and does not contradict them, as some believe. Furthermore, in this way it constantly proves that it is not labeled, that it has no [specific] ideology, that it is not [working in favor] of a [particular] group, and that it has no private agenda. Qatar does not support a specific party or a specific body... at the expense of another, but supports the government legitimately elected by the people. Qatar is convinced that [such] support is due Egypt as a country, as a people, and as an economy, rather than as individuals or as groups..."
However, other dailies harshly criticized the Egyptian military's move. The official Qatari daily Al-Arab stated: "We hope that the Egyptians realize... that their country requires comprehensive national dialogue that includes the full spectrum [of society], without marginalizing any [element] and without inciting against any Egyptian in the media – and this will lead to an alleviation of the crisis.
"The [Egyptian] military must return to its bases and must permit the intelligent people in Egypt [to find] a political solution. We do not want to see Egyptian armed forces dragged into politics. Their primary mission should be to protect Egypt's security..."
Columnist Muhammad Saleh Al-Musafer wrote in the Qatari daily Al-Sharq: "Egypt is moving, in rapid steps, towards the unknown. In my assessment, the removal of president Muhammad Mursi is treason, despite all the reservations about the way he ran Egypt...
"Dr. Mursi is the president and the commander-in-chief of the armed forces. So, how did Defense Minister Gen. Al-Sisi allow himself to call the opposition to dialogue several months ago, without the permission of the commander-in-chief and president of the country? How did he give the president and his government 48 hours to respond to the demands of the people – meaning [that if they did not] they would be removed from power? This was in [full] knowledge that the people were divided into two camps... Al-Sisi should have been loyal to his oath [of office], and should have defended the constitution instead of violating it...
"The situation in Egypt will not stabilize after what happened. The army – that is, Gen. Al-Sisi – is capable of reexamining the situation, and there is no shame in finding a compromise that will bring Egypt back to democratic life. In the army, Gen. Al-Sisi and his men gained the skills in navigation and cunning [by means of which] they can restore Egypt to its place by bringing the elected president, Dr. Muhammad Mursi, back into office.
"There are historical precedents for this, the most prominent of which was the case of [the late] Venezuelan president [Hugo] Chavez, who returned to office after being removed by the military and then proceeded to reorganize the country.
"If this is not done, Egypt will enter a vicious cycle of violence and instability..."
Syria's Position: The Shattering Of MB Aspirations To Rule Syria
Syrian President Bashar Al-Assad, who is fighting against, inter alia, the MB and other Islamists in order to remain in power, noted that Mursi's ouster reflects the fall of the rule of political Islam – and points out that political Islam is against human nature. He said: "In Egypt, the so-called political Islam has fallen; this is the downfall of a type of regime [in which] the MB tried to persuade people [to believe], and not only in Egypt...
"Perhaps what occurred a year ago [i.e. the election of Mursi] was [from the Egyptian people's perspective] a natural reaction to the regime that preceded it. But after an entire year, the [true] picture became clear to the Egyptian people; additionally, the MB's conduct helped, so it seems, to unmask the falsehoods that the MB spouted at the beginning of the popular revolution.
"The Egyptians are a noble people, and they successfully discovered this quickly... This kind of regime fails because it does not mesh with human nature..."
Turki Saker, a columnist for the official Syrian daily Teshreen, argued that the fall of the MB in Egypt could shorten the duration of the crisis in Syria: "...The MB regime's collapse, so quickly and in such a manner, is the fall of the phenomenon of Brotherhoodization of the Arab regimes on which the U.S. relied, in compensation for its defeats in the region... Perhaps the main consequence of the events in Egypt will be that the collapse of this experiment will be the fall of the dominoes and of the regimes created by the U.S... because there is no future for such regimes on Arab lands..."
Saker added that the fall of the MB regime in Egypt shatters the Syrian MB's hopes of seizing power in Syria, and will likely cut short the crisis there because of the harm done to one of the main sources of armed fighters who go to join the rebels in Syria.
The MB And Hamas: Mursi's Ouster – An Israeli-American Conspiracy
Among the MB in Egypt and in other Arab countries, there have been claims that the U.S. is behind Mursi's removal. Senior MB in Egypt official Muhammad Al-Baltagi said in an address at a rally in support of Mursi at Rabaa Al-Adawiya mosque in Cairo that one of Mursi's advisors had told him that "in the final moments [prior to Mursi's removal], the one who hatched this plot – U.S. Ambassador Anne Patterson – arrived at Mursi's residence together with U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry and the foreign minister of one of the Arab countries, and told him that they had all agreed that Mursi would remain in office during the interim period as long as all authority was held by a prime minister, whom they would provide..." Al-Baltagi also claimed in his address that Patterson "is the one who is handling [Egyptian] affairs of state at this time."
In a July 3, 2013 announcement, released by the Shura Council of the MB in Jordan after an emergency meeting that was convened following Mursi's removal, the organization accused the U.S. of being behind what it termed "the military coup in Egypt." The announcement stated: "Those who do America's bidding [in Egypt] are reviving the old regime, with its corruption, its oppression, and its dependence on the Zionist enemy and on the American Embassy..."
Columnists close to the Hamas movement claimed that Mursi's removal was a transcontinental conspiracy in which Israel, the Jews, and the U.S. played a major role. Faiz Abu Shamala, columnist for a Hamas-affiliated website, wrote: "The events in Egypt are not made in Egypt, and are not the handiwork of the Egyptian people, who are unfamiliar with sectarian civil war and will not agree to be subdivided into loyalties.
"What is happening in Egypt is clearly of Zionist manufacture, with a Jewish seal, in an American wrapper. It is being marketed by some Egyptian bodies that are pleased to serve as auxiliaries to Israel in order to wantonly sabotage Egypt's energy, its status, its present, and its noble history of resistance.
"The events in Egypt are satisfactory only to the Zionists and the Jews. They wagered on the general failure of Arab democracy by thwarting the democratic experiment in Egypt. They used their money and media outlets to divide the Egyptian people and to arouse [internal] doubts regarding its ability to achieve revival on its own. The events in Egypt are a transcontinental conspiracy, the outcomes of which cross Egypt's borders and are to impact the entire Arab East."
Dr. 'Issam Shawer, another columnist for the Hamas-affiliated website, wrote: "Democracy, the ballot boxes, and fair elections brought the MB to power in parliament and in the presidency. Egypt's first constitution was created thanks to democratic elections – but all these are gone with the wind, because of the intervention by the Americans, by Arab and Islamic elements, by the dregs of the Egyptian people, and by minorities such as the secularists, the leftists and the Nasserites – despicable groups connected by umbilical cord to the Americans...
"Democracy has failed in Egypt, and it will fail in every Arab country where fair elections are held, and this should not be lamented, but Islam will remain in power despite the opposition of the U.S., the secularists, and all the Arab unbelievers.
"The Islamists will return to power, whereas the fall of democracy, the opposition to democracy, and the kicking it took from those who preach it is a good thing, and not necessarily negative.
"Currently, there is no place amongst us for even a single braggart or unbeliever who holds Western ideas. It has been proven that those who preach democracy are base liars. Experience has proven that they are merely collaborators with the U.S., with Israel, and with all the Western intelligence apparatuses that graze in the pastures of the Arab countries. We knew this and we were certain of this, but now there is proof for all who had no eyes to see..."
*B. Chernitsky is a Research Fellow at MEMRI.
 See MEMRI Inquiry and Analysis No. 992, Chronicle Of An Inevitable Intervention: The Egyptian Military Moves In To Direct Egypt's Political Process, July 3, 2013. Also see MEMRI Inquiry and Analysis No. 993, In Egyptian Crisis, Both Sides Accuse U.S., July 8, 2013.
 Al-Yawm Al-Sabi' (Egypt), June 3, 201; facebook.com/Tmrood/info#!/Tmrood/.
 Tension between the MB and the UAE regime has greatly increased in the past year following the arrest of MB activists, some of whom demanded political reforms. Tensions peaked with the arrest of 94 people suspected of belonging to the MB on charges of attempting to establish a militant wing and topple the regime. Aljazeera.net, January 27, 2013. With regards to the Saudi regime's apprehension about the MB' reinforced strength within Saudi Arabia and its menace to the Aal-Saud regime see MEMRI Inquiry & Analysis Series Report No. 903, Saudi Regime Fears Social Networks As Means Of Triggering Popular Protests, December 3, 2012.
 Elaph.com, July 3, 2013.
 Al-Raya (Qatar), July 8, 2013.
 Al-Quds Al-Arabi (London), July 8, 2013.
 Al-Hayat (London), July 6, 2013.
 Al-Sharq (Saudi Arabia), July 5, 2013.
 Al-Madina (Saudi Arabia), July 5, 2013.
 Al-Khaleej (Union of Arab Emirates), July 3, 2013.
 Al-Ittihad (Union of Arab Emirates), July 7, 2013.
 Al-Sharq Al-Awsat (London), July 4, 2013. Taken from the English version posted on Alarabiya.net.
 Al-Watan (Saudi Arabia), July 4, 2013.
 Al-Hayat (London), July 4, 2013.
 Al-Hayat (London), July 7, 2013.
 Al-Quds Al-Arabi (London), July 3, 2013.
 Bida'a in Arabic.
 Al-Quds Al-Arabi (London), July 5, 2013.
 Al-Watan (Qatar), July 5, 2013.
 Al-Arab( Qatar), July 9, 2013
 Al-Sharq (Qatar), July 9, 2013.
 Al-Thawra (Syria), July 4, 2013.
 Teshreen (Syria), July 7, 2013.
 Assabeel.net, July 4, 2013.
 Palinfo.com, July 4, 2013.
 Palinfo.com, July 4, 2013.