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Terrorists Discover The Convenience Of Amazon

By: Steven Stalinsky and R. Sosnow and M. Khayat*

Introduction

By all accounts, 2018 was a good year financially for Amazon CEO Jeff Bezos. Amazon made record profits in 2018,[1] and on January 7, 2019, it was announced that it is now the most valuable public company in the world.[2] For the second year in a row, Bezos ranks as the richest man in modern history.[3] Additionally, as part of Amazon's expansion this past year, it announced that it was opening new headquarters in New York City and in a Virginia suburb of Washington, D.C., and that it was set to spend some $5 billion on content for its Prime Instant Video, holding talks with Viacom's Paramount Pictures and Sony.[4]

As usually happens with major online platforms and tech companies whose ever-expanding services jihadi groups have found ways to exploit, Amazon's Drive platform,[5] designed for storing and sharing photos, videos, PDFs, and other forms of content, has been adopted by the Islamic State (ISIS), Al-Qaeda, and other organizations as a stable and reliable platform for disseminating their content. After uploading this content to Amazon Drive, they share the links to it with their followers and sympathizers, primarily using the encrypted messaging app Telegram, terrorists' "app of choice."[6]

What Is Amazon Drive?

Amazon Drive, established in 2011 and previously known as Amazon Cloud Drive, can store subscribers' photos, videos, and other files for access from mobile devices, desktops, or Amazon Fire devices. According to the Amazon website, "all photos, videos, and other files you upload to Amazon Drive are securely and privately stored in your Files and your Amazon Photos library."

Amazon Services Terms Of Use

With the wide range of services it offers, Amazon has various versions of guidelines for users. Its "Guidelines for Amazon.com Community participation" state: "Examples of prohibited content include: Content advocating, threatening, or joking about physical or financial harm to yourself or others, including terrorism."[7] Its Conditions of Use for Amazon Services state: "You may not use any Amazon Service if you are the subject of U.S. sanctions or of sanctions consistent with U.S. law imposed by the governments of the country where you are using Amazon Services."[8] The Amazon Photos Terms of Use state: "You may not share [files]... or make comments on files that have been shared with you through the Services (a) that are or that contain defamatory, threatening, abusive, pornographic, or otherwise objectionable material, (b) that advocate bigotry, hatred, or illegal discrimination, or c) that violates any law, any intellectual property, publicity, privacy, or other right of others, or any license or other agreement by which you are bound."[9]

Terrorist Content On Amazon Drive Shared On Telegram – Terrorists' "App Of Choice"

Terrorist content has been stored on Amazon Drive and disseminated on Telegram since 2014. What precipitated this development was action taken by Twitter, the most popular platform among jihadi groups, to remove jihadi accounts, after images of ISIS's beheading of American photojournalist James Foley were disseminated on it.[10] As Twitter cracked down, ISIS announced that it was moving some of its media companies, including Al-Hayat, to the France-based social media platform Friendica.eu,, and ISIS accounts were opened on the Diaspora social media platform. Both platforms quickly removed the accounts. Eventually, ISIS and most other terrorist groups found the security and anonymity they sought in the encrypted messaging app Telegram.[11]

Terrorists online are highly adaptive, and the move to Telegram came naturally to them because, like Twitter, Telegram allows users to quickly and easily communicate and share files and links with many followers. Their use of the platform is also facilitated by Telegram's launch of its channels service, that allows users to broadcast to an unlimited number of followers, in 2015,[12] and of its desktop version, in 2017. The ease of including links to content stored on other platforms makes it an even more powerful medium; a great deal of the terrorist content shared via Telegram is in the form of links to videos, documents, and archives on platforms such as YouTube, the Internet Archive, Justpaste.it, and others. Telegram is used extensively by terrorists for fundraising and recruiting and also for posting tutorials on manufacturing weapons and explosives and on carrying out cyberattacks, as well as for issuing calls for targeted killings and lone-wolf attacks, and more. It has been used in planning and executing terror attacks; one of the first known usages of Telegram for this purpose was the November 2015 attacks in Paris.

Other Platforms Terrorists Are Using In Addition To Amazon Drive

Besides Amazon Drive, terrorists are also uploading content to other major platforms – for example, the Internet Archive,[13] Dropbox, and Google Drive – and sharing it via Telegram. Other services less widely used for uploading include Vimeo, Dailymotion, Sendvid, and Mediafire, as well as Russian platforms such as Cloud.mail.ru, Mymail.ru, and Ok.ru/video.

https://www.memri.org/sites/default/files/2019_Q1/az2.jpg
Jihadi post on Telegram linking to content on Amazon Drive and other platforms.

How Terrorists On Telegram Click Through To View Content On Amazon Drive

In January 2019, a jihadi group on Telegram shared an Amazon Drive link to a video titled "O Our People Answer The Call Of Allah," that was released by ISIS Kirkuk, Iraq in November 2016. The MEMRI TV clip below shows how a terrorist clicking on the link accesses the video file on Amazon Drive, and from there can either download the 17-minute video or click to open and proceed to view it. The clip continues with the ISIS video in full. 

TO VIEW THE MEMRI TV VIDEO TO SEE HOW JIHADIS USE AMAZON DRIVE FOR POSTING VIDEOS ON TELEGRAM, CLICK HERE OR BELOW.

This is only one example of this video being uploaded to Amazon Drive and shared via Telegram, Earlier, on December 4, 2018, the pro-ISIS "International" group on Telegram shared a different Amazon Drive link to it.  

https://www.memri.org/sites/default/files/2019_Q1/az7.jpg
Amazon.com/clouddrive/share/2sooJE7JtQfGGZLNtltr9lTpwY52CERtJHFdOP639W1/fK7CyUmYRI6txxqvI9p96Q?_encoding=UTF8&*Version*=1&*entries*=0&mgh=1.

https://www.memri.org/sites/default/files/2019_Q1/az8.jpg

Statements By Amazon CEO Jeff Bezos About Terrorism

Amazon CEO Jeff Bezos has publicly expressed his views on tech privacy concerns. He is on record as saying that his company was wholly aligned with Apple in its fight against government investigators who asked that company to break encryption programs so they could gain access to the iPhone used by the December 2015 San Bernardino jihadis. He added that Amazon was embracing similar technology to make it difficult for government officials to gain access to personal information.[14]

Subsequently, an April 2018 report noted that Bezos believes the debate over data privacy is "one of the greatest questions of our age" and quoted him as saying: "How do you safeguard people's physical safety against terrorists and bad actors all over the world, and how do you balance that against privacy? These are very challenging questions. And we're not going to answer them, even in a few years. I think it's going to be an ongoing thing for quite a while."[15]

What Needs To Be Done

Jihadi groups' growing use of Amazon Drive further underlines the fact that that there is a need for tech philanthropists[16] such as Bezos to step up and devote their time and money to shaping guidelines and confronting the threat of terrorist content online. Amazon's addition to the many companies that are grappling with this content on their platforms highlights the need for industry standards for tackling this issue.

Leading tech companies, including YouTube, Facebook, Twitter, who are all now heading efforts to challenge terrorists online and on their platforms,[17] have over time shifted their policies to reflect their maturing approach to the need to remove this content. Telegram, which remains defiant, is a notable exception – while not much is known about Amazon CEO Jeff Bezos's approach to the issue of terrorist content.

The problem – and the solution – are much more complicated than the simple removal of terrorist content. Companies need to be proactively monitoring content on their platforms to be sure they are not inadvertently hosting it – and not waiting for outsiders to expose it. Their business models should include awareness of this issue, as well as taking responsibility for it.

The following report documents how ISIS, specifically, and other groups like it have been using Amazon Drive. The examples in the report include Amazon Drive links to content such as videos by ISIS, audio messages by its leaders, and official newsletters and other content created by the group, by its secondary media organizations, and by its supporters.

Jihadi Content Uploaded To Amazon Drive And Shared On Jihadi Telegram Channels

In late January 2019, the Voice Of Islam Telegram channel shared a video from the Turkestan Islamic Party (TIP) titled "Advice Of The Fathers," along with a link to the video on Amazon Drive.

On January 25, 2019, Al-Malahem, the media wing of Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP), released on Telegram the second part of its "Demolishing Of The Espionage" series and an Amazon Drive link to the video.[18]

A January 8, 2019 post on the Nasher News Telegram channel shared an Amazon Drive link to a video by ISIS news agency A'maq documenting the aftermath of airstrikes in Sinai:

https://www.memri.org/sites/default/files/2019_Q1/az5.jpg

https://www.memri.org/sites/default/files/2019_Q1/az4.jpg
Amazon.com/clouddrive/share/YJUjElUTKqdU2UzRIrJ1TtSr5AIeHaoaQQeepjuHAdc/KH42qUX6TBOj07A-ZGlaiA?_encoding=UTF8&*Version*=1&*entries*=0&mgh=1.

On January 6, 2019, the ISIS-affiliated Nashir News Agency posted an Amazon Drive link to a video by the ISIS news agency A'maq. The video was described as one "acquired by Amaq" that "features the liquidation of a spy and a Mobilization member in the area of 'Uboor on Mosul's right side."


Source: Telegram.me/Nasher News, January 6, 2019.

The following day, January 7, 2019, Nashir News Agency posted an Amazon Drive link to a different video by the ISIS news agency A'maq. This video was described as one "acquired by Amaq featuring the assassination of a commander in the PKK militia near Abyad station towards the southwest of Hasakah."


Source: Telegram.me/Nasher News, January 7, 2019.

A post on the "Khilafa" Telegram channel shared an an Amazon Drive link to the message "And Give Glad Tidings To The Steadfast" by ISIS leader Abu Bakr Al-Baghdadi, which was released online in August 2018:


Amazon.de/clouddrive/share/tUmsY7OITgcWJp1npgwvggtW22WQpZwy8vk9aTUEisU?_encoding=UTF8&%2AVersion%2A=1&%2Aentries%2A=0&mgh=1

A post on the "Khilafa" Telegram channel shared an an Amazon Drive link to a video titled "Let Down Your State" that was released online in August 2016 by ISIS Al-Khayr (Deir Al-Zur) province, Syria:


Amazon.com/clouddrive/share/ntRILsCbBj1WQfwawEqaOK5ZLf1GpPTDA2yPDw6a3cj/EwI6t0J4R-a8leeP-mKW_Q?_encoding=UTF8&*Version*=1&*entries*=0&mgh=1

An August 8, 2018 post on the "MuslimTec DE/EN 2" Telegram channel shared an Amazon Drive link to a video that was released online in February 2016 by ISIS Al-Janoub Province, southern Iraq:

A July 27, 2018 post on the "Sariyyat Al-Dhi'aab Al-Munfaridah Telegram channel shared an Amazon Drive link to Issue 141 of the ISIS weekly Al-Naba', that was released online on July 24, 2018 by the ISIS-affiliated Nasher News:


Amazon.com/clouddrive/share/0FTpYGwOfw7S8WZQRqn1DIG2lpdU9nQ8Jea3lHH4q9p/AGdG_9JmRlatGzA7BOvFIQ?_encoding=UTF8&*Version*=1&*entries*=0&mgh=1


Amazon.com/clouddrive/share/DoPDDDPZaQWe8RpktJulx8HujXkMJq4xwoDkwhsSIOx/RMV0zMZwThizDRdqKhzw5w?_encoding=UTF8&*Version*=1&*entries*=0&mgh=1m


Amazon.com/clouddrive/share/Mx187idO6yR7Nwv9JxVX7wa2OvZDr1mW6q6N0fgB7C8?_encoding=UTF8&*Version*=1&*entries*=0&mgh=1

A June 10, 2018 post on the "Wilayat Beit Al-Maqdis" Telegram channel shared an Amazon Drive link to a poem titled "A [Female] Prisoner Calls Upon You" that was released online in 2017-18 by the pro-ISIS Ashhad Media Foundation:


Amazon.com/clouddrive/share/jCGBMYDTIERE4h6IlXRS1mjJ0J8biEAyQVC7UAiQrIS/Hrf3JhW-T3mDS9-MvaENfw?_encoding=UTF8&*Version*=1&*entries*=0&mgh=1

A June 5, 2018 post on "Fursan Al-Dawaween" Telegram channel shared an Amazon Drive link to a letter titled "Matters Concerning The Jurisprudence Of Fasting" that was released online in 2017-2018 by the pro-ISIS Ashhad Media Foundation:


Amazon.com/clouddrive/share/sqoWn4lSoZ7nRKCzUdumSBK2q6oYvynndan5l8HhHeu/hCTEgZ8kRjKAYMPvna2qPw?_encoding=UTF8&*Version*=1&*entries*=0&mgh=1

A June 5, 2018 post on the "Khilafa Ala Minhaj Al-Nubuwwah" Telegram channel shared an Amazon Drive link to a letter titled "Matters Concerning The Jurisprudence Of Fasting" that was released online in 2017-2018 by the pro-ISIS Ashhad Media Foundation:


Amazon.com/clouddrive/share/GgC0wuT3PsD8RJpH4hw1BeHwWR7mDU9AhZrqBZhU1Fz/hA7zZDLpTMm77d0hOqla2Q?_encoding=UTF8&*Version*=1&*entries*=0&mgh=

A May 2, 2018 post on the "Fursan Al-Dawaween" Telegram channel shared an Amazon Drive link to a poster titled "The Fight Just Begun Now," that was released online in May 2018 by the pro-ISIS Ashhad Media Foundation:


Amazon.com/clouddrive/share/wViJd9VD7jqaM7cMb8LLJGU6iamx6UDGrsiZ7r4tCoY/h6_WiMYRQ_yKTLuoywyDEg?_encoding=UTF8&*Version*=1&*entries*=0&mgh=1

An April 27, 2018 post on the "Al-Hamileen Jirah Ummatehem" Telegram channel shared an Amazon Drive link to a book titled "Tanbeeh Al-Anam" that was released online in 2017-2018 by the pro-ISIS Ashhad Media Foundation:


Amazon.com/clouddrive/share/T5YB3INoADsS1krzslyOmnDK906R5otoTeIdldBYXV/LQvWPqvZQxu3SX0WgrYr2Q?_encoding=UTF8&*Version*=1&*entries*=0&mgh=1

A post on the "Fursan Al-Dawaween" Telegram channel shared an Amazon Drive link to a religious series titled "Al-Badr Al-Tumam Sharh Nawaqid Al-Islam" that was released online in 2017-2018 by the pro-ISIS Ashhad Media Foundation:


Amazon.com/clouddrive/share/V3Ju16RwyfbDNfyzD5gvBgRhAKU1jJbsOGPxfUUnhjt/yE5Grwc3S6CNzVsVJUObag?_encoding=UTF8&*Version*=1&*entries*=0&mgh=1

A post on the "Ahfad Al-Zarqawi" Telegram channel shared an Amazon Drive link to a video that was released online in October 2018 by ISIS Kirkuk province, Iraq:


Amazon.com/clouddrive/share/Ok9SIdIfi1vNayuE5iKP08DDQIH2CqBdshEXLHZ64lW/IMXB--U2TYynKirGjFE-UA?_encoding=UTF8&*Version*=1&*entries*=0&mgh=1  

A post on the "Fursan Al-Shahada" Telegram channel shared an Amazon Drive link to a video that was released online on September 23, 2018 by the ISIS A'maq news agency:


Amazon.com/clouddrive/share/j5p4Mn1eQ7A3mbVG4h3Jfx2b624lFb7onXEqrZ7cYZz/aKHDsYW-RqefKCMFZTYK3w?_encoding=UTF8&*Version*=1&*entries*=0&mgh=1

A post on the "Khilafa Tajma' Shatatihim" Telegram channel shared an Amazon Drive link to a video that was released online in February-March 2017 by ISIS Diyala province, Iraq:

A post on the "Khilafa Tajma' Shatatihim" Telegram channel shared an Amazon Drive link to video that was released online in September-October 2018 by ISIS Diyala province, Iraq:


Amazon.com/clouddrive/share/ysy31SthjnTKKXOKMtWRY16F2GLrw0HWbHG5JYIDLlv/folder/zvo0Q8EDS6yn7npfRMUYRg?_encoding=UTF8&*Version*=1&*entries*=0&mgh=1

A post on the "Fursan Al-Dawaween" Telegram channel shared an Amazon Drive link to a letter titled "Al-Qadim Adha Wa 'Amar Min September 11," that was released in September 2018 by the pro-ISIS Ashhad Media Foundation:


Amazon.com/clouddrive/share/Tdnlnw2YuzEk8AuZNOrC4DGz2Z5EEI7qxROdxKLfKQu/hwHTZXyIQNyIPfGJuaJa-g?_encoding=UTF8&*Version*=1&*entries*=0&mgh=1

A post on the "Fursan Al-Dawaween" Telegram channel shared an Amazon Drive link to a letter titled "Al-Qadim Adha Wa 'Amar Min September 11" that was released in September 2018 by the pro-ISIS Ashhad Media Foundation:


Amazon.com/clouddrive/share/XZkEPypi9xU9JJCeDNKCdUFc9Ms9UZtNPDK7701r0KB/RCSxi9U8Rki-gXQhKlVT4A?_encoding=UTF8&*Version*=1&*entries*=0&mgh=1

A post on the "Sariyyat Al-Dhi'aab Al-Munfarida" Telegram channel shared an Amazon Drive link to a video that was released online in September 2018 by the ISIS A'maq news agency:


Amazon.com/clouddrive/share/oZ5KhdrLPL6nye0HSHBHviUeXQbEk56jnMGAY3B3jau/hRPrkFm1RySkGCrCiSlzVw?_encoding=UTF8&*Version*=1&*entries*=0&mgh=1

A post on the "Sariyyat Al-Dhi'aab Al-Munfarida" Telegram channel shared an Amazon Drive link to a video that was released online in September 2018 by the ISIS Al-Himma Library:


Amazon.com/clouddrive/share/fAb7AjqrG1RrxB83d8jf3M4DFMDvK2HjzVY7UpUB0NO/M6uSP_gqRaOJMIPoEIACKg?_encoding=UTF8&*Version*=1&*entries*=0&mgh=1

A post on the "Fursan Al-Shahada" Telegram channel shared an Amazon Drive link to a video that was released online in September 2018 by the ISIS Al-Hayat Media Foundation:


Amazon.com/clouddrive/share/iOdJJZh5ilmY7D1eOZ5ynF203T6OwEeOU9s5brmuG49/29HvPA-vTW-SrI3kyo5n8A?_encoding=UTF8&*Version*=1&*entries*=0&mgh=1

A post on the "Fursan Al-Dawaween" Telegram channel shared an Amazon Drive link to a video titled "Oh Sunnis In Jordan" that was released online in September 2018 by the pro-ISIS Al-Battar Media foundation:


Amazon.com/clouddrive/share/gm7CXiLsH8dzAKL6FrNwXeRI9e34GxzElQbN61lxpdP/UYAWDhCES8aUU_ruhLFr5Q?_encoding=UTF8&*Version*=1&*entries*=0&mgh=1

A post on the "Sariyyat Al-Dhi'aab Al-Munfarida" Telegram channel shared an Amazon Drive link to a video that was released online in September 2018 by the ISIS Al-Hayat Media Foundation:


Amazon.com/clouddrive/share/BXixAlIqncuuicu32rcHkS7no4eMLqPpmcfGcYT2M9x/folder/o_4WwAD8RxaCtZ2n3Txsmw?_encoding=UTF8&*Version*=1&*entries*=0&mgh=1

A post on the "Khilafa Tajma' Shatatihim" Telegram channel shared an Amazon Drive link to a video that was released online in August-September 2016 by ISIS Al-Khayr province, Syria:


Amazon.com/clouddrive/share/ntRILsCbBj1WQfwawEqaOK5ZLf1GpPTDA2yPDw6a3cj/EwI6t0J4R-a8leeP-mKW_Q?_encoding=UTF8&*Version*=1&*entries*=0&mgh=1

A post on the "Al-Hamileen Jirah Ummatihim" Telegram channel shared an Amazon Drive link to a letter titled "'Adhbu Al-Bayan Fi Haqiqati Jama'at Al-Ikhwan" that was released online in 2017-2018 by the pro-ISIS Ashhad Media Foundation:

A post on the "Al-Hamileen Jirah Ummatihim" Telegram channel shared an Amazon Drive link to a letter titled "Haqiqat Jama'at Al-Ikhwan" that was released online in 2017-2018 by the pro-ISIS Ashhad Media Foundation:


Amazon.com/clouddrive/share/cuWv3ufpB1q6PSzblkcDNAevh7WrIIY2Wlb0CNf38xD/ZVsGi-8bTECNRBh_0eRHCg?_encoding=UTF8&*Version*=1&*entries*=0&mgh=1

A post on the "Al-Hamileen Jirah Ummatihim" Telegram channel shared an Amazon Drive link to a nasheed that was released online in 2017-2018 by the pro-ISIS Asdaa' Media organization:

A post on "Fursan Al-Dawaween" Telegram channel shared an Amazon Drive link to a poem titled "A [Female] Prisoner Calls Upon You" that was released online in 2017-2018 by the pro-ISIS Ashhad Media organization:


Amazon.com/clouddrive/share/jCGBMYDTIERE4h6IlXRS1mjJ0J8biEAyQVC7UAiQrIS/Hrf3JhW-T3mDS9-MvaENfw?_encoding=UTF8&*Version*=1&*entries*=0&mgh=1

A post on the "Khilafa Tajma' Shatatihim" Telegram channel shared an Amazon Drive link to a video titled "Al-Maghrib Al-Islami – Aalaam Wa Aamaal" that was released online in 2015-2016 by the pro-ISIS Al-Battar media organization:


Amazon.com/clouddrive/share/V9lfbvmx3Ik7LxtqZTNSIziUHISyQi2HajZk7AnCpgs/h4WO0kvtTXemJfthQmuihA?_encoding=UTF8&*Version*=1&*entries*=0&mgh=1

A post on the "Fursan Al-Dawaween Telegram channel shared an Amazon Drive link to a letter titled  "Matters Concerning The Jurisprudence Of Fasting" that was released online in 2017-2018 by the pro-ISIS Ashhad media organization:


Amazon.com/clouddrive/share/sqoWn4lSoZ7nRKCzUdumSBK2q6oYvynndan5l8HhHeu/hCTEgZ8kRjKAYMPvna2qPw?_encoding=UTF8&*Version*=1&*entries*=0&mgh=1

A post on the "Khilafa Tamja' Shatatihim" Telegram channel shared an Amazon Drive link to a nasheed that was released online in October 2018 by the pro-ISIS Khattab media organization:


Amazon.com/clouddrive/share/ZcHn8ZgJMGukppbGjheHNSBfoBar036r5XUm4vqJHO0/fct6UGcZQ-yqXSFuu7haiA?_encoding=UTF8&*Version*=1&*entries*=0&mgh=1

A post on the "Khilafa Tama' Shatatihim" Telegram channel shared an Amazon Drive link to a video that was released online in February-March 2017 by ISIS Al-Raqqa province, Syria:


Amazon.com/clouddrive/share/HtK6pV9Ipy7aa8gBcRhHtAenu3jys0SlbHLfSTYgYNu/3yoSxfmvQjSwAyH2pDG2Jw?_encoding=UTF8&*Version*=1&*entries*=0&mgh=1

A post on the "Khilafa Tajma' Shatatihim" Telegram channel shared an Amazon Drive link to a video that was released online in October 2018 by ISIS Kirkuk province, Iraq:


Amazon.com/clouddrive/share/p8Lo8oXYPIkxzRi8MaNOjZdKl7W7nxZaeiO8Xpu2ufh/z-bZxjA4TeCiVw2-SS9g9Q?_encoding=UTF8&*Version*=1&*entries*=0&mgh=1

A post on the "Khilafa Tajma' Shatatihim" Telegram channel shared an Amazon Drive link to a video titled "Intahu Khayrun Lakum" that was released online in August-September 2018 by ISIS Salah Al-Din province, Iraq:


Amazon.com/clouddrive/share/FvNio1aISbBlgLDpNqbX9o3VhyAdaMDyBjf86vCVGUk/5WUyXOv1TA2MLV1WGU2Chw?_encoding=UTF8&*Version*=1&*entries*=0&mgh=1

A post on the "Khilafa Tajma' Shatatihim" Telegram channel shared an Amazon Drive link to Issue 150 of the ISIS weekly Al-Naba' that was released online on October 4, 2018 by the ISIS-affiliated Nasher News:


Amazon.com/clouddrive/share/kkepQgdyoISuHSrYglc78e6Mm2cTYZdJFrY9oftWSIA/6giGFpVjReCYlgtbYKLCMg?_encoding=UTF8&*Version*=1&*entries*=0&mgh=1

A post on the "Khilafa Tamja' Shatatihim" Telegram channel shared an Amazon Drive link to a video titled "Al-Jihad Madhin 'Ila Qiyam Al-Sa'a" that was released online in September-October 2018 by ISIS Diyala province, Iraq:

 


Amazon.com/clouddrive/share/HLENMFbIBJXaYOjm8mY6LrOfqn1FOyq2B4bXg5cjGoe/JoE5_ivmSt-A057Hr4axAw?_encoding=UTF8&*Version*=1&*entries*=0&mgh=1

A post on the "Khilafa Tajma' Shatatihim" Telegram channel shared an Amazon Drive link to a video that was released online in October 2018 by ISIS Al-Hayat media:


Amazon.com/clouddrive/share/U9TMBSxdiOjzKMUCCEuhtvqDescvoCt2IcXnWOe4ZPi/qXV4e7v9R0idXfERYgiopQ?_encoding=UTF8&*Version*=1&*entries*=0&mgh=1

A post on the "Sariyat Al-Dhi'aab Al-Munfarida" Telegram channel shared an Amazon Drive link to a video titled "Harvest Of The Soldiers - 9" that was released online in September 2018 by ISIS Al-Hayat media:


Amazon.com/clouddrive/share/hSsLqCBXm0W2CekhhnGjbOwYXWeKUU9FyFrtiYORnet/oq6j_bOXRRuFM9c4TWxwag?_encoding=UTF8&*Version*=1&*entries*=0&mgh=1

A post on "Khilafa Tajma' Shatatihim" Telegram channel shared an Amazon Drive link to an audio message by ISIS spokesman Abu Al-Hassan Al-Muhajir titled "Sawlat Al-Muwahideen Ala Sarh Al-Mushrikeen" that was released online in September 2018 by ISIS Al-Furqan media:


Amazon.com/clouddrive/share/zWjTAp4kJHXbQ1YQXTimWSFQ2XC5vpK9wuXcosi3jux/joVbqANjTZOy-gbj1Ve1ew?_encoding=UTF8&*Version*=1&*entries*=0&mgh=1

 

[1] Washingtonpost.com/business/2018/10/25/amazon-pulls-record-billion-quarterly-profit/?utm_term=.f0e4134913b8, October 25, 2018.

[2] Cnbc.com/2019/01/07/amazon-passes-microsoft-market-value-becomes-largest.html, January 7, 2019.

[3] Cnbc.com/2018/07/16/jeff-bezos-is-now-the-richest-man-in-modern-history.html, July 16, 2018.

[4] Bloomberg.com/news/articles/2018-08-28/amazon-is-said-to-be-on-prowl-for-movies-from-sony-paramount, August 28, 2018;
Fool.com/investing/2018/09/01/amazon-wants-to-partner-with-big-movie-studios-for.aspx September 1, 2018.

[5] Amazon.com/b?ie=UTF8&node=15547130011, accessed February 4, 2019.

[6] Washingtonpost.com/world/national-security/the-app-of-choice-for-jihadists-isis-seizes-on-internet-tool-to-promote-terror/2016/12/
23/a8c348c0-c861-11e6-85b5-76616a33048d_story.html, December 23, 2016.

[7] Amazon.com/gp/help/customer/display.html?nodeId=201929730, accessed February 4, 2019.

[8] Amazon.com/gp/help/customer/display.html/?nodeId=508088, accessed February 4, 2019.

[9] Amazon.com/gp/help/customer/display.html?nodeId=201376540, accessed February 4, 2019.

[13] See MEMRI Inquiry & Analysis Series No. 724 Al-Qaeda, Jihadis Infest the San Francisco, California-Based 'Internet Archive' Library, August 17, 2011.

[14] Washingtonpost.com/news/the-switch/wp/2016/05/18/amazon-ceo-jeffrey-bezos-debate-between-privacy-and-security-is-issue-of-our-age/
?noredirect=on&utm_term=.ffc835512e4c, May 18, 2016.

[15] Businessinsider.com/jeff-bezos-interview-axel-springer-ceo-amazon-trump-blue-origin-family-regulation-washington-post-2018-4?op=1&r=UK&IR=T, April 28, 2018.

[16] See MEMRI Daily Brief No. 100 History Will Judge Tech Philanthropists In Fight Vs. Cyber Jihad, August 22, 2016.

[17] See MEMRI Daily Brief No. 100 History Will Judge Tech Philanthropists In Fight Vs. Cyber Jihad, August 22, 2016.