Tehran has responded angrily to Europe's boycott of Iranian oil, and to the boycott of Iran's Central Bank, announcing a counter-boycott and making threats against the West. The threats included a closure of the Strait of Hormuz, strikes against UAE and Saudi oil transport traffic, and military strikes against American sites in the Gulf.
Additionally, in December 2011, three weeks before the European boycott was announced, Iranian websites reported on willingness in Iran to carry out suicide missions against U.S. targets in the region and gave details of a plan for launching Iranian missiles at U.S. bases in the region.
The following is a summary of the threats:
Senior Iranian Officials: Close Straits, Attack U.S. and Gulf Targets
Following the January 23, 2012 announcement that Europe would boycott Iranian oil, Iranian Majlis National Security Committee deputy chairman Hossein Ebrahimi said that Iran would close the Strait of Hormuz and would not allow other countries to export oil via the strait if it was not allowed to export its oil. He added, "The Persian Gulf will become a graveyard for all the forces that will come from all corners of the earth to this sensitive region." Another committee member, Isma'il Kowsari, said, "If there is any disruption of Iran's oil sales, we will doubtless close the Strait of Hormuz." He added, "If the U.S. tries to prevent the closure of the strait, Iran will within a short time strike at American targets across the world, and it will not allow U.S. forces to escape from the region."
During Friday prayers on January 27, 2012, in Mashhad, northeastern Iran, preacher Ahmad 'Alam Al-Hoda, a member of the Assembly of Experts, said: "Do not doubt that Iran has the capability to blockade the UAE and Saudi tankers departing for Europe via the Strait of Hormuz."
Prior to the announcement of the European boycott, senior Iranian officials had threatened to strike at U.S. sites in the Gulf states. At a November 15, 2011 Basij convention, Basij commander Mohammad Reza-Naqdi said, "The U.S. Fifth Fleet in Bahrain, the American land forces [base] in Kuwait, and the U.S. Air Force [base] in Qatar are entirely surrounded by holy fighters of the Islamic ummah who are counting the minutes in anticipation of the command to wipe out the U.S." He added, "The U.S. is so wretched that if Iran launches a military attack [against it] it will not respond militarily and will beg for negotiations." 
Another army official, Iranian Army Self-Sufficiency Jihad commander Rear Adm. Farhad Amiri, stressed that the American aircraft carriers were easy pickings for Iranian submarines. He explained that because of how the submarines were equipped, they could lie in wait for the Americans undetected and could strike at them from the bottom of the sea.
Article on Iranian Website: "We Welcome War"
On the eve of the Iranian Navy's extensive Gulf maneuvers in December 2011, the conservative Serat News website, which is close to Hossein Shariatmadari, editor of the Kayhan newspaper, published an article by blogger Ali-Reza Forghani titled "We Welcome War." The article glorifies jihad and martyrdom against the U.S. and warns it and its leaders that not only do the Iranians have no fear of war, but they long to die in it. The article also set out details of threats, including suicide missions against American targets. The following are highlights of the article:
Photo accompanying article: Fighters kiss the Koran before setting out for battle
"America needs to know that if it attacks Iran – the Muslims must [attack] it in response, based on the instructions of the religion, and they will not hesitate for a moment to carry out this religious duty. America needs to know that while [the American administration] was preparing the American people for the wars of 2001 [apparently a reference to the war declared by President Bush on Afghanistan after 9/11], 2012 and 2035... which will demand a high price, the Shi'ite youths were anticipating the appearance [of the Hidden Imam] and, as a result, they are ready for war and jihad.
"America needs to know that, while it tempts its young people with monthly salaries of $9,000 to fight in other countries, we have learned that if we do not carry out jihad or aspire to do so, then we die in a kind of hypocrisy, [and] death of this kind is shameful for us, [for] the aspiration to wage jihad [and to die] in war is our pride.
"America needs to know that the children of [founder of the Iranian Revolution Ayatollah] Ruhollah [Khomeini] and the companions of Ali [Iranian Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei] are not like the young people of the neighboring countries. Although they [too] are Muslims, they have never internalized the [words of the] Imam Ali, [father of the Shi'a], who said 'No people was attacked in its home unless [it first became] wretched.' We have learned that there is no need to drag war [into our] home and that we must locate the playing field [i.e. battlefield] anywhere outside our home, as quickly and safely [as possible].
"America needs to know that there are young people of Hizbullah who have located [the battlefield] outside Iran, and that they will carry out attacks and martyrdom operations within less than 48 hours [if America attacks,] in every one of the 112 countries in which America has a military base.
"America needs to know that while the American youth shouts the slogan 'Stop the war,' for fear of dying, the children of Ruhollah never flee from war and always pray 'Allah, give us martyrdom for Your sake.'"
Iranian Website: This Is How We'll Strike At the American Bases in the Region
On December 14, 2011, the Mashregh News web site, which is close to Iran's security circles, published an article examining Tehran's ability to strike at U.S. bases in the region. The article included statistics about the bases and their respective distances from Iran's borders, and about the missiles that Tehran would use against them. The list included U.S. bases in Saudi Arabia, Turkey, Qatar, Kuwait, Afghanistan, Bahrain, the UAE, Oman, Kyrgyzstan, and Pakistan.
The article stated also that the U.S. air defense systems across the region were inefficient and that they would be quickly targeted by Iran's missiles. The following are the highlights of the article and the images that accompanied it:
"This report will examine the distances of the important U.S. bases [from Iran's borders], particularly its Air Force bases along Iran's borders, along with Iran's missile capability to threaten these sites.
"The U.S. has bases, or uses bases, in the following countries: Turkey, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Qatar, UAE, Oman, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Kyrgyzstan...
"These are the rockets manufactured by Iranian experts: the Naza'at H10 with a maximal range of 130 km, the Zilzal 3 with a range of 200 km, and the Zilzal B3 with a range of 250 km, suitable for striking the bases of the enemy in the region.
"These are the missiles that can threaten the more distant enemy bases: Fath 110, Qiam, Shihab 2, Shihab 3, Qadr, 'Ashoura, Sejjal 1, Sejjal 2...
"Kuwait, a small country which is [less like a country and] more like a large American military base, has two air force bases and six military camps. The Ali Al-Salam air force base, which is 115 km from Iran's borders, can be easily threatened by any of the above [Iranian] rockets and missiles... The runways at this air force base are about 3,000 meters long, suitable for most light and heavy aircraft.
Ali Al-Salam AFB
"Another airfield in Kuwait open to the Americans is the Ahmad Al-Jabr air force base, located 134 km from Iran, and within range of [Iran's] Zilzal rockets and various Iranian ballistic missiles...
Ahmad Al-Jabr AFB
"The camps at which U.S. military forces are stationed are Camp Doha, located 94 km from Iran; Camp Buehring, located 104 km from Iran; Camp Spearhead, located 109 km from Iran; Camp Patriot, located 123 km from Iran; and Camp Arifjan, located 126 km from Iran. All of these sites are within range of all the surface-to-surface missiles and rockets presented above, so Iranian artillery forces will have an easier task.
"East of Iran... in Afghanistan, there are four military airfields in use by American forces... Bagram Airbase, in which most of the American transport and attack aircraft are deployed... is 730 km from Iran. Kabul airfield is 732 km from the Iranian border... These targets can all be hit by Qiam missiles, with a range of 800 km; Shihab 3, with a range of 1,300-1,800 km; and Qadr, Sejjil, and 'Ashoura missiles with a range of 1,800-2,000 km.
Bagram AFB. The photo clearly shows C-130 transport aircraft and A-10 Warthog tactical attack aircraft
"Other bases and airfields in Afghanistan are Kandahar Airbase, located 387 km from Iran; Shindand Airbase, located 124 km from Iran; and Herat Airbase, located 122 km from the Iranian border. The first of these bases is threatened by Shihab-2 and Qiam missiles, and the two other bases are easily threatened by Zilzal rockets and the highly accurate Fath 110 missiles, as well as by other models.
Shindand AFB, where RQ-170 detection drones are stationed
"However, the American super base in the region is Al-Udeid air force base in Qatar. Despite good relations between the two countries [Qatar and Iran], recent stances taken by Qatar vis-à-vis Syria show that the U.S. can still utilize [Qatar to attack Iran].
Al-Udeid AFB in Qatar
"This base, situated in the center of the small nation of Qatar, is located 278 km from the Iranian coast, and has a large number of American aircraft. Spotted at the base were B1-B Stealth Bombers; C-17 and C-130 transport aircraft; KC-135 and KC-10 refueling tankers; [P-3] Orion marine surveillance aircraft; and [E-8] Joint STARS [Surveillance and Target Attack Radar System]. Reports indicate that F-16 fighter jets are also stationed there. This base is within range of the Fath-110 and several other medium- and long-range Iranian missiles. The open air aprons, where dozens of expensive aircraft are parked, are the optimal target for the ballistic missile warheads, and thanks to the wide deployment [of the missiles], most of these aircraft will undoubtedly be destroyed or seriously damaged.
Photo shows KC-135 tankers, P-3 Orion aircraft, and B-1 bombers
"In addition, we should mention the U.S. Fifth Fleet naval base in Bahrain, located only 200 km from Iranian shores. Deployed to the base are several missile boats and warships, including equipment and ordnance. Aside from Zilzal rockets, all [Iranian] short- to long-range missiles can target this location, and considering the nature of the target, using missiles to ensure accurate hits would be more effective.
"The Khalij-e Fars missile – the marine version of Fath-110 missile, with a range of 300 km – is specially designed to hit ships, which makes it highly suitable for threatening this naval base. The Qadr anti-ship cruise missile, which according to [Iranian] Defense Minister [Ahmad Vahidi] has a range of over 200 km, can be launched from several points on the Iranian coast, and [can] hit ships stationed at this base if they move a small distance from it.
U.S. Fifth Fleet naval base in Bahrain
"Another important American site in Bahrain is the Bahraini Air Force Sheikh Isa Airbase. The base is located 238 km from the Iranian coast and lies within range of all [Iranian] ballistic missiles, as well as the Zilzal-3B rockets. This airbase has two 3,800-meter runways, and spotted there were C-17 [Globemaster III transport aircraft], P-3 Orions, F-16 and F-18 fighter jets, and EA-6B Prowler Electronic Warfare aircraft.
Sheikh Isa AFB with F-18 and Prowler aircraft
"Another large U.S. base in the region is the Al-Dhafra Air Bbase in the UAE, which has two main runways 4,200 meters in length... and is located 253 km from Iranian shores and 184-255 km from Iranian islands in the Persian Gulf...
Al-Dhafra AFB, UAE
"This base lies within range of Iran's ballistic missiles. The KC-135 tankers and AWACS [Airborne Warning and Control System] E-3 Sentry aircraft are extremely high value targets for Iranian ordnance.
AWACS, refueling tankers, and covered hangers (on the right) at Al-Dhafra Airbase
24 fighter jet hangars at the UAE Airbase
"There is widespread American activity taking place at Thumrait air base in Oman. Located 963 km from Iran, it lies within the range of the long-range Shihab-3, Qadr, 'Ashoura, and Sejjil missiles. Another base used by the Americans, albeit mostly for transportation and espionage, is Manas Airbase in Kyrgyzstan, located 1,433 km from Iran. Upgraded Shihab-3 missiles, as well as 'Ashoura, Qadr, and Sejjil missiles, can take care of enemies in the home of our old friend[s].
C-17 transport aircraft and KC-135 refueling tankers in Manas
"Incirlik Airbase in Turkey is the pinnacle of U.S. military bases in the region, comparable to Al-Udeid air base [in Qatar]. Although the longstanding presence of U.S. aircraft at this base is a source of shame for Turkey, it seems that the base will also be hosting mercenaries for the arrogant U.S. government, along with long-range bombers and atomic bombs. The base is located 875 km from Iran on the northwestern Syrian border, and the largest aircraft in the U.S.'s arsenal are deployed there. It can be threatened by Iran's long-range missiles.
"The Americans also use bases in Pakistan, including the important Shamsi Airbase, located 199 km from Iran, and Shahbaz Airbase, located 527 km [from Iran]. According to information in the professional military media, [the U.S.] uses Shamsi Airbase for drone aircraft. Despite the current good relations between the Pakistani government and Iran, in light of the political instability there over the past two decades Iran could be threatened from that area as well. Shamsi Airbase can be threatened by Zilzal B3 rockets, as well as all Iranian ballistic missiles. Shahbaz Airbase can be hit by medium- and long-range ballistic missiles...
"After Iraq conquered Kuwait, many bases in Saudi Arabia were transferred to the Americans but were later evacuated. Now there is only a limited presence of U.S. air units at Prince Sultan Airbase, located 575 km from Iran, which can be hit by Iranian medium- and long-range missiles.
"Although U.S. aerial defense systems have been deployed in several countries in the region, launching accurate long-range missiles from deep inside Iranian territory as a first strike, with the missile velocity at mach 10-12, makes the enemy's attempts to destroy them impossible. In addition, some of these aerial defense systems could be part of the initial target in Iran's missile response.
"Moreover, simultaneous launches of a large number of missiles and rockets from different locations are another way to overcome these [defense] systems. Additionally, Iran possesses long-range air-to-surface missile systems, and anti-Radar missiles to suppress enemy aerial defense... and facilitate the work of Iran's ballistic missiles."
 Al-'Aalam TV (Iran), January 24, 2012. See MEMRI TV Clip No. 3284, Iranian MP Hossein Ebrahimi, Deputy Chairman of Iranian Majlis National Security Committee: "The Persian Gulf Will Be Turned into a Graveyard" for International Forces, http://www.memritv.org/clip/en/3284.htm. Ali Akbar Velayati, advisor to Iranian Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei, stressed that Tehran would not permit a situation in which it could not sell oil while other oil producters could do so. Press TV, Iran, January 26, 2011. Hossein Shariatmadari, editor of Kayhan and an associate of Khamenei, called for inspections for vessels in the Strait of Hormuz and for the subsequent closure of the strait to all E.U. vessels. He said that the West would be harmed more by the boycott than Iran would. Kayhan, Iran, January 25, 2012. Kayhan itself mocked U.S. President Barack Obama's statement that all options against Iran were on the table, calling it a "bluff" because the American threats were aimed at persuading Tehran to agree to negotiations. It added that the Americans had no option other than begging for negotiations with Iran. Kayhan, Iran, January 29, 2012.
 Fars (Iran), January 23, 2012. It should be noted that Iranian Foreign Ministry spokesman Ramin Mehmanparast, as well as Iranian Navy deputy commander Mahmoud Moussavi, clarified in December 2011 that Iran has no intention of closing the strait. This, apparently out of awareness that any military aggression of this sort would be tantamount to a declaration of international war, and also due to the clear U.S. military supremacy in the Gulf. Iran (Iran), December 14, 2011 (Mehmenparast) and Press TV, Iran, January 2, 2012 (Moussavi).
 Al-Hoda added that President Obama's emphasis in his letter to Khamenei that the U.S. would not attack Iran reflects Tehran's might versus Washington's weakness. ISNA, Iran, January 27, 2012.
 Fars (Iran), January 15, 2011; Iranian TV interview on November 27, 2011, http://www.lenziran.com/2011/11/basij-commander-if-united-states-is-attacked-by-islamic-republic-it-will-be-not-able-to-fight-back/
 Khorasan (Iran), January 19, 2012.
Serat News (Iran), December 12, 2011.
 Mashregh News (Iran), December 14, 2011.