Since the toppling of the Mubarak regime, the Egyptian Salafi groups, both mainstream and radical, have undergone major developments. The mainstream Salafis have entered Egypt's political life, winning considerable support in the parliamentary elections. These Salafis were discussed in a previous MEMRI report: Egypt's Islamic Camp, Once Suppressed By Regime, Now Taking Part in Shaping New Egypt – Part IV: For First Time in Egypt, Salafis Running in Elections. The following report will focus solely on the radical Salafis; the Salafi-jihadis.
One of the byproducts of the political upheaval in Egypt since the January 25 revolution has been the resurfacing of the country's jihadi movement, formerly suppressed and restrained by the Mubarak regime. The movement's reemergence was made possible by two key factors: first, the mass release of political prisoners, many of whom belong to various Islamist movements, including the Egyptian Islamic Jihad (EIJ) and its offshoots; and second, the easing of restraints on free speech. Thanks to these developments, radical clerics and activists, long silenced, resumed preaching Salafi-jihadi ideology in mosques, on websites, and at public events in an attempt to garner support and recruit followers.
Like the rest of Egyptian society, the Salafi-jihadis are currently focused on influencing the political future and character of their country. For the time being, the issue of jihad and fighting Islam's enemies is on the back burner, though it is still very much present. In recent written and spoken statements, the Salafi-jihadi clerics have focused mainly on their vision of an Islamic state and on their opposition to all forms of democracy and political participation, including the principles of the modern state and constitution – all of which they consider forms of heresy. They have expounded on these opinions in numerous books, articles, videos, and sermons presenting their opposition to democracy, man-made laws, participation in parliament, and so on.
The following document will review the important figures in this movement and the main themes dominating the Salafi-jihadi discourse.
The Imprisoned Salafi-Jihadi Leadership
Since Mubarak's ouster, there has been a surge of communiqués, essays, books, and even videos by imprisoned EIJ leaders, especially those held in the maximum security wing of the Turra prison south of Cairo, also known as 'Akrab Prison. An interesting example is a letter of support and encouragement to leading Salafi-jihadi cleric Abu Muhammad Al-Maqdisi from the imprisoned EIJ leaders. These leaders also issued several communiqués complaining of maltreatment by the prison authorities.
The most prominent figures among the jailed leaders are:
1. Muhammad Al-Zawahiri, aka Abu Ayman Al-Masri, brother of Al-Qaeda leader Ayman Al-Zawahiri. Sentenced to death in the 1999 "Returnees from Albania" trial, his sentence was never carried out. Obviously, his standing is due in part to his brother's status, but he is also a prominent figure in his own right. He has been one of the firm opponents of initiatives to renounce violence, such as the revisions published in 2007 by Sayyed Imam Al-Sharif.
On March 17, 2011, Al-Zawahiri was released from prison along with dozens of other Islamists, only to be re-arrested two days later. He is currently awaiting a decision from the military court regarding the possible commuting of his sentence, a decision that has been repeatedly postponed.
In the months since the toppling of Mubarak, several writings by Al-Zawahiri were published on jihadi forums. The first was "The Crime of Our Age," a 134-page "bill of indictment" against the secular regimes and rulers of the Islamic countries. The book describes their "crime" of spreading secularism and democracy. Another was a pamphlet titled "The Ruling on Joining [Political] Parties for the Benefit of Implementing Shari'a," in which Al-Zawahiri opposes the argument that Islamists should join political parties in order to establish an Islamic state in Egypt. He provides several practical and ideological reasons to reject this notion. A third publication was a polemical article against Saudi preacher 'Aidh Al-Qarni, who spoke out against terrorism in the London-based Saudi daily Al-Sharq Al-Awsat.
2. Ahmad Salama Mabrouk, aka Abu Al-Farag. While studying agriculture in the late 1970s, Mabrouk joined Muhammad 'Abd Al-Salam Farag and others to found the Jihad Group, which later became the EIJ. He briefly served in the military, but was arrested and imprisoned for seven years after the assassination of president Anwar Al-Sadat. Following his release, he fled to Afghanistan and joined Ayman Al-Zawahiri in leading the Egyptian mujahideen there. He is also said to have played a leading role in coordinating Al-Qaeda's operations around the world.
In 1998, he traveled to Chechnya with Al-Zawahiri, where the two were arrested by the Russian authorities and held for several months. Later, Mabrouk was again arrested, this time by Azerbaijan, which extradited him to the Egyptian authorities.
According to some rumors, Mabrouk signed his name to Sayyed Imam's revisions. However, jihadis strongly denied this, attesting to his jihadi credentials and commitment to the jihadi ideal. Recently, Mabrouk appeared in a short video smuggled out of prison, in which he is seen leading the prisoners in singing an Islamist chant.
Ahmad Salama Mabrouk
3. 'Abd Al-Hakim Hassan, aka Abu 'Amr, a prominent Al-Qaeda ideologue. According to his biography on the Salafi-jihadi website MTJ, he was born in Egypt in 1959, and embraced Salafism in his youth. He studied Islam under Salafi sheikhs at Al-Azhar, and was arrested following the assassination of Sadat.
After his release, he traveled to Saudi Arabia and Yemen to continue his studies, and later joined the jihad in Afghanistan, where he instructed the mujahideen on matters of Islamic jurisprudence and theology. Hassan stayed in Afghanistan throughout the Taliban rule and fled to Waziristan in Pakistan following the U.S. invasion of Afghanistan in 2001.
According to some reports, he was arrested by the Pakistani authorities at some point, and by the Syrian authorities in 2009. If the latter report is true, it is possible that Syria handed him over to Egypt in recent years.
Hassan's writings include works delegitimizing secular rulers and advocating jihad against them and their armies. In recent months, jihadi publication outlets have published several writings by Hassan, including a booklet on the virtues of jihad (Fadl Al-Jihad), a book on the types of jihad (Anwa' Al-Jihad), and a book on faith and unbelief ('Izzam Al-Kalam fi Masail Al-Iman).
Cover of 'Abd Al-Hakim Hassan's book Fadl Al-Jihad
Salafi-Jihadi Clerics and Leaders Released After the Revolution
Following Mubarak's fall, the Egyptian authorities released dozens of political prisoners, including many from the Islamist movements such as the EIJ. The released included a number of prominent jihadi clerics, who soon returned to preaching and propagating the Salafi-jihadi doctrine in mosques throughout Egypt. Among these clerics are:
1. Ahmad 'Ashoush, aka Abu Nizar. Born in Egypt's Buhaira governorate, he was a close friend of Muhammad 'Atef, aka Abu Hafs Al-Masri, one of Al-Qaeda's most prominent military commanders, who was killed in 2001. In his youth, 'Ashoush became close to Salafi circles in his area, and was active in propagating Salafism alongside prominent Salafi cleric Yasser Burhami, now associated with the Al-Nour party.
In 1989, 'Ashoush went to wage jihad in Afghanistan, where he lived in the home of Abu Hafs Al-Masri. He become acquainted with Osama bin Laden and Ayman Al-Zawahiri and joined the EIJ. In
1991 he returned to Egypt with a group of other Egyptians, and founded a jihadi group known as the Vanguards of Conquest (Talai' Al-Fath). He began activity as a Salafi preacher, but was arrested in 1993 along with 150 of his followers. In prison, 'Ashoush is said to have played a central role in opposing Sayyed Imam's revisions.
Since his release, 'Ashoush has been very active and vocal in the radical Salafi polemic against participation in the democratic political process. He wrote a scathing critique of the Al-Nour party's platform, condemning it for importing Western ideas such as the separation of state and religion, democracy, etc, and accusing it of committing "a religious crime by any standard." He voiced similar criticism in a two-hour interview with Al-Ma'sada, the media company of the jihadi forum Shumoukh Al-Islam. He also preaches in mosques and public places. Recently, 'Ashoush arrived at Al-Tahrir Square in Cairo, where he promoted the Salafi-jihadi ideas in press interviews, talks with supporters, and debates with secularists and liberals.
2. Muhammad Higazi, aka Abu 'Issam Al-Masri. Since 1981, Higazi had been in and out of Egyptian prisons for his membership in EIJ; his latest period of imprisonment lasted from 1991-2009. While in prison, he was a prominent opponent of Salafi revisions and renunciations of violence. In recent months he delivered sermons in mosques throughout Egypt presenting the Salafi-jihadi view of current affairs. He also spoke at the July 29, 2011 Salafi-jihadi demonstration at Al-Tahrir square, which took place on the sidelines of the larger Islamist rally held there that day.
3. Tawfiq Al-'Afani, aka Abu 'Abd Al-Rahman Al-Masri. This EIJ-affiliated cleric was released in March 2011 following 18 years of imprisonment. Online supporters call him "the mujahid sheikh," which implies that he spent time on the Afghani front or some other jihad front. In any case, he too was among the leading opponents of the revisions while in prison.
Since his release, he has been leading prayers and preaching at a mosque in Port Said. On November 18, 2011, Al-'Afani participated in the "Friday of the Final Demand" demonstration against the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF) in Al-Tahrir square, and delivered a speech in which he lashed out at opponents of Islamic law. Hailing Osama bin Laden, he vowed to cling to the path of jihad, and threatened the U.S. and the Jews. One YouTube clip shows him leading a prayer commemorating Osama bin Laden following his killing.
4. Hassan 'Omar is another EIJ-affiliated cleric, although not much information is available about him, nor has he appeared in videos or public rallies. Recently he penned a series of articles titled "The Revolving Millstones of Islam" (raha al-islam al-da'ira), which comment on the recent developments in Egypt, and published a book titled How to Become a Monotheist (kaifa takunu muwahidan), outlining the basic tenets of the Salafi-jihadi creed.
5. Jallal Abu Al-Futouh, an EIJ operative who was released from prison despite his rejection of the revisions, recently published articles on a Salafi-jihadi website and given sermons in various mosques.
Daoud Khairat, aka Abu 'Abdallah Al-Masri, a young cleric from Port Said, is associated with the Salafi-jihadi group called "Islamic Movement for Application of the Shari'a" and apparently organizes many of its public da'wa events, held at central locations such as Al-Tahrir square. The group also operates a website by same name.
On July 29, 2011, Khairat spoke at a small rally organized by group at the periphery of the "Application of the Shari'a" demonstration held by Islamists in Al-Tahrir Square. Khairat has also delivered sermons in mosques in which he lashed out against Christians, moderate Salafis, liberals and secularists, and praised jihad. He is in contact with the shari'a committee of the jihadi website Minbar Al-Tawhid Wal-Jihad, to which he recently submitted a query regarding Islamist presidential candidate Hazem Abu Isma'il.
Daoud Khairat preaching on the street
Support for Jihad and Al-Qaeda
Although the clerics of Egypt's Salafi-jihadi movement are not currently focusing on issue of jihad, they certainly do not conceal their commitment to jihad or their support for Al-Qaeda and the mujahideen. The most blatant show of support for jihad came at a November 18 rally held by the movement in Al-Tahrir Square, in which Tawfiq Al-'Afani praised bin Laden to a chorus of cheers and applause from the crowd.
He said: "Sheikh Osama bin Laden is a man who waged jihad for the sake of Allah, and we pray that Allah will unite us with him and with the martyrs in Paradise. My brothers in Islam, we say with great pride that we adhere to jihad for the sake of Allah... We are not waging jihad for worldly benefits or positions. By Allah, we have only come to pledge our allegiance to Islam. We wage jihad for the sake of Allah and the Koran... We say to infidel America: By Allah, if you contemplate coming to Egypt, you will encounter men who love death more than you Americans love life... I say to the Jews: If you contemplate harming Egypt or its Muslim people, you will encounter men who seek death more than you seek life..."
A YouTube video shows Al-'Afani leading a prayer in memory of bin Laden in his Port Said mosque.
Tawfiq Al-'Afani speaking at a Salafi-jihadi rally at Al-Tahrir Square, November 18, 2011
Cleric Muhammad Higazi also recorded a eulogy for bin Laden in which he called him "a man who cannot be described in words." He praised bin Laden for devoting his vast wealth to supporting jihad, for giving up a life of comfort for the harsh life of a mujahid, and for opposing the U.S. troops that landed in his compound and fighting them to the death, "seeking martyrdom."
In a sermon at a Port Said mosque, Sheikh Daoud Khairat declared: "I bring you the good news that the signs of victory have begun appearing in Afghanistan. By Allah, my brothers, America has been routed in Afghanistan... by a small group of men... America is in the midst of a massive economic collapse. It can't [even] pay its soldiers in Afghanistan, and it has pulled its troops out of Iraq."
Following a December 16, 2011 sermon in an unidentified mosque in Egypt, which dealt with opposing secularism and establishing an Islamic state, Sheikh Jallal Abu Al-Futouh gave a short talk in which he reminded his audience of the importance of jihad in establishing the Islamic state: "If we wish to establish the state of Islam – the real [Islamic state], not the false one, the state of Islam that will rule according to Allah's Book and the Sunna of his Prophet... we must establish it in the manner that the Prophet established it. The Prophet established his state by two means: by calling to Allah and coming out openly with the truth, and by the sword, through jihad for the sake of Allah. These two means – calling to Allah and [waging] jihad for the sake of Allah – are the way to establish the true state of Islam.
"Allah said in the Koran: 'We have sent Our apostles with veritable signs and brought down with them scriptures and the scales of justice, so that men might conduct themselves with fairness. We have sent down iron, with its mighty strength and diverse uses for mankind, so that Allah may know those who aid Him, though unseen, and help His apostles. Powerful is Allah, and mighty' [Koran 57:25]... The Sheikh of Islam, Ibn Taymiyya, explains the meaning of this: religion is upheld [both] with a book that guides and with a victorious sword. The Prophet entered Al-Madina by da'wa… [But] in the eighth year after the hijra, when he returned to Mecca, he entered it armed to the teeth. He entered it with weapons. He was determined to show Abu Sufyan the Muslims' military might, since this was the only language [Abu Sufyan] understood.
Jallal Abu Al-Futouh
"There are men who won't understand and won't surrender unless you make a show of force and unless they see a sword drawn before their faces. They don't respect anything but force. There are men and countries that can be conquered through da'wa and talking, and there are those that can [only] be conquered by force and by the sword. Muslims, this was but a brief summary, a reminder to myself and to you, so that we don't fall into perplexity, so that we don't enter the dark tunnel, so that we don't wander along paths laid down for us by America and the West..."
In a public 'Eid Al-Adha sermon in the town of Minyar in the Sarqiyya governorate, sheikh 'Atiyya Suleiman lashed out at Jews, Christians, apostates, and all Muslims who do not live up to what he considers the correct Islam. He urged his audience to make a clear distinction between real Muslims and these "people of falsehood," according to the tenet of al-wala' wal bara' (loyalty to Islam and Muslims and disavowal of non-Muslims, a major tenet in Salafi-jihadi creed), and urged the Muslims to wage jihad against the enemies of Islam.
He said: "O Muslims, if we [believe] in this religion, there is no escape from a struggle between the people of truth and the people of falsehood... The struggle is a form of jihad for the sake of Allah... Know, O Muslims, that there is no victory or empowerment for Allah's religion but through raising the banner of jihad for the sake of Allah. Through jihad for Allah's sake, religion is protected and polytheism is banished from Allah's land. Through jihad for Allah's sake, the infidels are struck with humiliation and degradation. Allah told us to 'make war on them until idolatry is no more and Allah's religion reigns supreme' [Koran 8:39]... The only way we can humiliate the infidels is through fighting and jihad...
"O Muslims, know that jihad is the peak of this religion, and that our Prophet was sent with nothing but jihad. He was sent with nothing but the sword, to subjugate the people to their Lord... O Muslims, we've had enough deception, we've had enough humility. We must uphold this religion and confront the infidels and the apostates... Jihad is mandatory. We will never know glory without jihad. And know, O Muslims, that the enemies of Islam will be weakened if we confront them..."
As mentioned above, prominent Al-Qaeda ideologue 'Abd Al-Hakim Hassan recently published some books on jihad. One of them, Fadl Al-Jihad, is a collection of sayings in praise of jihad and the mujahideen gleaned from hadith literature. Another, Anwa' Al-Jihad, is a study of the different types of jihad. Hassan dedicates only a single paragraph of this book to jihad against infidels. The rest of the book discusses the criteria for takfir (declaring another Muslim an apostate), and justifies fighting any Muslim ruler or government that does not rule according to Islamic law, as well as anyone who helps them, be they members of the clergy, the military, or the press.
Such ideas are not new among the extremist circles of Egypt. Apparently, Hassan's intention is to remind the younger generation of Salafi-jihadis that violent action is a possible and legitimate way to advance the Islamist agenda. He writes: "It is known that the rulers who rule according to [laws] other than those revealed by Allah, and who impose upon the people false laws that contradict Allah's religion and obstruct Allah's laws, prescriptions, and [punishments], are not Muslims at all, let alone [legitimate] authorities. There is no obligation to obey them; on the contrary, whoever is able must wage jihad against them."
That such a book could be smuggled out of prison and published is remarkable, and indicative of the change that occurred immediately after the fall of Mubarak.
Examples of outright support for Al-Qaeda can be found on the website of the Islamic Movement for the Application of Shari'a, which has a section titled "And Incite the Believers," dedicated to re-publishing speeches and writings by Al-Qaeda leaders Ayman Al-Zawahiri, Abu Mus'ab al-Zarqawi, Abu Dujana Al-Khorasani, and others.
Vision of an Islamic State
A major theme for the jihadis is, of course, their wish to establish an Islamic state and pave the way for the Islamic caliphate. In the first essay in the series titled "The Revolving Millstones of Islam," published through the Al-Qaeda-affiliated Global Islamic Media Front (GIMF), Hassan 'Omar offers a historiosophical explanation of current events in Egypt, and outlines the way forward according to his beliefs. He begins by quoting a hadith: "The millstones of Islam are turning, so go with the Book [i.e., the Koran] wherever they go. Indeed, the Book and the ruler will go separate ways, so do not separate from the Koran. You will be ruled by princes who will judge you by a different standard than the one they apply to themselves. [Moreover,] if you disobey them they will kill you, and if you obey them they will lead you astray. [Muhammad's disciples asked]: 'Oh Messenger of Allah, what shall we do?' He said: '[Do] as the friends of 'Issa ibn Mariam [Jesus] did, who were sawn by saws and hung on trees. Death in obedience to Allah is better than life in disobedience to Allah.'"
He goes on to say that this spirit should guide the Muslims in Egypt: "Every Muslim man and woman must contemplate this great hadith, which expresses the rebellious spirit of Islam, and which clarifies that the rulers often despise Allah's laws and his Book, and the followers of Allah's religion. Why? Because the interests of the men in power clash with and contradict Allah's religion, Allah's Book and the people of truth... So long as these princes [i.e., rulers] separate themselves from the Book – the Koran – obeying them is straying from the right path, and following their path is the way to Hell... Therefore, man is in need of a group that will make sacrifices, and which will not distort Islam in order to appease the rulers and achieve worldly gains and temporary positions of power..."
'Omar also condemns those clerics who continue to serve as a fig leaf for rulers that disobey Islam: "So long as rulers misguidedly disobey Allah's Book and lead their followers astray, the scholars who call on the people to obey [these rulers] and to refrain from rebelling against them... are misguided."
Banner featuring the black flag of Al-Qaeda, on the wall of a mosque in Port Said – likely that of Tawfiq Al-'Afani or Daoud Khairat
In the second essay in the series, Hassan 'Omar describes the revolutions in Egypt and the rest of the Arab world as part of a divine plan to restore the Islamic caliphate. He wrote: "Allah's messenger said: 'The prophecy will be among you for as long as Allah wills it to be with you, then He will remove it. Then there will be a caliphate [based] on the path of the prophecy, and it will exist for as long as Allah wills it [to last]. Then He will remove it if he wishes to do so. Then there will be a hereditary monarchy that shall exist for as long as Allah wills it. Then He will remove it. Then there will be a tyrannical rule that shall exist for as long as Allah wills it. Then, when He wishes, He will remove it. Then there will be a caliphate [based] on the path of the prophecy. Then he [Muhammad] was silent.'"
Hassan 'Omar explains that this hadith summarizes the history of Islam, which saw an age of prophecy that ended with the death of Muhammad; an age of a righteous caliphate; and an age of hereditary monarchy including the Umayyad, Abbasid, Mameluke and Ottoman dynasties, which ended with the abolition of the caliphate by Ataturk in 1924. This was followed by an era of tyrannical regimes that relied on force to retain their power. He wrote: "We don't see any explanation more accurate than that of the Prophet, who informed us that this tyrannical rule will rule the ummah for as long as Allah wills it, and that Allah will remove it when He wishes. Indeed, now we are clearly seeing the beginning of the removal of the tyrannical rule, Allah willing, and when it perishes, it will be followed by the era of the caliphate [based] on the path of the prophecy, as the Prophet told us."
Intra-Salafi Polemic on Opposing Democracy, Elections, Political Participation
As mentioned earlier, in recent months the Salafi-jihadis have been campaigning against participation in elections and democracy, spreading this message in countless sermons, books, pamphlets, videos, public debates, and other media and forums. The importance of this issue to the Salafi-jihadis is evident, for example, from the section devoted to it on website of the Islamic Movement for the Application of Shari'a. This section, headed "Answer to the Parliamentarians" (i.e. those willing to accept the principles of the modern state, democracy and the constitution), contains 37 items, much more than any other section of the site. The material therein is directed mainly at the moderate Salafis, who, unlike the Salafi-jihadis, have established political parties (such as the Al-Nour party) and launched elections campaigns, citing the greater good and the benefit (maslaha) that would be derived from doing so. A main target of the Salafi-jihadis' criticism is Al-Da'wa Al-Salafiyya, a popular Egyptian Salafi movement in which many of the Salafis took their first steps toward entering the political scene.
Ahmad 'Ashoush debating with liberals at Al-Tahrir square
The Salafi-jihadis stress that democracy and the constitution are a form of heresy and are even "satanic." For example, in his two-hour interview with Al-Ma'sada (the media company of the jihadi forum Shumoukh Al-Islam), Sheikh Ahmad 'Ashoush said: "Islam is belief [in Allah], whereas [Jean-Jacques Rousseau's] Social Contract, [which forms the basis for the democratic state], is heresy against Allah, since it rests upon heretical foundations."
Referring to the Al-Nour party's platform, which recognizes the separation between the legislative, judicial, and executive authorities, 'Ashoush said: "We do not recognize, in any way, the right of human beings to legislate. The [only] legislator is Allah. In Islam, there is no legislation other than that of Allah. How can we therefore recognize a legislative authority?... The political process is based on polytheism [shirk], namely the deification of the people [or] the deification of the nation in exclusion of Allah… Those who practice politics are satanic."
The Egyptian Salafis, including the Salafi-jihadis, have played a major part in stoking religious tensions and inciting against the Copts. For instance, in the third essay in his "Millstones of Islam" series, titled "Warning the Muslims Against the Slogan 'Hail the Crescent Along with the Cross,'" Hassan 'Omar criticizes Muslims who hold up the cross at public events in a show of solidarity with the Copts. He emphasizes that this is an act of unbelief, and attacks scholars for remaining silent about it.
Islamists and Copts clash in the Imbaba neighborhood of Cairo on May 7, 2011
Daoud Khairat, the young cleric from Port Said, spoke in even harsher terms. In a sermon, he strongly condemned what he called the Muslims' weakness in the face of the Christians' crimes against them, including their killing of Muslims, abduction of Muslim women, hoarding weapons in churches, and insulting Islam. He said that the Christians have been emboldened by the support they receive from the U.S., and stated: "If our nation [only] had two young men like those [who killed a person for cursing the Prophet], what happened on the Al-Karma channel would not have happened, and the we would not have seen such insolence from the enemies of Allah... who worship another god alongside Allah, and who assaulted [us] only because they saw the Muslim tolerance, cooperation, and humility, which enabled them to ride on the Muslims' backs... The Prophet said to the infidels [in a hadith] 'I have brought you slaughter' [Khairat at this point draws his finger across his neck]' in order to frighten them. Where is the love of martyrdom for the sake of Allah? Where is your doctrine of jihad?"
Apparently, the Salafi-jihadi incitement has not been limited to the rhetorical level. According to a writer on the jihadi website Ansar Al-Mujahideen, Muhammad Higazi was one of many Salafi-jihadis who participated and was injured in the May 7, 2011 clashes with Copts in the Imbaba neighborhood.
Poster for a campaign to boycott companies owned by Egyptian Christians
* R. Green is a research fellow at MEMRI.
 On Sayyed Imam's revisions and the objections to them see: MEMRI Special Dispatch No. 1785, Major Jihadi Cleric and Author of Al-Qaeda's Shari'a Guide to Jihad: 9/11 Was a Sin; A Shari'a Court Should Be Set Up to Hold Bin Laden and Al-Zawahiri Accountable; There Are Only Two Kinds of People in Al-Qaeda – The Ignorant and Those Who Seek Worldly Gain, December 14, 2007, http://www.memri.org/report/en/0/0/0/0/0/90/2636.htm; MEMRI Special Dispatch No. 1826, Major Jihadi Cleric and Author of Al-Qaeda's Shari'a Guide to Jihad Sayyed Imam vs. Al-Qaeda (Part II): Al-Zawahiri Was Sudanese Agent – Sudan's VP Ali Othman Taha Hired Him to Attack Egypt; Ban on Jihad against Egyptian Regime in Egypt; Summary of Imam's New Right Guidance for Jihad Book, January 25, 2008, http://www.memri.org/report/en/0/0/0/0/0/0/2536.htm; MEMRI Special Dispatch No. 1859, Release of New Book by Ayman Al-Zawahiri, in Response to Sayyed Imam: A Treatise Exonerating the Nation of the Pen and the Sword from the Blemish of the Accusation of Weakness and Fatigue, March 4, 2008, http://www.memri.org/report/en/0/0/0/0/0/0/2586.htm.
 Image source: Al-Masri Al-Yawm (Egypt), March 18, 2011.
 Image source:shamikh1.info.
 Hassan's detainment by the Syrians was reported by late Pakistani journalist Syed Saleem Shahzad. See http://atimes.com/atimes/South_Asia/LK19Df04.html It should be noted that Shahzad identified Hassan as a leading Al-Qaeda figure in Waziristan known as "Sheikh 'Issa," who was responsible for the organization's operations in Pakistan. This is probably incorrect, because online jihadis refer to Sheikh 'Issa Al-Masri and Abu 'Amr/'Abd Al-Hakim Hassan as two different people.
 Image source: shamikh1.info.
 Image source: shamikh1.info.
 Image source: youtube.com, June 28, 2011
 For further details, see section below on support for jihad and Al-Qaeda.
 Image source: youtube.com, November 18, 2011.
 Image source: youtube.com, September 3, 2011.
 For a video clip and transcript of Al-'Afani's statements at the rally, see MEMRI Special Dispatch No. 4311, Egyptian Cleric Tawfiq Al-Afni Leads Pro-Al-Qaeda Demonstration in Tahrir Square, Threatens U.S. and the Jews, November 23, 2011, http://www.memri.org/report/en/0/0/0/0/63/0/5850.htm.
 Image source: youtube.com, November 18, 2011.
 A leader of the Quraysh clan in Mecca and a staunch opponent of Muhammad's new religion.
 Image source: youtube.com, December 16, 2011.
 Image source: youtube.com, December 9, 2011.
 Image source: ansarsharia.blogspot.com, December 23, 2011.
 For comparison, the section titled "And Incite the Believers" contains 13 items, and the section titled "Answer to the Christians" contains only four.
 Image source: youtube.com, November 27, 2011.
 Image source: el-wasat.com, May 8, 2011.
 Khairat is referring to incidents in which viewers speaking on the Egyptian channel Al-Karma TV purportedly insulted Islam.
 Image source: ansarsharia.blogspot.com, December 14, 2011.